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Index A Acentric materials, 59 Acid rain, 37, 192, 202-204 Adsorbed molecules, 22-24, 243- 245, 257 Aging process, 174 Agonists, 127, 130 Agriculture, 106-122, 323-324 Department of, see Federal agen- cies Air, clean, 24, 193-205, 325, 326 American Chemical Society mem- bers, fields of, 331 Analytical chemistry, 10, 195-199, 234-235, 252-258, 297, 320, 325, 326 instrumentation for, 219 separations, 252-253 Angiotensin-converting enzyme in- hibitors, 124, 130 Antagonists, 127, 130 Antiarrhythmic therapy, 131 Antibacterials, 127-128 Antibiotic research, 127-129 Antibodies, 163 Anticancer agents, 135 Antidepressants, 132 Antifeedants, 113-114 Antifungals, 128 Antigens, 129 Antihypertensive compounds, 130 Anti-inflammatory agents, 137 Antijuvenile hormones, 112-113 Antimetabolites, 135 Antiviral agents, 128-129 Arhythmia, 131-132 Arthritis, 137 Artificial enzyme catalysis, 29-31, 295 Asymmetric catalysts, 78 Atherosclerosis, 130-131, 143 Atmospheric carbon dioxide, 41, 192, 204-205 Atomic energy, 44 Automobile industry, 212-213 B Baccalaureate chemistry educa- tion, 280, 285-287 Bacteria, 128 Balance of trade, 7-8, 290, 329 Batteries, 33, 58 Bimolecular reactions, 72 Bioactive molecules, 105, 120-121, 124, 143, 155-177 Biocatalysis, 150-152 Biochemistry, computational, 97 structure and function in, 170- 171 Bioengineering, 150 Bioinorganic chemistry, 80 Biological weapons, 234-236 Biomass energy source, 40-41 industrial chemicals from, 152 Biomedicine, 255-256 Biomimetic enzymes, 31 Biosynthesis, 155-163 Biotechnologies, 7, 144-152, 213- 214 Bitumin, 40 Block polymers, 52-53 C Cancer diagnosis and prevention of, 175-177 research, 133-136 Capillary chromatography, 273- 274 Carcinogenesis, 133-135 Cardiovascular disease, 129-132 Catalysis, 9, 11, 19, 21-22, 224, 295-296, 314, 320 artificial enzymes, 29-31, 295 biocatalysis, 150-152 electrocatalysis, 27-28, 296 heterogeneous, 19, 22-24, 35, 240-241 homogeneous, 24-27, 83, 157 metal, 23-24, 35, 242 organometallic, 24-27, 83, 157 photocatalysis, 27-28, 296 stereospecific, 26-27, 78 Catalysts, 22, 224 asymmetric, 78 chiral, 78 conversion, 24 environment and, 24 enzyme-like, 29-31 heterogeneous, 23, 35, 242, 295 homogeneous, 24, 83, 295 precious metal, 19, 24-26, 35, 76, 245 stereoselective, 26-27, 78 Catalytic cracking, 35 Central nervous system (CNS), drugs affecting, 132-133 Ceramics, high technology, 81, 214 Chemical bonding at surfaces, 243-245 etching, 53-54, 218 feedstocks, 25, 211 fields of ACS members, 331 kinetics, 8, 63, 73-74, 232, 312, 320 of combustion, 37, 232, 312, 320 laser, HE, 68, 93 processes, 21-31 reactions, 21-103 dynamics of, 63-74, 294, 297- 298 electron transfer, 87 fast, 64-65 mechanisms, 37, 73, 83 new pathways of, 75-90 at surfaces, 72-74 theory of, 74-75, 87 reactivity, 11, 63, 294-295 synthesis, 9, 76-79, 155-163 artificial enzymes, 30-31 biological molecules, 106-118, 125-141 DNA, 161-162 inorganic, 81-84 337

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338 INDEX metal cluster compounds, 81- 82 natural products, 157-159 organic, 75-79, 84-85 organometallic compounds, 86 photo-assisted, 87-89 theory, 8-9, 72-74, 87, 249-251 vapor deposition (CVD), 54 weapons, 234-236 Chemical and Allied Products in- dustry, 3, 21-25, 327-331 Chemiluminescence, 68 Chemisorption, 243-245 Chemistry actinide, 228 analytical, 10, 195-199, 234- 235, 252-258, 297, 320, 325, 326 baccalaureate education in, 285- 287, 330 bioinorganic, 80 biomimetic, 31 defined, 48 Department of Agriculture mis- sion and, 17, 323-324 Department of Defense mission and, 16, 318-323 Department of Energy mission and, 14-15, 310-315 detonation, 231 doctoral education in, 280-284, 330 education, 279-287 electroanalytical, 257-258 electrochemistry, 27, 84, 257 environment and, 7, 11-12, 193- 208, 297-298, 325-326 Environmental Protection Agen- cy mission and, 18, 325-326 extreme conditions and, 12, 77, 250-251, 298-300 federal investment in, 13-14, 289-291, 330 of genetic material, 168-170 geochemistry, 251, 301 high pressure, 77, 250-251, 298- 299 high speed, 64-67, 230-236 high temperature, 299-300 individualistic activity in, 291- 293 industry, 13, 327; see also Indus- try, chemical inorganic, 79-84 intellectual frontiers in, see In- tellectual frontiers life processes, 9-10, 11, 105-177, 296-297 low temperature, 66, 69, 82, 300-301 metal cluster, 26, 81-82 mode-selective, 71-72 National Aeronautics and Space Administration mission and, 17, 324-325 National Institutes of Health mission and, 15' 315-318 National Science Foundation mission and, 14, 301-310 national well-being and, 193- 239 nuclear, 259-264, 310 number of degrees awarded in, 281 organic, 75-79, 84-85 organometallic, 25, 82-83 oxidation, 83-84 photochemistry, 69, 84, 87-89; see also Photosynthesis polymer, 47, 48-54, 90, 301, 310, 320 postdoctoral education in, 283- 284 precollege education in, 284-285 priority areas in, see Priority ar- eas radiochemistry, 229-230 reaction, of surfaces, 81 separations, 224-226, 258-259 societal benefits from, 6-8 at solid/liquid interface, 28-29 state-to-state, 67-69 stereochemistry, 26-27, 77-79 stratospheric, 198-202 surface, 22-24, 223, 240-247 synchrotron radiation applica- tions in, 101 vectorial, 296 Chemistry: Opportunities and Needs (1965), 3 Chemotherapy, 135-136 Cheverel phases, 58 Chiral catalysts, 26, 78 Chromatography, 76, 121, 252- 253, 271-276 capillary, 273-274 gas (GC), 271 high performance liquid (HPLC), 272-273 liquid, 271 reversed phase (RPLC), 272-273 Circular intensity differential scat- tering (CIDS), 235-236 Cluster compounds, 26, 81-82 Co-adsorption on surfaces, 244-245 Coal, 34, 38-39, 311 Color photography, 216 Combustion of acetylene, 37 chemical kinetics of, 37, 232, 312, 320 of ethylene, 68-69 of natural gas, 37 products of, containment, 232- 233 turbulent systems, 233-234 Companies performing R and D, 330 Competitiveness, 7-8, 21, 209-221 Composites, 47, 59, 214-215 Computational biochemistry, 97 Computer-aided spectrometers, 96, 276-277 Computer graphics, 188 Computers, see Instrumentation, computers Condensed phase studies, 247 Conductors glasses, 59 novel electrical, 55-59 organic, 57 polymeric, 57 semiconductors, 55, 218 solid state ionic, 58 stacks, 55-56 superconductors, 57-58 Conformations of DNA and RNA, 168-170 Conformations of proteins, 163- 165 Contraceptives, 138-139 Contributors, 332-336 Conversion catalysts, 24 Coronary heart disease, 129 Corrosion, 215, 310 Critical materials, 222, 225 Critical phenomena, fluid, 250-251 "Cubane" structure, 26, 88 D DDT, 194 Decontamination methods, 236 Dedicated instrumentation, 305- 307 Defense frontiers, 237 Department of Agriculture (USDA), see Federal agen- cies, USDA Department of Defense (DOD), see Federal agencies, DOD Department of Energy (DOE), see Federal agencies, DOE Desorption ionization techniques, 255 Detonation chemistry, 231 Diabetes mellitus, 133 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), 134, 144-149, 163, 176-177 chemical synthesis of, 161-163 conformations of, 168-170 recombinant, 146-148, 160-161 sequence coding, 172 Z-, 169-170 Doctoral education in chemistry, 280-284 Doctoral recipients, employed, 330

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INDEX Drugs, 125-141 Environmental pollution, 192, affecting central nervous system, 193-194 E 132-133 Environmental Protection Agency gastrointestinal, 136-137 (EPA), see Federal agencies, Duodenal ulcers, 136 EPA Environmental protection strate- gies, 195-198 Enzyme inhibitor design, 125-126 Enzyme-like catalysts, 29-31 Enzymes, 29-31, 125-126, 150- 152, 163 ESCA (X-ray photoelectron spec- troscopy), 267, 269-270 ESR (electron spin resonance), 189-190 Etching, chemical, 53-54, 218 Eukaryotes, 173 EXAFS (extended X-ray absorp- tion fine structure), 101, 267 Excimers, 92 Executive summary, 6-18 Explosives,, 23(~232 Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), 101, 267 Economic competitiveness, 7-8, 21, 209-221 Education in chemistry, 279-287 baccalaureate, 285-287, 330 doctoral, 280-284, 330 postdoctoral, 283-284 precollege, 284-285 EELS (electron energy loss spec- troscopy), 244, 267, 268 Electrical conductors, novel, 55-59 Electrical properties, surface, 246 Electroanalytical chemistry, 257- 258 Electroantennogram technique, 115 Electrocatalysis, 27-28, 296 Electrochemistry, 27, 84, 257 Electrode surfaces, 258 Electrohydrodynamic ionization (EHMS), 255 Electron and nuclear magnetic double resonance (ENDOR), 190 Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), 244, 267, 268 Electron laser, free (FEL), 102-103 Electron spin resonance (ESR), 189-190 Electron transfer reactions, mecha- nisms, 87 Electronic phenomena in solids, 247-248 Electrophoresis, 121, 125 Employed doctorate recipients, 330 Employed scientists and engineers, 329 Enantiomers, 115 ENDOR (electron and nuclear magnetic double resonance), 190 Energy, 34-45 alternatives for, 34 atomic, see Nuclear biomass, 40-41 chemical feedstocks and, 211 consumption, 6 fusion, 44-45 future access to, 311-312 nuclear, 44, 227-230 solar, 41-43 transfer and movement of, 65- 67, 245 Environment, 7, 11-12, 193-208 catalysts and, 24 chemistry and, 11-12, 297-298 339 F "Factors" as plant growth regula- tors, 108 Fast atom bombardment (FAB), 255 Federal agencies, Chemistry and the mission of Agriculture, Department of, 17, 323-324 Defense, Department of, 16, 318-323 applied and basic research, 319 collaborative relationships, 322 equipment and facilities, 323 special opportunities for, 320 university research support by, 321-322 Energy, Department of, 14-15, 310-314 fundamental research pro- grams of, 311 initiative in chemistry, need for, 311-314 mission of, 311 National Laboratories, techni- cal qualifications at, 314- 315 priority areas and incremental resources, 314 Environmental Protection Agen- cy (EPA), 18, 325-326 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 17, 324-325 National Institutes of Health, 15, 315-318 National Science Foundation, 14, 301-310 Chemistry Division budget, 309 creativity encouragement, 310 dedicated instrumentation, 304-306 grant size, 306-308 shared instrumentation, 303- 304 Federal investment in chemistry, 13-14, 289-291, 330 Federal role in fundamental re- search, 13-14, 289 Feedstocks, chemical, 25, 211 Fermentation, 144, 152 Fertility control, 138-139 Field desorption (FD), 255 Field-flow fractionation, 275 Filamentary composites, 59, 81 Fluorescence, laser-induced, 62, 66-67 Fluoride glasses, 54 Food, 106-122 Fourier transform algorithm, 96 infrared spectrometers (FTIR), 276-277 NMR (FT NMR), 178-179 Free electron laser (FEL), 102-103 Fuel cells, 84 Fuels, 34-41, 230-232 Fungal infections, 128 Fungicides, 117 Fusion energy, 44-45 G Gas natural, 25, 37-38 synthesis, 38-39, 243 Gas chromatography, 256-257, 271 Gastrointestinal drugs, 136-137 Gene structure, 172-174 Genetic engineering, 296-297 Genetic material, 168-170 Geochemistry, 251, 301 Glasses conducting, 59 fluoride, 54 Global cooling, warming, 205 Global pollution, 205 Grant success ratio, NIH, 316-318 Graphics, computers, 187-188 Greenhouse effect, 41, 44, 192, 204-205 Groundwater quality, 206-207 Growth hormone, 148, 154 Growth rate, world population, 106 Growth regulators, 107

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340 H Health, 7, 125-141 Heart failure, 131 Herbicides, 105, 117 Heterogeneous catalysis, 19, 22- 24, 25, 240-241, 295, 314 HE chemical laser, 68, 73 High performance liquid chroma- tography (HPLC), 272-273 High-pressure chemistry, 77, 250- 251, 298-299 High-speed chemistry, 64-67, 230- 236 High-temperature chemistry, 299- 300 High-temperature materials, 59- 60, 81, 214 Hodgkin's disease, 135 Homogeneous catalysis, 24-27, 314 Hormones, 107-114 antijuvenile, 112-113 follicle-stimulating, 138 molting, 111-112 plant growth, 107-111, 154 sex, 138-139 HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), 272-273 Human population growth, 106 Hunger, 106 Hypercholesterolemia, 130-131 Hypertension, 124, 129-130 Immunological diseases, 137-138 Import dependence, critical materi- als, 225 Industrial support for research, 288-289, 330 Industry basic research in, 288-289 Chemicals and Allied Products, 3, 327-331 chemistry in, 13, 327 employment of chemists, 282, 329 Inert molecules, activation of, 25 Inflammatory diseases, 137-138 Infrared spectroscopy (IR), see In- strumentation, IR "Inner-sphere" electron-transfer mechanism, 87 Inorganic chemistry, 79-84 Inotropic agents, 131 Insect hormones and growth regu- lators, 111-114 Insect pheromones, 114-116 Insecticides, 116-117 Instrumentation, 91-103, 178-190, 265-278 analytical, 219-220 INDEX chromatography, 271-276; see also Chromatography applications, 76, 121, 125, 252-253 costs, 276 circular dichroism, 121, 278 computers, 95-98 applications, 72-73, 156, 188, 257-258, 276-277 costs, 98 mainframe, 97 microprocessors, 96-97 molecular scale, 219-220 speeds, 94 supercomputers, 96-97 dedicated, 305-307 electron diffraction, 278 electron spin resonance (ESR), 188-190 electrophoresis, 121, 125 flow cytometer, 278 fluorimeter, 65, 278 free electron laser (FEL), 102- 103 infrared spectroscopy, 276-277 applications, 121, 192, 246, 258 costs, 277 ion cyclotron resonance, 278 laser magnetic resonance, 278 lasers, 8, 91-94 applications, 62, 64-67, 69-72, 95, 248 costs, 93 free electron (FEL), 102-103 short wavelength, 92 tunable, 92 types, 93 maintenance and operation, ex- penses of, 304, 318 mass spectrometry, 183-185 applications, 121, 125, 254- 256, 258, 234-235 costs, 184 molecular beams, 98-99 applications, 68-71, 82 costs, 99 neutron diffraction, 121, 164, 188 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 178-182 applications, 43, 74, 83, 105, 121, 125, 160, 178, 258, 264 costs, 181 imaging, 180, 264 solid state, 179 two-dimensional, 180 obsolescence, 304 optical spectroscopy, 253-254 radioactivity, 259-260, 263 Raman, 278 coherent, 70, 92 surface-enhanced, 29, 245 scintillation counter, 278 sequencer, protein, 278 shared, 303-305, 318 surface sciences, 265-271 applications, 19, 241, 244, 257 costs, 268 synchrotrons, 99-102 applications, 101, 267 costs, 102 synthesizer, oligonucleotide, 171, 278 X-ray diffraction, 185-187 applications, 74, 121, 125, 144, 151, 154, 164, 167-168 costs, 187 Intellectual frontiers, 63-90, 155- 177, 240-263 analytical chemistry, 251-258, 297 biosynthesis, 155-163 catalysis, 22-30, 77-78, 240- 244, 295 chemical reactivity, 63-74 condensed phases, 247-250 critical phenomena, 250-251 DNA chemical synthesis of, 161-162 structure of, 168-172 electrocatalysis, 296 energy transfer and movement, 65-67 extreme conditions, 59-60, 76, 250-251, 298-299 fast reactions, 64-65 geochemistry, 251 genetic engineering, 168-170, 296-297 high pressure reactions, 97, 250- 251, 298-299 high speed reactions, 64-67, 230-236 high temperature reactions, 299-300 inorganic chemistry, 79-84 life processes, 155-177, 296 liquids, 248-250 low temperature reactions, 66, 69, 82, 300 301 macromolecules, structures of, 163-170 materials, 49-53, 54-60, 89-90, 295 molecular dynamics, 63-74, 249 multiphoton excitation, 69-71 natural product synthesis, 157- 163 nuclear chemistry, 259-264 organic chemistry, 75-79 organometallic compounds, 82- 84, 85-89 photochemistry, 87-88 plasma chemistry, 300 polymers, 48-54, 56-57, 90

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INDEX protein conformations, 163-166 reaction dynamics, 63-74, 294, 297 reaction pathways, 74-90, 294 RNA splicing, 172-175 selectivity in synthesis, 77-78, 84-86 separations science, 258-259 solids, 89-90, 223-224 state-to-state chemistry, 67-69 surface chemistry, 240-247 synthesis, 155-163, 294 temporal aspects of chemical change, 294 theoretical chemistry, 72-74, 87, 249-251 van der Waals compounds, 82 Intercalation compounds, 58 Interferon, 213 Intramolecular vibrational redis- tribution (IVR), 62, 66-67 Introns, 172-174 Investigational New Drug applica- tions (INDs), 125 Ionic conductors, solid state, 58 Ionization, multiphoton, 69-71 Isotope separation, laser, 70-71, 229 Isotopic anomalies, 262-263 Isotopic tracers, 160 J Juvenile hormones (JH), 112 K Kerogen, 40 Kevlar, 50 Kinetics chemical, 8, 63, 73-74, 320 combustion, 37, 232, 312, 320 L Laser desorption (LD), 184-255 Laser-induced fluorescence, 62, 66-67 Lasers, 91-94; see Instrumenta- tion, lasers chemical, 68, 73 fast processes and, 64-67 isotope separation and, 70-71, 229 LEED (low energy electron diffrac- tion, 241, 267 Life processes, 9-11, 105-177, 296-297 Light-assisted chemistry, 87-89 Liquid chromatography, 256, 271 Liquid-crystal display (LCD), 51 Liquid-state structure, 248-250 Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), 241, 267 341 Low-temperature chemistry, 300- 301 M Macrocycles, 56 Macromolecules, 125, 144, 163-175 Mainframe computers, 97 Maintenance of research instru- mentation, cost of, 304, 318 Malnutrition, 106 Manpower and education, 279-287 Manufacturers' shipments, 329 Mass spectrometry, 183-186, 254- 255 tandem (MS/MS), 234-235, 256- 257 Materials, 6, 9, 48-60 acentric, 59 critical, 222-223 defined, 48 earth, 251 extraterrestrial, 251 for extreme conditions, 59-60 high-temperature, 60 optical fibers, 54-55 polymers, 47, 48-54 solid-state, 89-90, 223-224 strategic, 222-223 structural, polymers as, 50-51 Matrix isolation method, 72, 300 Medicine, 125-141 biotechnology applied to, 148- 149 nuclear chemistry in, 263-264 Messenger RNA (mRNA), 145 Metal catalysis, 23-24 Metal cluster chemistry, 26, 81-82 Metallic crystals, 241-243 Metallomacrocycles, 56 Metastable atom-induced fluores- cence, 235 Meteorites, 251 Methane production, 40-41 Microcolumn technology, 274 Microelectronics, 216-218 Microprocessors, 96-97, 216-217 Mirror-image relationships, 26 Mode-selective chemistry, 71-72 Molecular beams, 68-69, 71-72, 98-99 complexity, 106-190 dynamics, 63-75, 249 graphics, 187-188 sieves, 23 topography, controlled, 30 Molecular-scale computers, 219- 220 Molting hormones (MH), 111-112 Monoclonal antibodies, 137 MS/MS (tandem mass spectrome- try), 234-235, 256 Multiphoton ionization, 69-71 Multiple photon excitation, 70-71 Mutagenesis, oligonucleotide di- rected, 171 N "Naked" clusters, 26 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), see Federal agencies, NASA National Institutes of Health (NIH), see Federal agencies, NIH National Science Foundation (NSF), see Federal agencies, NSF National security, 8, 222-237 National well-being, chemistry and, 193-278 Natural gas, 37-38 Natural products biosynthesis of, 159-161 synthesis of, 157-159 Neutron diffraction, 188-189 Nitrogen fixation, 118-119 Nuclear chemistry, 259-264 energy, 44, 227-230 power, 227-230 reactions, 261 reactors, 44, 228 spectroscopy, 260 surveillance, 226 weapons, 227-230 winter, 200, 205 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), see Instrumentation, NMR Nucleotides, 161 Nutrition, 106 o Obsolescence of research instru- mentation, 304 Oil recovery, 35-36 refining, 36-37 shale, 40 Oligonucleotide directed mutagen- esis, 171 Oligonucleotides, 168 Oncogenes, 134, 175-177 Opiate analgesics, 132 Optical fibers, 54 materials, 54-55 spectroscopy, 253-254 switches, 54-55 technology, 54-55 Oral contraceptives, 138 Organic chemistry, 75-79, 84-85 Organic conductors, 57

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342 Organic synthesis, selectivity in, 84-86 Organometallic catalysis, 157 Organometallic chemistry, 25, 82- 83, 85-86 "Outer-sphere" electron transfer mechanism, 87 Oxidation chemistry, 83-84 Oxidation-reduction steps, 42 Ozone, stratospheric, 198-202 p Parkinson's disease, 84, 132 Peptic ulcers, 136 Peptide confirmational studies of, 163- 166 hormones, 113, 138 Pesticides, 116-117, 207 Petrochemicals, 209-212 Petroleum, 34-37, 211; see Oil Pheromones, insect, 114-116 Photocatalysis, 27-28, 296 Photochemistry, 69, 72, 84, 87-89; see Photosynthesis Photoelectrochemical cells, 43 Photoelectron spectroscopy, 267 Photoimaging, 215-216 Photolithography, 217 Photon induced reactors, 69, 72, 84, 87- 89 multiple, excitation, 70-71 Photoresists, 53-54, 217-218 Photosynthesis, 41-42, 118-120 Physisorption, 243 Plant hormones and growth regu- lators, 107-111 Plasma desorption (PD), 255 Plasmas, 300 Plastics, 48-49, 214-215 Pollution environmental, 193-194 global, 205 measurement of, 192, 197 Polyacetylene, 56-57 Polymers, 47, 48-54, 90 biological, 125, 144, 163-175 conducting, 55-58 liquid crystals from, 51 silicon-containing, 60 as structural materials, 47, 50- 51, 320 "triblock," 52-53 Polypeptide hormones, 49 Population, world growth rate, 106 Portfolio concept of research find- ing, 10, 293 Postdoctoral study, 283-284 Precious metal catalysts, 19, 24- 26, 35, 76, 245 INDEX Precollege chemistry education, 284-285 Pressure, chemistry under high, 77, 250-251, 298-299 Priority areas in chemistry, 11-12, 295-301 A. Understanding chemical re- activity, 11, 294-295 novel solids, 48-60, 89-90 organometallic chemistry, 82- 84, 86-87 selectivity in synthesis, 75-82, 84-85, 87-89, 294 temporal aspects of reactions, 64-74, 294 theory in chemistry, 74-75 B. Chemical catalysis, 11, 295- 296 artificial enzyme catalysis, 29-31, 295 electrocatalysis, 27-28, 296 heterogeneous catalysis, 22- 24, 35, 240-247, 295 homogeneous catalysis, 24-27, 82-85, 157, 295 photocatalysis, 27-28, 296 C. Chemistry of life processes, 11, 296-297 bioactive molecule synthesis, 105-121, 157 genetic engineering, 144-150, 172-175 rational drug design, 124-141 receptor-substrate interac- tions, 126-127, 296 vectorial chemistry, 296 D. Chemistry around us, 11, 297-298 analytical chemistry, 195-196, 252-258, 292 environmental chemistry, 193-208 reaction dynamics, 63-74, 294, 297-298 E. Chemical behavior under ex- treme conditions, 12, 298- 301 high pressure chemistry, 77, 250-251, 298-299 high temperature chemistry, 59-60, 299-300 low temperature chemistry, 66, 69, 72, 82, 300-301 plasmas, 59-60, 300 Portfolio concept of research funding, 10, 293 Processes, new, 21-31, 39, 118-119 Products, new, 48-60, 89-90, 144- 152 Protein confirmational studies, 163-166 Protooncogenes, 175-176 R Radioactive isotopes, 260-264 Radioactive waste management, 44, 208 Radiochemistry, 229-230 Rain, acid, 37, 192, 202-204 Raman effect coherent, 70, 92 surface-enhanced, 28, 245 Reactors fusion, 44-45 nuclear, 44, 228 Receptor-substrate interactions, 126-127, 296 Recombinant DNA technologies, 146-148, 160-161 Recommendations, 11-18 Department of Agriculture #9, 17, 323-324 competitive grant program, 324 Department of Defense #8, 15, 318-323 basic (6.1) research support, 319 instrumentation and facilities, 323 priority areas, 320 university research, 321 Department of Energy #6, 14, 310-314 chemistry budget should grow, 15, 310 energy technology research initiative needed, 15, 311- 312 National Laboratory missions reshaped toward chemistry, 15, 312, 314 university research program should grow, 15, 312 Environmental Protection Agen- cy #11, 17, 325-326 federal research investment should increase #4, 12, 290 industrial-academic linkages needed #2, 12, 289 industrial support for academic research encouraged #3, 12 National Aeronautics and Space Administration #10, 16, 324-325 priority areas, 324 National Institutes of Health #7, 14, 315-318 cross-disciplinary grants, 316 grant size increased, 316 grant stabilization encour- aged, 318 shared instrumentation pro- gram, 313

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INDEX National Science Foundation #5, 13, 301-309 Chemistry Division budget, 309 creativity encouragement, 310 dedicated instrumentation, 304-306 grant size, 306-308 shared instrumentation, 303- 304 priority areas, 9-11, 293-300; see also Priority areas Recovery, oil, 35-36 Refining, oil, 36-37 Regioselectivity in synthesis, 84 Research basic in chemistry, 288-326 federal obligations for, 289- 291, 330 and development funding, com- pany, 330 industrial support for, 331 Research assistantship (RA) sti- pends, 283 Resistance problems, antibiotic, 128 Restriction enzymes, 146 Reversed phase liquid chromatog- raphy (RPLC), 272-273 Rheumatoid arthritis, 137 Risk assessment, 196 RNA (ribonucleic acid), 134, 144- 145, 163, 168-169 messenger, 145, 173 splicing, 172-175 Rocket surveillance, 226-227 S Sands, tar, 40 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 267 Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), 255, 257, 267 "Secondary metabolites" as plant- growth regulators, 108 Security, national, 8, 222-237 Selectivity in organic synthesis, 84-86 Self-organized solids, 52-53 Semiconductor/liquid interface, 28-29 Semiconductors, 55, 216-218 Separations chemistry, 224-226, 258-259 Sex attractants, insect, 114-116 Sex hormones, 108 Shale oil, 40 Shared instrumentation, 303-305, 318 Short wavelength lasers, 92 343 Silicon-containing polymers, 60 Smectic phase, 51 Smog, 37, 142 Societal benefits from chemistry, 6-8 Soft X-ray (XUV) sources, 92 Solar cells, 59 Solar energy, 41-43 Solar neutrino experiments, 263 Solid/liquid interface, 28-29 Solid state, 89-90, 223-224 ionic conductors, 58 NMR, 179-180 Solids, 89-90 electronic phenomena in, 247- 248 self-organized, 52-53 Space environment, library books and, 239 Space exploration, 261-262 Spectrometry, mass (MS), see In- strumentation, MS Spectroscopy computer-aided, 276-277 nuclear, 260 optical, 253-254 technologies, 246-247 X-ray, 76 Speeds, computing, 94, 96 Starvation, 106 State-to-state chemistry, 67-69 Stereochemistry, 77-79 Stereoisomers, 168 Stereoselective catalysts, 26-27 Stereoselectivity, 84 Steroid glycosides, 131 Steroid hormones, 138 Strategic materials, 222 Stratospheric ozone, 199-202 Structural materials, polymers as, 50-51 Summary, executive, 6-18 Supercomputers, 97 Superconductors, 57-58 Superminicomputers, 96-97 Surface analysis, 257, 269-271 chemistry, 223, 240-247 composition, 242-243 dynamic phenomena, 245 electrical properties, 246 science, 23 science instrumentation, 265- 271 Surface-enhanced Raman effect, 29 Surfaces chemical bonding at, 243-244 co-adsorption on, 244-245 electrode, 258 reaction chemistry of, 72-74, 81 solid, 240-247 Surveillance, rocket, 226-227 Switches, optical, 54-55 Synchrotron radiation, 99-102 applications of, in chemistry, 101 costs, 101-102 Tunable lasers, 92 Turbulent combustion systems, 233-234 Two-dimensional chromatography, 253 Two-dimensional NMR, 180 U Ulcers, 136 Ultrafine filamentary composites, 81 Ultraviolet photoelectron spectros- copy, 267 Urbanization, 193 USDA, see Federal agencies, USDA V Vaccines, 148-149 viral, 129 Van der Waals molecules, 82 Vasodilators, 131 Vectorial chemistry, 296 Vignettes Beauty is only skin deep, 19 Investigating smog soup, 192 Jack and soybean stalk, 154 Libraries into space, 239 Lithium powered heart, 33 Pac-man for cholesterol, 143 Rx-snake bite, 124 Stone age, iron age, polymer age, 47 Time to wag a tail, 62 Whipping a wicked weed, 105 Viral vaccines, 129 Viruses, 128-129 oncogenic, 175 Vitamins, 76, 139-140 W Waste disposal, safe, 206-208 Waste management, radioactive, 44, 208 Water, clean, 24, 206-208 Wiggler field, 102

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344 INDEX X X-ray absorption fine structure, ex- tended (EXAFS), 101, 267 crystallography, 126, 144, 150, 166-167 diffraction, 154, 166, 179, 186- 188, 267 photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA), 267, 269-270 spectroscopy, 76 XUV (soft X-ray) sources, 92 y Young investigators, 279-287, 305, 309-310 z Z-DNA, 169-170 Zeolites, 187 "Zero-risk" approach, 195-196 Zytel Y.T., 215