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Much of the information relating to the SSA was taken from an early draft of an ASTM document (ASTM, 1995), "Guide for the Properties of a Universal Healthcare Identifier," written by Dr. Elmer R. Gabrieli and provided by Andrew J. Young, deputy commissioner for programs, Social Security Administration.

Additional Resources

American College of Medical Informatics (ACMI). 1993. "Resolution for the Use of the SSN as a Universal Patient Identifier," ACMI, Bethesda, Md., February.

ASTM. 1995. "Guide for the Properties of a Universal Healthcare Identifier," draft proposal developed by ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa., January.

Donaldson, Molla S., and Kathleen N. Lohr (eds.). 1994. Health Data in the Information Age: Use, Disclosure and Privacy. Institute of Medicine, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Fix, Janet L. 1995. "IRS Counts 6.5 Million Errors So Far," USA Today, April 5.

Louis Harris and Associates (in association with Alan Westin). 1993. Health Information Privacy Survey 1993. A survey conducted for EQUIFAX Inc. by Louis Harris and Associates, New York.

Task Force on Privacy. 1993. Health Records: Social Needs and Personal Privacy. Task Force on Privacy, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, Washington, D.C., February 11–12.

Work Group on Computerization of Patient Records. 1993. Toward a National Health Information Infrastructure. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C., April.

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