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Much of the information relating to the SSA was taken from an
early draft of an ASTM document (ASTM, 1995), "Guide for the
Properties of a Universal Healthcare Identifier," written by Dr.
Elmer R. Gabrieli and provided by Andrew J. Young, deputy
commissioner for programs, Social Security Administration.
American College of Medical Informatics
(ACMI). 1993. "Resolution for the Use of the SSN as a Universal
Patient Identifier," ACMI, Bethesda, Md., February.
ASTM. 1995. "Guide for the Properties of a
Universal Healthcare Identifier," draft proposal developed by ASTM,
Philadelphia, Pa., January.
Donaldson, Molla S., and Kathleen N. Lohr
(eds.). 1994. Health Data in the Information Age: Use,
Disclosure and Privacy. Institute of Medicine, National Academy
Press, Washington, D.C.
Fix, Janet L. 1995. "IRS Counts 6.5
Million Errors So Far," USA Today, April 5.
Louis Harris and Associates (in
association with Alan Westin). 1993. Health Information Privacy
Survey 1993. A survey conducted for EQUIFAX Inc. by Louis
Harris and Associates, New York.
Task Force on Privacy. 1993. Health
Records: Social Needs and Personal Privacy. Task Force on
Privacy, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and
Evaluation and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research,
Washington, D.C., February 11–12.
Work Group on Computerization of Patient
Records. 1993. Toward a National Health Information
Infrastructure. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services,
Washington, D.C., April.