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White Papers
The Unpredictable Certainty
Information Infrastructure Through 2000

NII 2000 Steering Committee

Computer Science and Telecommunications Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C. 1997

Page ii

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the steering committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IRI-9529473. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-06036-2

Additional copies of this report are available from the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418; CSTB@NAS.EDU or http://www2.nas.edu/cstbweb.

Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America



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White Papers The Unpredictable Certainty Information Infrastructure Through 2000 NII 2000 Steering Committee Computer Science and Telecommunications Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C. 1997 Page ii NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the steering committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IRI-9529473. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06036-2 Additional copies of this report are available from the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418; CSTB@NAS.EDU or http://www2.nas.edu/cstbweb. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the steering committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineenug communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. IRI- 9529473. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. International Standard Book Number 0-309-06036-2 Additional copies of this report are available from the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418; CSTB@NAS.EDU or h t t p : / I w w w 2 . n a s . e d u / c s t b w e b . Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Page iii NII 2000 Steering Committee LEWIS M. BRANSCOMB, Harvard University, Chair CYNTHIA H. BRADDON, The McGraw-Hill Companies JAMES A. CHIDDIXJAMES A. CHIDDIX, Time Warner Cable DAVID D. CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOSEPH A. FLAHERTY, CBS Incorporated PAUL E. GREEN, JR., IBM T.J. Watson Research Center IRENE GREIF, Lotus Development Corporation RICHARD T. LIEBHABER, MCI Communications (retired) ROBERT W. LUCKY, Bell Communications Research LLOYD N. MORRISETT, John and Mary Markle Foundation DONALD W. SIMBORG, KnowMed Systems LESLIE L. VADASZ, Intel Corporation Staff MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Director

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Page iv Computer Science and Telecommunications Board DAVID D. CLARK, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair FRANCES E. ALLEN, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center JAMES CHIDDIX, Time Warner Cable JEFF DOZIER, University of California at Santa Barbara A.G. FRASER, AT&T Corporation SUSAN L. GRAHAM, University of California at Berkeley JAMES GRAY, Microsoft Corporation BARBARA J. GROSZ, Harvard University PATRICK HANRAHAN, Stanford University JUDITH HEMPEL, University of California at San Francisco DEBORAH A. JOSEPH, University of Wisconsin BUTLER W. LAMPSON, Microsoft Corporation EDWARD D. LAZOWSKA, University of Washington MICHAEL LESK, Bell Communications Research DAVID LIDDLE, Interval Research BARBARA H. LISKOV, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN MAJOR, QUALCOMM Inc. DAVID G. MESSERSCHMITT, University of California at Berkeley DONALD NORMAN, Hewlett-Packard Company RAYMOND OZZIE, Rhythmix Corporation DONALD SIMBORG, KnowMed Systems Inc. LESLIE L. VADASZ, Intel Corporation MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL, Director HERBERT S. LIN, Senior Staff Officer JERRY R. SHEEHAN, Program Officer ALAN S. INOUYE, Program Officer JON EISENBERG, Program Officer JANET D. BRISCOE, Administrative Associate MARK BALKOVICH, Research Associate SYNOD P. BOYD, Project Assistant LISA L. SHUM, Project Assistant

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Page v Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications ROBERT J. HERMANN, United Technologies Corporation, Co-chair W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado, Co-chair PETER M. BANKS, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) WILLIAM BROWDER, Princeton University LAWRENCE D. BROWN, University of Pennsylvania RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University JOHN E. ESTES, University of California at Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. JOHN E. HOPCROFT, Cornell University CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, Council on Foreign Relations and the University of Minnesota KENNETH I. KELLERMANN, National Radio Astronomy Observatory MARGARET G. KIVELSON, University of California at Los Angeles DANIEL KLEPPNER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN KREICK, Sanders, A Lockheed Martin Company MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory CHANG-LIN TIEN, University of California at Berkeley NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

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Page vii Preface This book contains a key component of the NII 2000 project of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, a set of white papers that contributed to and complements the project's final report, The Unpredictable Certainty: Information Infrastructure Through 2000, which was published in the spring of 1996. That report was disseminated widely and was well received by its sponsors and a variety of audiences in government, industry, and academia. Constraints on staff time and availability delayed the publication of these white papers, which offer details on a number of issues and positions relating to the deployment of information infrastructure. The remainder of this preface is taken from the original preface of The Unpredictable Certainty. It provides more detail on the context in which the white papers were developed. In October 1994, at the request of the Technology Policy Working Group (TPWG) of the Information Infrastructure Task Force, CSTB convened a steering committee to assess medium-term deployment of facilities and services to advance the nation's information infrastructure. The project was designated "NII 2000" by the steering committee, and its tasks were the following: • To reach out to a broad range of industries with a stake in the future of U.S. information infrastructure—those industries expected to be major market drivers as well as those expected to be major service providers—to explore their expectations and motivations for technology deployment in the next 5 to 7 years; • To infer from this exploration the extent to which there is a shared vision of the importance of common features of system architecture, such as interoperability or open system interfaces, and the alternative likelihood that major parts of the system will develop along proprietary, incompatible lines; and • To conclude with suggestions to the U.S. government on public policy choices that might serve both the rapid, orderly, and successful development of information infrastructure and its satisfaction of important public interests. To achieve these goals, the steering committee was asked by the TPWG to undertake a specific series of activities: convene a workshop of professionals and scholars to discuss and identify key issues related to technology deployment, call for white papers to gain further information on these issues, organize a forum to discuss the white papers and other key ideas, and write a synthesis report of its findings. Following the workshop, the steering committee released a call for white papers on issues related to architecture and facilities, enabling technologies, recovery of costs, middleware technologies and capabilities, applications, equitable access and public service obligations, and research and development. The call was distributed through various media (the Internet, press advisories, direct mail, and so on) to producers of communications, computer, and software systems goods and services; Internet access and other network-based service providers; scholars specializing in relevant technical, economic, and public policy research and analysis; and project liaisons and other representatives of industries and sectors believed likely to become major users of advanced information infrastructure (such as the arts, banking and finance, education, health care, government agencies, libraries, manufacturing, and transportation). The white papers were

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Page viii distributed to participants at the spring forum and to interested federal agencies. Their content, representing a broad spectrum of views from knowledgeable participants in the evolution of information infrastructure, was a major component in the development of the steering committee's report, which quotes from and refers specifically to several of them.

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Page ix Contents The National Information Infrastructure and the Earth Sciences: Possibilities and Challenges Mark R. Abbott (Oregon State University) 1 Government Services Information Infrastructure Management Robert J. Aiken and John S. Cavallini (U.S. Department of Energy) 10 Cutting the Gordian Knot: Providing the American Public with Advanced Universal Access in a Fully Competitive Marketplace at the Lowest Possible Cost Allan J. Arlow (Telecommunications Consultant, Annapolis, Md.) 18 The Role of Cable Television in the NII Wendell Bailey (National Cable Television Association) and Jim Chiddix (Time Warner Cable) 26 Competing Definitions of "Openness" on the GII Jonathan Band (Morrison and Foerster, Washington, D.C.) 31 Communications for People on the Move: A Look into the Future Richard C. Barth (Motorola Incorporated) 38 Building the NII: Will the Shareholders Come? (And If They Don't, Will Anyone Really Care?) Robert T. Blau (BellSouth Corporation) 44 The Electronic Universe: Network Delivery of Data, Science, and Discovery Gregory Bothun (University of Oregon), Jim Elias (US West Communications), Randolph G. Foldvik (US West Communications), and Oliver McBryan (University of Colorado) 57 An SDTV Decoder with HDTV Capability: An All-Format ATV Decoder Jill Boyce, John Henderson, and Larry Pearlstein (Hitachi America Ltd.) 67 NII and Intelligent Transport Systems Lewis M. Branscomb and Jim Keller (Harvard University) 76 Post-NSFNET Statistics Collection Hans-Werner Braun and Kimberly Claffy (San Diego Supercomputer Center) 85 NII Road Map: Residential Broadband Charles N. Brownstein (Cross-Industry Working Team, Corporation for National Research Initiatives) 97 The NII in the Home: A Consumer Service Vito Brugliera (Zenith Electronics), James A. Chiddix (Time Warner Cable), D. Joseph Donahue (Thomson Consumer Electronics), Joseph A. Flaherty (CBS Inc.), Richard R. Green (Cable Television Laboratories), James C. McKinney (ATSC), Richard E. Ottinger (PBS), and Rupert Stow (Rupert Stow Associates) 101 Internetwork Infrastructure Requirements for Virtual Environments Donald P. Brutzman, Michael R. Macedonia, and Michael J. Zyda (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California) 110 Electric Utilities and the NII: Issues and Opportunities John S. Cavallini and Mary Anne Scott (U.S. Department of Energy) and Robert J. Aiken (U.S. Department of Energy/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) 123 Interoperation, Open Interfaces, and Protocol Architecture David D. Clark (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 133

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Page x Service Provider Interoperability and the National Information Infrastructure Tim Clifford (DynCorp Advanced Technology Services) 145 Funding the National Information Infrastructure: Advertising, Subscription, and Usage Charges Robert W. Crandall (Brookings Institution) 156 The NII in the Home D. Joseph Donahue (Thomson Consumer Electronics) 165 The Evolution of the Analog Set-Top Terminal to a Digital Interactive Home Communications Terminal H. Allen Ecker and J. Graham Mobley (Scientific-Atlanta Inc.) 168 Spread ALOHA Wireless Multiple Access: The Low-Cost Way for Ubiquitous, Tetherless Access to the Information Infrastructure Dennis W. Elliott and Norman Abramson (ALOHA Networks Inc.) 178 Plans for Ubiquitous Broadband Access to the National Information Infrastructure in the Ameritech Region Joel S. Engel (Ameritech) 185 How Do Traditional Legal, Commercial, Social, and Political Structures, When Confronted with a New Service, React and Interact? Maria Farnon (Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University) 190 The Internet, the World Wide Web, and Open Information Services: How to Build the Global Information Infrastructure Charles H. Ferguson (Vermeer Technologies Inc.) 201 Organizing the Issues Frances Dummer Fisher (University of Texas at Austin) 205 The Argument for Universal Access to the Health Care Information Infrastructure: The Particular Needs of Rural Areas, the Poor, and the Underserved Richard Friedman and Sean Thomas (University of Wisconsin) 209 Toward a National Data Network: Architectural Issues and the Role of Government David A. Garbin (MITRE Corporation) 217 Statement on National Information Infrastructure Issues Oscar Garcia (for the IEEE Computer Society) 228 Proposal for an Evaluation of Health Care Applications on the NII Joseph Gitlin (Johns Hopkins University) 233 The Internet—A Model: Thoughts on the Five-Year Outlook Ross Glatzer (Prodigy Services [retired]) 237 The Economics of Layered Networks Jiong Gong and Padmanabhan Srinagesh (Bell Communications Research Inc.) 241 The Fiber-Optic Challenge of Information Infrastructures P.E. Green, Jr. (IBM T.J. Watson Research Center) 248 Cable Television Technology Deployment Richard R. Green (Cable Television Laboratories Inc.) 256 Privacy, Access and Equity, Democracy, and Networked Interactive Media Michael D. Greenbaum (Bell Atlantic) and David Ticoll (Alliance for Converging Technologies) 271 As We May Work: An Approach Toward Collaboration on the NII Marjorie Greene (First Washington Associates) 280 The Use of the Social Security Number as the Basis for a National Citizen Identifier W. Ed Hammond (Duke University Medical Center) 286

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Page xi Estimating the Costs of Telecommunications Regulation Peter W. Huber (Manhattan Institute), Boban Mathew (Yale University), and John Thorne (Bell Atlantic) 292 Residential PC Access: Issues with Bandwidth Availability Kevin C. Kahn (Intel Corporation) 304 The National Information Infrastructure: A High-Performance Computing and Communications Perspective Randy H. Katz (University of California at Berkeley), William L. Scherlis (Carnegie Mellon University), and Stephen L. Squires (Advanced Research Projects Agency) 315 Nomadic Computing and Communications Leonard Kleinrock (University of California at Los Angeles) 335 NII 2000: The Wireless Perspective Mary Madigan (Personal Communications Industry Association) 342 Small Manufacturing Enterprises and the National Information Infrastructure Robert M. Mason, Chester Bowling, and Robert J. Niemi (Case Western Reserve University) 351 Architecture for an Emergency Lane on the NII: Crisis Information Management Lois Clark McCoy and Douglas Gillies (National Institute for Urban Search and Rescue) and John Harrald (NIUSR and George Washington University) 364 Aspects of Integrity in the NII John C. McDonald (MBX Inc.) 374 What the NII Could Be: A User Perspective David G. Messerschmitt (University of California at Berkeley) 378 Role of the PC in Emerging Information Infrastructures Avram Miller and Ogden Perry (Intel Corporation) 388 NII Evolution—Technology Deployment Plans, Challenges, and Opportunities: AT&T Perspective Mahal Mohan (AT&T Corporation) 397 Enabling Petabyte Computing Reagan W. Moore (San Diego Supercomputer Center) 405 Private Investment and Federal National Information Infrastructure Policy Organization for the Protection and Advancement of Small Telephone Companies (OPASTCO) 412 Thoughts on Security and the NII Tom Perrine (San Diego Supercomputer Center) 416 Trends in Deployments of New Telecommunications Services by Local Exchange Carriers in Support of an Advanced National Information Infrastructure Stewart D. Personick (Bell Communications Research Inc.) 422 The Future NII/GII: Views of Interexchange Carriers Robert S. Powers (MCI Telecommunications Inc.), Tim Clifford (SPRINT, Government Systems Division), and James M. Smith (Competitive Telecommunications Association) 434 Technology in the Local Network J.C. Redmond, C.D. Decker, and W.G. Griffin (GTE Laboratories Inc.) 447 Recognizing What the NII Is, What It Needs, and How to Get It Robert F. Roche (Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association) 462

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Page xii Electronic Integrated Product Development as Enabled by a Global Information Environment: A Requirement for Success in the Twenty-first Century Thomas C. Rochow, George E. Scarborough, and Frank David Utterback (McDonnell Douglas Corporation) 469 Interoperability, Standards, and Security: Will the NII Be Based on Market Principles? Quincy Rodgers (General Instrument Corporation) 479 Technology and Cost Models for Connecting K-12 Schools to the National Information Infrastructure Russell I. Rothstein and Lee McKnight (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 492 Geodata Interoperability: A Key NII Requirement David Schell, Lance McKee, and Kurt Buehler (Open GIS Consortium) 511 Electronic Commerce Dan Schutzer (Citibank Corporation) 521 Prospects and Prerequisites for Local Telecommunications Competition: Public Policy Issues for the NII Gail Garfield Schwartz and Paul E. Cain (Teleport Communications Group) 538 The Awakening 3.0: PCs, TSBs, or DTMF-TV—Which Telecomputer Architecture Is Right for the Next Generation's Public Network? John W. Thompson, Jr. (GNOSTECH Incorporated) 546 Effective Information Transfer for Health Care: Quality versus Quantity Gio Wiederhold (Stanford University) 553 Integrating Technology with Practice: A Technology-enhanced, Field-based Teacher Preparation Program Ronald D. Zellner, Jon Denton, and Luana Zellner (Texas A&M University) 560 RegNet: An NPR Regulatory Reform Initiative Toward NII/GII Collaboratories John P. Ziebarth (National Center for Supercomputing Applications), W. Neil Thompson (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission), J.D. Nyhart, Kenneth Kaplan (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Bill Ribarsky (Georgia Institute of Technology), Gio Wiederhold, Michael R. Genesereth (Stanford University), Kenneth Gilpatric (National Performance Review NetResults.RegNet and Administrative Conference of the United States [formerly]), Tim E. Roxey (National Performance Review RegNet.Industry, Baltimore Gas and Electric, and Council for Excellence in Government), William J. Olmstead (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission), Ben Slone (Finite Matters Ltd.), Jim Acklin (Regulatory Information Alliance) 576 Electronic Document Interchange and Distribution Based on the Portable Document Format, an Open Interchange Format Stephen N. Zilles and Richard Cohn (Adobe Systems Incorporated) 605

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While Papers The Unprediclable Ceriainty Information Infrastructure Through 2000

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