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Macedonia, Michael R., and Donald P. Brutzman, "MBone Provides Audio and Video Across the Internet," IEEE COMPUTER, April 1994, pp. 30–36. Available at

Macedonia, Michael R., A Network Software Architecture for Large Scale Virtual Environments, Ph.D. Dissertation, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, June 1995.

Macedonia, Michael R., Michael J. Zyda, David R. Pratt, Donald P. Brutzman, and Paul T. Barham, "Exploiting Reality with Multicast Groups: A Network Architecture for Large-Scale Virtual Environments," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 1995, to appear.

Ousterhout, John K., Tcl and the Tk Toolkit, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1994.

Pesce, Mark, and Brian Behlendorf, moderators, "Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)," working group home page,, 1994–1995.

Reimers, Stephen, and Donald P. Brutzman, "Internet Protocol over Seawater: Towards Interoperable Underwater Networks," Unmanned Untethered Submersibles Technology 95, Northeastern University, Nahant, Massachusetts, September 25–27, 1995, to appear.

Schulzrinne, Henning, and Stephen Casner, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications," Audio-Video Transport Working Group, Internet Engineering Task Force, working draft, Oct. 20, 1993, available as

Stallings, William, Data and Computer Communications, fourth edition, Macmillan, New York, 1994.

Sun Microsystems Corporation, Java language home page, 1995,

Wernicke, Josie, The Inventor Mentor: Programming Object-Oriented 3D Graphics with Open Inventor, Release 2, Addison-Wesley Publishing, Reading, Massachusetts, 1994.

Zyda, Michael J., David R. Pratt, John S. Falby, Paul T. Barham, Chuck Lombardo, and Kirsten M. Kelleher, "The Software Required for the Computer Generation of Virtual Environments," PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, vol. 2, no. 2, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Spring 1993, pp. 130–140.

Author Information

Don Brutzman is a computer scientist working in the Interdisciplinary Academic Group at the Naval Postgraduate School. His research interests include underwater robotics, real-time 3D computer graphics, artificial intelligence, and high-performance networking. He is a member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH), the American Association for Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), the Marine Technology Society (MTS), and the Internet Society (ISOC).

Mike Macedonia is an active duty Army officer and Ph.D. candidate at the Naval Postgraduate School. He received a M.S. degree in telecommunications from the University of Pittsburgh and a B.S. degree from the U.S. Military Academy. His research interests include multicast data networks, real-time computer graphics, and large-scale virtual environments. His leadership on the Joint Electronic Warfare Center and CENTCOM staffs was instrumental in successfully deploying and integrating advanced computers, networks, and telecommunications systems during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm.

Mike Zyda is professor of computer science at the Naval Postgraduate School. His research interests include computer graphics, virtual world systems, and visual simulation systems. He is executive editor of the journal PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, published by MIT Press. His recent accomplishments include organizing and serving as general chair for the 1995 ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics.

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