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Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space

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Scientific Opportunities in the Human Exploration of Space Committee on Human Exploration Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the further- ance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is President of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's pur- poses of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accor- dance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engi- neering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by Contract NASW 4627 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Cover: Mars mosaic image courtesy of Alfred McEwen of the U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Arizona. Lunar crescent image courtesy of Dennis di Cicco. Cover design by Penny Margolskee. Copies of this report are available from Space Studies Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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COMMITTEE ON HUMAN EXPLORATION NOEL W. HINNERS, Martin Marietta Astronautics Company, Chair RICHARD L. GARWIN,* IBM T.J. Watson Research Center LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories ELLIOTT C. LEVINTHAL,* Stanford University WILLIAM J. MERRELL, JR., Texas A&M University ROBERT H. MOSER, University of New Mexico JOHN E. NAUGLE,t National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired) GEORGE DRIVER NELSON, University of Washington SALLY K. RIDE,* University of California, San Diego MARCIA S. SMITH,l Congressional Research Service GERALD J. WASSERBURG,l California Institute of Technology Staff DAVID H. SMITH, Executive Secretary BOYCE N. AGNEW, Administrative Assistant *Former committee member who participated in writing this report. "Committee members added for third CHEX study who participated in writing this report. . . .

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SPACE STUDIES BOARD LOUIS J. LANZEROTTI, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Chair JOSEPH A. BURNS, Cornell University ANDREA K. DUPREE,* Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics JOHN A. DUTTON, Pennsylvania State University ANTHONY W. ENGLAND, University of Michigan LARRY ESPOSITO,* University of Colorado JAMES P. FERRIS, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute HERBERT FRIEDMAN, Naval Research Laboratory RICHARD GARWIN,* IBM T.J. Watson Research Center RICCARDO GIACCONI,* IBM T.J. Watson Research Center HAROLD J. GUY, University of California, San Diego NOEL W. HINNERS, Martin Marietta Astronautics Company JAMES R. HOUCK,* Cornell University DAVID A. LANDGREBE,* Purdue University ROBERT A. LAUDISE, AT&T Bell Laboratories RICHARD S. LINDZEN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN H. McELROY, University of Texas, Arlington WILLIAM J. MERRELL, JR., Texas A&M University RICHARD K. MOORE,* University of Kansas ROBERT H. MOSER,* University of New Mexico NORMAN F. NESS, University of Delaware MARCIA NEUGEBAUER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory SIMON OSTRACH, Case Western Reserve University JEREMIAH P. OSTRIKER, Princeton University CARLE M. PIETERS, Brown University JUDITH PIPHER, University of Rochester MARK SETTLE,* ARCO Oil Company WILLIAM A. SIRIGNANO, University of California, Irvine JOHN W. TOWNSEND, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired) FRED W. TUREK, Northwestern University ARTHUR B.C. WALKER, JR., Stanford University MARC S. ALLEN, Director *Former member. TV

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COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS RICHARD N. ZARE, Stanford University, Chair RICHARD S. NICHOLSON, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vice Chair STEPHEN L. ADLER, Institute for Advanced Study JOHN A. ARMSTRONG, IBM Corporation (retired) SYLVIA T. CEYER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology AVNER FRIEDMAN, University of Minnesota SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California, Berkeley ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation HANS MARK, University of Texas, Austin CLAIRE E. MAX, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE, University of California, Berkeley JAMES W. MITCHELL, AT&T Bell Laboratories JEROME SACKS, National Institute of Statistical Sciences A. RICHARD SEEBASS III, University of Colorado CHARLES P. SLIGHTER, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director v

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Preface In 1988 the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering stated in the report, Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Realities, that "the ultimate decision to undertake further voyages of human exploration and to begin the process of expanding human activities into the solar system must be based on nontechnical factors." It is clear, however, that if and when a program of human exploration is initi- ated, the U.S. research community must play a central role by providing the scientific advice necessary to help make the relevant political and technical . . decisions. Since its establishment in 1958, the Space Studies Board (SSB; for- merly the Space Science Board) has been the principal nongovernmental advisory body on civil space research in the United States. In this capacity, the board established the Committee on Human Exploration (CHEX) in 1989 to examine many of the science and science policy matters concerned with the return of astronauts to the Moon and eventual voyages to Mars. The board asked CHEX to consider three major questions: 1. What scientific knowledge must be obtained as a prerequisite for prolonged human space missions? 2. What scientific opportunities might derive from prolonged human space missions? 3. What basic principles should guide the management of both the prerequisite science activities necessary to enable human exploration and . . vat

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. . . vile PREFACE the scientific activities that may be carried out in conjunction with human exploration? This report focuses on the second of these topics. The first topic was covered in Scientific Prerequisites for the Human Exploration of Space, published in 1993; the third topic is the subject of a future report. The Space Studies Board and CHEX concluded that the existing re- search strategies of several of the board's discipline committees form a basis for beginning to determine the scientific research opportunities that might arise if and when humans undertake voyages to the Moon and Mars. (See the appendix for a list of these committees and their contributing members.) CHEX thus asked the discipline committees to identify those scientific opportunities and classify them under two headings: (1) those that can be conducted only in association with long-term human missions and (2) those that could also be conducted by other means (for example, robotic or ground-based) to achieve the same or equivalent goals. Early in their analyses the discipline committees found that, with one exception, they were not able to identify opportunities that unambiguously require human presence. The exception, the study of the effects of pro- longed missions to the Moon and Mars on human physiology and psychol- ogy, is in and of itself of low priority absent a program of human explora- tion. Regarding opportunities that are in competition with other means, difficulty was encountered because of the considerable uncertainty existing concerning the practical capability of humans and the eventual capabilities of robotic missions over the long time scale involved in any program of human exploration. The committees thus expanded their advice to include the following considerations: 1. Identification of those scientific objectives for the Moon and Mars for which human presence can play a significant role; 2. Discussion of the realistic capabilities of humans and robots in planetary exploration and in carrying out scientific investigations in those environments; 3. Discussion of the appropriate phasing and mix of human and robotic activities in achieving those objectives; 4. Discussion of the requirements for crew selection and training, tech- nical development, and program structure to meet the scientific objectives in a program of human exploration; and 5. Identification of robotic scientific opportunities that may be enabled by some of the technology developed for the human exploration program. CHEX itself developed a description of the overall role of science in a program of human exploration. In that context, it then assimilated, evalu

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PREFACE MIX ated, and integrated the contributions of the discipline committees. Infor- mation on the biomedical research opportunities arising from prolonged space missions was provided by the SSB's Committee on Space Biology and Medicine. Input on field science, the relative capabilities of humans and robots, and the search for planets around other stars was supplied by the SSB's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration. (CHEX consulted A Strategy for the Scientific Exploration of Mars, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mars Science Working Group, for additional information on the planetological and exobiological aspects of Mars precur- sor science.) Research opportunities in astrophysics and solar and space physics were considered by the SSB's Committee on Solar and Space Phys- ics and the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate's Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research. Astronomical input from these discipline com- mittees was augmented with material from The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics, a report written by the National Research Council's Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. Details of the individual scientific strategies and goals of the relevant discipline committees, on which they based much of their input, are contained in the reports listed in the bibliography. Noel W. Hinners, Chair Committee on Human Exploration

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26 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE cality for orbiting structures. Such a goal might, however, be met by a large lunar-based structure, one that would be extremely stable to both translational and torsional deformation. On-site engineers might be re- quired to construct such a structure to the necessary tolerances and to con- duct maintenance operations such as realignment of apertures. C7 C7 7 LIFE SCIENCES One of the more important physical features that influenced the evolu- tion of life on Earth, and which places constraints on the development and functioning of all living organisms, is gravity. Once the factor of gravity is removed from the environment, living systems are altered, and the study of such alterations may lead to new insights into life processes. The space life sciences are still in their infancy, and there have been few opportunities to carry out well-controlled experiments on living organ Thus it is not yet possible to predict how prolonged expo- sure to near-zero or fractional Cavity will alter living systems. However. 1sms in space. C7 ~ C7 ~ sufficient information is available to know that the absence of normal grav- ity profoundly alters living systems; thus exploration missions to the Moon and Mars will offer additional opportunity beyond Earth-orbiting space sta- tions. to investigate the fundamental biological processes by which gravity affects living organisms.3i Missions to the Moon and Mars will also provide an opportunity for behavioral studies on crews under highly stressful conditions as well as over prolonged periods of time in close confinement. Such research would build on more than three decades of experience of human behavior and performance gathered from overwintering personnel at polar research sta- tions. However, behavioral studies of the crews at a lunar outpost or on a Mars mission will provide new insights into human behavior because no polar base or even space station environment can duplicate all the condi- tions astronauts would experience on extended mission in deep space.32 In the case of Mars, additional stress will result from the absence of any ready means of escape. Both the gravitational biology and the behavioral studies are truly op- portunistic; they are not now currently of high scientific priority in the life sciences community absent a program of human space exploration. SCIENCE ENABLED BY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED FOR A MOON/MARS PROGRAM The technology developments needed for successful exploration of the Moon and Mars are numerous and are spread throughout many disciplines. For example, a recent study identified 14 relevant areas of technology de

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SCIENCE ENABLED BY HUMAN EXPLORATION 27 velopment.33 Some of the general benefits to scientific investigations of two of these areas spacesuits and telerobotics are discussed above. Some technology developments could enable robotic space-science missions unrelated to Moon/Mars exploration. For example, nuclear electric propul- sion could enable several high-priority missions in heliospheric physics. Principal among these is the so-called interstellar probe.34 This mission would penetrate a significant distance beyond the heliopause to provide the first comprehensive in situ studies of the plasma, energetic particles, cosmic rays, magnetic fields, gas, and dust in interstellar space. An advanced propulsion system is required to send a spacecraft 250 astronomical units from the Sun in significantly less than the 25 years or more required by conventional propulsion aided by gravity assists. Once such an advanced propulsion system is available, it could also be used for other high-energy missions, such as to propel instruments to large distances above the solar poles or into a short-period, circular solar polar orbit, and, perhaps, even a short-period eccentric orbit that skims through the solar corona at altitudes as low as three solar radii.35 SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION CHEX has given considered thought to how space science might ben- efit from the existence of a program of human exploration of the Moon and Mars, undertaken primarily for reasons other than science. History tells us that no matter when such a program is undertaken, a major activity will be scientific research. Indeed, CHEX concludes that there will be opportuni- ties offering the potential for significantly enhancing our understanding of the Moon and Mars and for using them selectively as observation platforms. CHEX thus foresees a productive scientific role for human explorers as well as for continuing and enhanced robotic missions. The obvious conclusion is that scientists must participate in any eventual program of human explora- tion, although the question of how best to involve them must still be an- swered. Scientists' past experiences with piloted spaceflight have been both good and bad. We can learn much from those (particularly the Apollo program) in terms of how NASA should approach science management and the involvement of scientists in a program of human exploration. That topic is under study and will be the subject of the third CHEX report. It is already clear to the committee, however, that scientists must be intimately involved in every stage of the endeavor and contribute to success by assur- ing that quality science is accomplished, that the science supported takes the best advantage of human presence, and that the resources available to the whole of space science are competitively allocated.

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28 SCIENTIFIC OPPORTUNITES IN THE HUMAN EXPLORATION OF SPACE REFERENCES 1. William David Compton, Where No Man Has Gone Before, A History of the Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions, The NASA History Series, NASA SP-4214, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1989. 2. NASA, A Planetary Science Strategy for the Moon, JSC-25920, Lunar Exploration Science Working Group, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, July 1992. 3. NASA, Geosciences and a Lunar Base: A Comprehensive Plan for Lunar Explora- tion, NASA Conference Publication 3070, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990. 4. NASA, A Planetary Science Strategy for the Moon, JSC-25920, Lunar Exploration Science Working Group, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, July 1992, page 8. 5. Space Studies Board, The Search for Life's Origins: Progress and Future Direc- tions in Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990, page 8. 6. Space Studies Board, 1990 Update to Strategy for the Exploration of the Inner Planets, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990, page 24. 7. Space Studies Board, Biological Contamination of Mars: Issues and Recommenda- tions, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1992, Chapter 4. 8. Space Studies Board, Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets: 1977-1987, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1978, page 71. 9. NASA, A Planetary Science Strategy for the Moon, JSC-25920, Lunar Exploration Science Working Group, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, July 1992, page 6. 10. Space Studies Board, Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015-Planetary and Lunar Exploration, National Academy Press, Wash- ington, D.C., 1988, page 101. 11. Y. Kondo (ed.), Observatories in Earth Orbit and Beyond, Proceedings of the 123rd Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union, Greenbelt, Maryland, April 24-27, 1990, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1990. 12. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, Chapter 6. 13. Synthesis Group, America at the Threshold, Report of the Synthesis Group on America's Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991, page A-24. 14. NASA, Future Astronomical Observatories on the Moon, NASA Conference Publi- cation 2489, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1988. 15. Michael J. Mumma and Harlan J. Smith (eds.), Astrophysics from the Moon, AIP Conference Proceedings 207, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1990. 16. Synthesis Group, America at the Threshold, Report of the Synthesis Group on America's Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991, page A-26. 17. Space Studies Board, A Strategy for the Explorer Program for Solar and Space Physics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1984, pages 29-30. 18. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, Chapter 6. 19. European Space Agency, Mission to the Moon: Europe's Priorities for the Scien- tific Exploration and Utilization of the Moon, Report of the Lunar Study Steering Group, ESA SP-1150, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, June 1992. 20. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. 21. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, page 108.

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SCIENCE ENABLED BY HUMAN EXPLORATION 29 22. Bernard F. Burke, "Astrophysics from the Moon," Science, 250, December 7, 1990, page 1365. 23. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, page 104. 24. NASA, TOPS: Toward Other Planetary Systems, A report by the Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1992. 25. Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, The Decade of Discovery in As- tronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, page 104. 26. Space Studies Board, Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995-2015-Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988, page 31. 27. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, page 14. 28. Michael L. Cherry, "Particle Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Studies from a Lunar Base," Astrophysics from the Moon, Michael J. Mumma and Harlan J. Smith (eds.), AIP Conference Proceedings 207, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1990, page 593. 29. Laurence E. Peterson, "High Energy Astrophysics from the Moon," Astrophysics from the Moon, Michael J. Mumma and Harlan J. Smith (eds.) AIP Conference Proceedings 207, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1990, page 345. 30. Paul Gorenstein, "High-Energy Astronomy from a Lunar Base," Future Astronomi- cal Observatories on the Moon, NASA Conference Publication 2489, NASA, Washington, D.C., 1988, page 45. 31. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. 32. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, Chapter 4. 33. Synthesis Group, America at the Threshold, Report of the Synthesis Group on America's Space Exploration Initiative, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1991, page 83. 34. Space Studies Board, Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015-Solar and Space Physics, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988. 35. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991, Chapter 4.

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Bibliography Committee on Human Exploration of Space, Human Exploration of Space: A Review of NASA's 90-Day Study and Alternatives, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990. Committee on Space Policy, Toward a New Era in Space: Realigning Policies to New Reali- ties, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988. Space Science Board, HZE-Particle Effects in Manned Spaceflight, National Academy of Sci- ences, Washington, D.C., 1973. Space Science Board, Life Beyond the Earth's Environment: The Biology of Living Organisms in Space, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1979. Space Science Board, Origin and Evolution of Life-Implications for the Planets: A Scientific Strategy for the 1980's, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1981. Space Science Board, Post-Viking Biological Investigations of Mars, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1977. Space Science Board, Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Ura- nus, Neptune, and Titan, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1978. Space Science Board, Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015-Life Sciences, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988. Space Science Board, Strategy for Exploration of the Inner Planets: 1977-1987, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1978. Space Science Board, A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1987. Space Studies Board, 1990 Update to Strategy for the Exploration of the Inner Planets, Na- tional Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990. Space Studies Board, Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine 1991, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1991. Space Studies Board, Biological Contamination of Mars: Current Assessment and Recommen- dations, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1992. 30

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BIBLIOGRAPHY 31 Space Studies Board, International Cooperation for Mars Exploration and Sample Return, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990. Space Studies Board, The Search for Life's Origins: Progress and Future Directions in Planetary Biology and Chemical Evolution, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1990.

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Appendix Participating Discipline Committees COMMITTEE ON SPACE BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE FRED W. TUREK, Northwestern University, Chair ROBERT M. BERNE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville PETER DEWS, Harvard Medical School R.J. MICHAEL FRY, Oak Ridge National Laboratory FRANCIS (DREW) GAFFNEY, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas EDWARD GOETZL, University of California Medical Center, San Francisco ROBERT HELMREICH, University of Texas, Austin JAMES LACKNER, Brandeis University BARRY W. PETERSON, Northwestern University CLINTON T. RUBIN, State University of New York, Stony Brook ALAN L. SCHILLER, Mt. Sinai Medical Center TOM SCOTT, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill WARREN SINCLAIR, National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements WILLIAM THOMPSON, North Carolina State University, Raleigh FRED WILT, University of California, Berkeley 33

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34 APPENDIX COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS MARCIA NEUGEBAUER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Co-Chair THOMAS CRAVENS, University of Kansas JONATHAN F. ORMES, Goddard Space Flight Center GEORGE K. PARKS, University of Washington DOUGLAS M. RABIN, National Optical Astronomy Observatories DAVID M. RUST, Johns Hopkins University RAYMOND J. WALKER, University of California, Los Angeles YUK L. YUNG, California Institute of Technology RONALD D. ZWICKL, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration COMMITTEE ON SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH DONALD J. WILLIAMS, Applied Physics Laboratory, Co-Chair ALAN C. CUMMINGS, California Institute of Technology GORDON EMSLIE, University of Alabama DAVID C. FRITTS, University of Colorado ROLANDO R. GARCIA, National Center for Atmospheric Research MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California, Los Angeles DAVID J. McCOMAS, Los Alamos National Laboratory JONATHAN F. ORMES, Goddard Space Flight Center EUGENE N. PARKER, University of Chicago JAMES F. VICKREY, SRI International *The National Research Council's (NRC) Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) and Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) meet jointly as a federated committee and report directly to their parent NRC boards, the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate for CSTR and the Space Studies Board for CSSP.

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APPENDIX COMMITTEE ON PLANETARY AND LUNAR EXPLORATION LARRY W. ESPOSITO, University of Colorado, Chair RETA BEEBE, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces ALAN P. BOSS, Carnegie Institution of Washington ANITA L. COCHRAN, University of Texas, Austin PETER J. GIERASCH, Cornell University WILLIAM S. KURTH, University of Iowa, Iowa City LUCY-ANN McFADDEN, University of California, San Diego CHRISTOPHER P. McKAY, NASA Ames Research Center DUANE O. MUHLEMAN, California Institute of Technology NORMAN R. PACE, Indiana University GRAHAM RYDER, Lunar and Planetary Institute PAUL D. SPUDIS, Lunar and Planetary Institute PETER H. STONE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology GEORGE WETHERILL, Carnegie Institution of Washington RICHARD W. ZUREK, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 35

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