research on functional genomics. The preponderance of survey and workshop participants were scientists who were using genetic animal models. This emphasis is not intended to downplay the value of nongenetic model systems. The information that we gathered from researchers who were using nongenetic systems strongly suggests that many of the same factors influence their success or failure.

The committee recognized the importance of in vitro models, but did not cover them in this report for several reasons. First, in vitro models, including cell culture, bacteria, viruses, and yeasts. are universally used by the scientific community, including those using animal models. In vitro models provide important perspectives on the continuum of biologic processes that ultimately must be investigated at the organismal level. Furthermore, in vitro systems provide a wealth of material for in vivo applications, including vectors, constructs, expression libraries, monoclonal antibodies, infectious agents (including genetically modified agents), and so on. Finally, in vitro models are used by scientists across all NIH institutes, and this committee focused on recommendations that would enhance NCRR's rich tradition of animal model development, maintenance, and support.

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