event he was awarded the 1968 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the reciprocal relations—which had failed to secure him a Norwegian Ph.D. Other academies soon followed suit, including the University of Cambridge. In 1970 the Battelle Symposium at Gstaad commemorated the 25th anniversary of his first paper on the two-dimensional Ising lattice (1944,1); and in 1972, on his retirement from Yale, his colleagues presented him with a dedicatory volume to remind him of his achievements and of the esteem in which they held him.

CORAL GABLES (1972-1976)

On his retirement in 1972, Yale offered Onsager an office as emeritus professor but denied him facilities for continuing collaborative research with postdoctoral associates. Specifically, the Provost's office cited a rule that prohibited an emeritus professor from being a "principal investigator" on a research proposal to a granting agency. Onsager resented the blind application of the rule and appealed against the decision but without success. By the time others in the University discovered the situation and protested to President Kingman Brewster, Jr., it was too late. Onsager had, in the meanwhile, accepted an appointment as Distinguished University Professor at the University of Miami, Coral Gables, and joined the University's Center for Theoretical Studies directed by Behram Kursunoglu, where his research was generously funded by national agencies. The Onsagers kept their house in New Haven for some time, however, with the hope of returning.

On his seventieth birthday, the Center for Theoretical Studies arranged in his honor a conference in Miami entitled "Quantum Statistical Mechanics in the Life Sciences." Lars presented a paper on "Life in the Early Days," outlining some of his ideas about the origin of life on earth, a subject which



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