Biographical Memoirs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES



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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 60 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 60 This page in the original is blank.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 60 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 60 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON D.C. 1991

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 60 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-04442-1  LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629  Available from  NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS  2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W.  WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418  PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 60 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     JOSEPH HALL BODINE BY E. J. BOELL   3     ARTHUR CLAY COPE BY JOHN D. ROBERTS AND JOHN C. SHEEHAN   17     PHILIP JACKSON DARLINGTON, JR. BY EDWARD O. WILSON   33     JOHN FRANKLIN ENDERS BY THOMAS H. WELLER AND FREDERICK C. ROBBINS   47     EDWARD CURTIS FRANKLIN BY HOWARD M. ELSEY   67     SELIG HECHT BY GEORGE WALD   81     LIBBIE HENRIETTA HYMAN BY LIBBIE H. HYMAN AND G. EVELYN HUTCHINSON   103     FRANCIS WHEELER LOOMIS BY FREDERICK SEITZ   117

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 60     JACOB MARSCHAK BY KENNETH J. ARROW   129     DONALD HOWARD MENZEL BY LEO GOLDBERG AND LAWRENCE H. ALLER   149     NATHAN M. NEWMARK BY WILLIAM J. HALL   169     LARS ONSAGER BY H. CHRISTOPHER LONGUET-HIGGINS AND MICHAEL E. FISHER   183     ALEXANDER PETRUNKEVITCH BY G. EVELYN HUTCHINSON   235     KENNETH BRYAN RAPER BY ROBERT H. BURRIS AND ELDON H. NEWCOMB   251     FRANCIS W. REICHELDERFER BY JEROME NAMIAS   273     WILLIAM JACOB ROBBINS BY FREDERICK KAVANAGH AND ANNETTE HERVEY   293     GEORGE GAYLORD SIMPSON BY EVERETT C. OLSON   331     OWEN HARDING WANGENSTEEN BY MAURICE B. VISSCHER   355     HENRY STEPHENS WASHINGTON BY CHARLES MILTON   367     HOWEL WILLIAMS BY ALEXANDER R. MCBIRNEY   395     CUMULATIVE INDEX   407

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 60 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subjects' work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary ELIZABETH J. SHERMAN Editor

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 60 This page in the original is blank.