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APPENDIX A Chemistry in Industry: Abbes The Chemicals and Allied Products industry is made up of firms primarily manufacturing any of the classes of products listed in Table A-1. The percent- ages shown there indicate the share of the industry's shipments in 1982. Chemical and Allied Products is a major industry: shipments in 1982, valued at $169B, accounted for 9.0 percent of all U.S. manufacturing industry (see Table A-21. This percentage has steadily risen over the last decade; chemical ship- ments were only 7.5 percent of the total in 1972. The Chemicals and Allied Products industry employs 5 percent of the total U.S. work force engaged in manufacture, and 11 percent of all industrial R&D scientists and engineers. Total employment in the industry in 1982 of 1,074,000 included 597,000 production workers (C&EN, June 13, 1983, p. 521. The full-time equivalent number of R&D scientists and engineers (Ph.D. level) employed by the industry in 1982 was 60,000 (for 1970-1981, see "National Patterns of Science and Technology Resources, 1982," NSF 82-319, Table 491. Three major markets affect substantially the sales level of chemicals: trans- portation equipment, construction, and agriculture. However, chemistry per- vades many other industries (see Table A-41. Among the top 100 companies in the United States in terms of chemical sales (C&EN, June 13, 1983, pp. 36-37), with cumulative chemical sales value of $11SB in 1982, 24 classified in the petroleum or the natural gas industries account for $34B. Another 22, with chemical sales totalling $15B, are primarily in a wide variety of other manu- facturing industries, including photographic equipment and supplies, steel, dairy products, machinery, rubber products, glass, alcoholic beverages, agricul- tural supplies, lumber and wood products, motor vehicle parts, processed foods, nonferrous base metals, specialty metals, aerospace, and nonmetallic minerals products. Each of these 22 companies classified outside the Chemicals and Allied Products industry had chemical sales exceeding $200M in 1982, and 5 had chemical sales exceeding $1B. While major chemical research is carried on by some companies classified outside the Chemicals and Allied Products industry, companies within that industry have maintained a characteristically large commitment to basic research compared with other industries. Funds for their performance of basic research amounted to $366M in 1979, nearly a third of the $1,155M total for basic research by all U.S. industry (NSF 82-319, Table 431. Funds for basic research in chemistry by all U.S. industry totalled $382M, compared with 327

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328 APPENDIX A $144M in physics/astronomy, $292M in all engineering, $176M in life sciences, $20M in mathematics, $13M in environmental sciences (geology, oceanography, atmospheric sciences), and $12SM in other sciences (NSF 82-319, Table 441. TABLE A-1 The Chemicals and Allied Products Industry Drugs and related biomedical products Soap, other detergents, and cosmetics Industrial organic chemicals Plastics materials and resins Industrial inorganic chemicals Agricultural chemicals (e.g., fertilizers, pesticides) Paint and allied products Other chemical products (e.g., adhesives, sealants, explosives, printing ink, carbon black) 20% 18~o 17% 17~o 9% 7% Do Do Funds for overall R&D by the Chemicals and Allied Products industry- $4,60SM in 1980 contain a typically large component from the companies' own resources $4,201M the balance of less than 9 percent of the total being derived from the federal government. In contrast, the amount expended on R&D by all manufacturing industry $42,312M in 1980 includes $13,165M, or more than 30 percent, from federal agencies (NSF 82-319, Tables 3S, 39, and 401. The distribution of this R&D expenditure, according to company size, is shown in Table A-6 for the year 1981. The importance of Chemicals and Allied Products to the net international balance of trade has steadily increased over the last 15 years, a period over which its trade balance rose from +$1.6B to +$12B. The significance to our international trade situation can hardly be overemphasized because, over this same time period, the total for all merchandise was changing from + $5.SB to a negative balance of -$32.3B (see Table A-31.

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APPENDIX A TABLE A-2 Manufacturers' Shipments in Selected U.S. Industries, 1972-1982 (Billions of Dollars) 1972 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 Petroleum and coal products 29 97 104 148 199 220 202 Machinery (nonelectrical) 66 122 143 167 181 204 184 Chemicals and allied products 57 118 130 148 162 175 169 Electrical machinery 53 88 101 116 129 138 138 Motor vehicles 64 118 132 131 105 115 110 Paper and allied products 28 52 57 65 73 80 78 Blast furnace, steel products 34 51 59 67 62 69 47 Nonferrous base metals 24 42 46 56 60 55 46 Rubber and plastic products 21 40 43 47 47 47 43 All manufacturing 756 1358 1523 1727 1851 1995 1885 TABLE A-3 U.S. Net International Trade Balance: Selected Commodity Groups. 1965-1981 (Billions of Dollars) 1965 1970 1974 1976 1978 1980 1981 Machinery +5.1 +6.3 + 12.5 + 16.7 + 13.3 +25.0 +25.9 Chemicals + 1.6 + 2.3 + 4.8 + 5.2 + 6.2 + 12.1 + 11.8 Nonferrous base metals -0.7 -0.6 - 1.7 - 1.8 - 3.4 - 2.2 - 3.3 Iron and steelmill products -0.5 -0.8 - 2.3 - 2.0 - 5.1 - 3.7 - 7.5 Automobiles (nonmilitary) -0.3 -2.9 - 5.0 - 5.7 - 10.0 - 12.9 - 13.6 Mineral fuels and related materials -1.3 -1.5 -22.1 -29.8 -38.2 -74.9 -71.1 All merchandise + 5.8 + 2.6 - 3.3 - 7.3 - 30.9 - 28.2 - 32.2 TABLE A-4 Employed Scientists and Engineers in Selected Fields: Distribution by Type of Employer, 1980a b Chemical Biological Physicists and Chemistry Engineers Mathematicians Scientists Astronomers Business/industry 86,640 63,710 42,190 39,350 22,400 Academic (Ph.D.-granting) 26,940 3,980 52,230 95,240 24,110 (7,800) (1,665) (9,140) (28,135) (7,995) Federal government 9,075 2,025 12,580 16,160 6,585 State and local government 7,940 1,015 4,985 13,685 1,175 Other nonprofit organizations 7,660 580 4,510 22,620 3,115 Military 1,560 510 1,190 1,520 590 Other 1,985 580 1,185 1,525 835 Total 141,800 72,400 118,870 190,100 58,810 "Manufacturers' Shipments, Inventories, and Orders," 1977-81, M3-1.11, and December 1982, M3- 1(82)-12, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce. b "Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1982-83," U.S. Bureau of the Census. 329

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330 APPENDIX A TABLE A-5 Employed Doctorate Recipients (Excluding Postdoctoral Students) in Selected Fields: Distribution by Type of Employer, 1981a b Biological Physicists and Chemistry Engineering Mathematicians Scientists Astronomers Business/industry 24,320 27,600 3,190 8,480 9,220 Academic 14,775 17,425 13,190 35,260 13,355 Federal government 2,420 3,805 1,040 5,185 2,990 State and local government 300 50 35 1,780 80 Other nonprofit organizations 995 1,955 320 1,510 1,250 Hospital/clinic 345 50 35 1,780 300 Other 45 205 90 810 Total 43,200 51,400 17,900 54,000 27,200 a"U.S. Scientists and Engineers 1980," NSF 82-314, Table B-12; "Academic Science: Scientists and Engineers, January 1981. Detailed Statistical Tables," NSF 82-305, Table B-5. b"Science, Engineering, and Humanities Doctorates in the United States: 1981 Profile," National Academy of Sciences, 1982, Table 1.5A. TABLE A-6 Number of Companies in the Chemicals and Allied Products Industry Performing R&D and Funds for R&D, 1981a Number with Number of Number of Federal Funds Company Funds Federal Funds Employees Companies for R&D for R&D for R&D Less than 1000 187 5 $ 199 $ llM 1,000-4,999 62 2 519 1 5,000-9,999 15 3 517 1 10,000-24,999 24 7 1,861 16 25,000 or more 11 8 1,846 355 Totals 299 25 4,942 384 aM. Pollak, NSF from "Research and Development in Industry, 1981. Funds, 1981; Scientists and Engineers, January, 1982." TABLE A-7 Federal Obligations for Basic Research in Chemistry: Total Fundinga (Parenthetical: Amounts to Universities and Colleges 1967-1983 Fiscal Total (All Major Supporting Agencies Year Federal Agencies) NSF DOE NIH DOD DOA 1967 $117.5M $23.3M $37.6M $10.7M $14.0M $13.6M 1970 126.8 21.7 39.0 11.2 15.8 15.3 1973 146.4 30.0 38.9 14.9 15.2 17.2 1974 149.3 (60.8) 33.4 (29.9) 47.8 (5.6) 19.5 (14.7) 12.6 (5.6) 17.5 (1.9) 1975 158.6 (73.5) 43.4 (38.8) 49.2 (7.6) 20.8 (15.6) 13.1 (6.2) 17.2 (1.9) 1976 168.3 (78.6) 40.6 (26.1) 53.8 (12.6) 23.1 (17.2) 19.1 (6.8) 18.5 (2.3) a NSF, "Federal Funds for Research and Development. Federal Obligations for Research and Development by Agency and by Detailed Field of Science; Fiscal Years 1967-1983." b ibid, "Federal Obligations for Research to Universities and Colleges by Agency and by Detailed Field of Science: Fiscal Years 1974-1983."

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APPENDIX A TABLE A-8 Industrial Support for Research in University Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Departments, 1980a Chemical Chemistry Engineering Type of Support Departments Departments Uncommitted gifts or grants to departments $1.91M $3.14M Committed gifts or grants to specified faculty or research areas 2.47 1.85 Grants or contracts in response to explicit proposals for specific 5.52 4.48 research Other 0.06 0.16 Total industrial support 10.2 10.2 Total extramural support 145.7 44.3 a C. Judson King presentation to the Council for Chemical Research, Nov. 3, 1981, as reported in "University-Industry Research Relationships: Myths, Realities, and Potentials," Fourteenth Annual Report of the National Science Board, January 1983. TABLE A-9 Chemical Fields of American Chemical Society Members (1984) Organic Chemistry 20,175 Marketing and Economics 658 Analytical Chemistry 16,114 Fuel Chemistry 652 Biochemistry 9284 Chemical Information 640 Physical Chemistry 8563 Pesticide Chemistry 634 Inorganic Chemistry 6717 Rubber Chemistry 622 Industrial and Engineering 6000 Microbial Chemistry 412 Polymer Chemistry 5018 Geochemistry 376 Medicinal Chemistry 4064 Forensic Chemistry 314 Environmental Chemistry 3912 Carbohydrate Chemistry 273 Agriculture and Food Chemistry 2973 Fertilizer and Soil Chemistry 228 Organic Coatings and Plastics 2482 Fluorine Chemistry 119 Chemical Education 1496 Other 2327 Petroleum Chemistry 1464 Total 99,879 Computers in Chemistry 1054 Colloid and Surface Chemistry 994 Total Membership, ACS 134,019 Nuclear Chemistry 784 Chemical Health and Safety 773 Cellulose, Paper and Textile 757 Chemistry 331