25. Durch, J.S., L.A. Bailey, and M.A. Stoto, Eds., Institute of Medicine. Improving Health in the Community: A Role for Performance Monitoring. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.

26. The measure could change without actual behavior change initiation if self-reporting habits change (perhaps due to knowledge that results would be used to raise prices), if the duration covered by the question is not optimal, or if those surveyed subtly change how they interpret the questions.

27. Shopland, D.R. Smoking and Tobacco Control Program, National Cancer Institute, Unpublished data. Preliminary estimate from the 1995-1996 Current Population Survey, October 1997.

28. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Smoking Cessation: Clinical Practice Guideline (Number 18). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Pub. No. [AHCPR] 960692), 1996.

29. Lightwood and Glantz, op cit.

30. Witsuba, I.I., S. Lam, C. Behrens, et al. Molecular Damage in the Bronchial Epithelium of Current and Former Smokers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89:1366-1373, 1997.

31. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Call for Proposals: Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care. Princeton, N.J.: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 1997.

32. Pinney, J.M. Review of the Current Status of Smoking Cessation in the USA: Assumptions and Realities. Tobacco Control 4:S10-S14, 1995.

33. For details, see the Request for Applications Prevention and Cessation of Tobacco Use by Children and Youth in the U.S. at http://www.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-CA-98-002.html.

34. Warner, K., J. Slade, and D. Sweanor. The Emerging Market for Long-Term Nicotine Maintenance. Journal of the American Medical Association 278:1087-1092, 1997.

35. Wall Street Journal, October 1, 1997, p. B 12.

36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 46:867871, 1997.

37. Orleans, C.T. Review of the Current Status of Smoking Cessation in the USA: Progress and Opportunities. Tobacco Control 4:S3-S9, 1995.

38. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National High Blood Pressure Education Program: 20 Years of Achievement. Bethesda, Md.: National Institutes of Health, 1992.

39. A query of NIH's Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects database for 1994, 1995, and 1996 was performed on the terms "tobacco" or "nicotine." The search produced the following counts of extramural awards (grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements):

 

1994

1995

1996

National Institute on Drug Abuse

62

54

82

National Cancer Institute

62

62

70

National Center for Research Resources

17

13

14

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

20

8

7

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

4

15

12

National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke

9

5

6

Other NIH institutes and centers

27

42

11

Total

201

199

202

40. Cancer Control Review Group. A New Agenda for Cancer Control Research. Bethesda, Md.: Board of Scientific Advisors, National Cancer Institute, August 7, 1997.

41. This point is amplified by Stanton Glantz in an editorial to be published in a future issue of Tobacco Control, "After ASSIST, What Next? Science." Courtesy of the author.

42. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. The Importance of Research in the Development of National Tobacco Control Efforts. Rockville, Md.: Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 1997.

43. The findings described below are discussed in several places in Lynch and Bonnie, op cit., especially in Chapters 2 and 9.



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