67. Ibid.

68. Rules, Sanctions, and Enforcement Under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974, as Amended, available at: http://www.snado.com/intartl.htm.

69. Ibid.

70. Thailand—Restrictions on Importation of and Internal Taxes on Cigarettes. Report of the GATT Panel Adopted on November 7, 1990 (DS10/R-37S/200). World Trade Organization. This report can be downloaded in WordPerfect Version 5 format from the World Trade Organization home page at: http://www.wto.org/wto/dispute/panel.htm.

71. Ibid, Section 73.

72. Ibid, Section 81.

73. Ibid, pp. 711-712.

74. Ibid.

75. Frankel, G. Thailand Resists U.S. Brand Assault; Stiff Laws Inspire Other Asians to Curb Smoking. The Washington Post, November 18, 1996. P. Al.

76. Kluger, R. Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. New York: Vintage Books, 1997, pp. 710-711.

77. Ibid.

78. Public Law 105-119, Section 618, states that "None of the funds provided by this Act shall be available to promote the sale or export of tobacco or tobacco products, or to seek the reduction or removal by any foreign country of restrictions on the marketing of tobacco or tobacco products, except for restrictions which are not applied equally to all tobacco or tobacco products of the same type." For the full text, see http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d105:h.r.02267. This provision is associated with the efforts of Rep. Lloyd Doggett, and is often referred to as the "Doggett Amendment."

79. Pierce, J. Progress and Problems in International Public Health Efforts to Reduce Tobacco Usage. Annual Review of Public Health 12:383-400, 1991; Roemer, R. Legislative Action to Combat the World Tobacco Epidemic, 2nd edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1993.

80. Advisory Committee on Tobacco Policy and Public Health. Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Science and Public Policy Institute, 1997.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid.

83. Institute of Medicine. America's Vital Interest in Global Health. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1997.

84. Shopland, D.R., H.J. Eyre, and T.F. Pechacek. Smoking-Attributable Cancer Mortality in 1991: Is Lung Cancer Now the Leading Cause of Death Among Smokers in the United States? Journal of the National Cancer Institute 83:1142-1148, 1991. CDC data on cancer mortality are available on-line at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/osh/mortali.htm.

85 Murray, C.J.L., and A.D. Lopez. Alternative Projections of Mortality and Disability by Cause 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 349:1498-1504, 1997; Murray, C.J.L and Lopez. The Global Burden of Disease and Global Health Statistics, 1 and 2. Global Burden of Disease Series. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996.



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