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Appendix C—
Representative Future Space Activities

Study the Galaxy and the Universe
Acquire better observations across the electromagnetic spectrum

gamma and x-ray imaging and spectroscopic follow-on investigations

deployment of single-element optical instrumentation at 1 to 10 meter scales

space- and lunar-based radio and optical interferometer deployment at 10 to 100 meter scales

coupled space-Earth interferometer systems

study the interstellar medium with a submillimeter telescope

investigate cosmic microwave background

advanced infrared and near/far ultraviolet missions

cosmic ray identification and energy measurement campaigns

Survey cosmic rays and interstellar gas as samples of extra-solar matter

interstellar probe

probe for 1,000 astronomical unit scale distances

Carry out basic new tests of gravitational theory

detect and understand gravitational waves

Search for life beyond our solar system

detect and image planets in other solar systems

search for signals from extraterrestrials



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Page 37 Appendix C— Representative Future Space Activities Study the Galaxy and the Universe Acquire better observations across the electromagnetic spectrum • gamma and x-ray imaging and spectroscopic follow-on investigations • deployment of single-element optical instrumentation at 1 to 10 meter scales • space- and lunar-based radio and optical interferometer deployment at 10 to 100 meter scales • coupled space-Earth interferometer systems • study the interstellar medium with a submillimeter telescope • investigate cosmic microwave background • advanced infrared and near/far ultraviolet missions • cosmic ray identification and energy measurement campaigns Survey cosmic rays and interstellar gas as samples of extra-solar matter • interstellar probe • probe for 1,000 astronomical unit scale distances Carry out basic new tests of gravitational theory • detect and understand gravitational waves Search for life beyond our solar system • detect and image planets in other solar systems • search for signals from extraterrestrials

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Page 38 Study and Explore the Solar System Conduct unmanned missions to objects in the solar system to investigate near-planet space environments, atmospheres, surfaces, and interiors • fly-by missions • orbiters and observational platforms • landers and rovers with and without sample return • direct atmospheric probes and aerobots • fleets of microprobes, microlanders, and microrovers • terrestrial surface sensor networks Study interaction among Sun, Earth, and heliosphere • stereoscopic sun observations • near-field solar probe to understand solar structure and dynamics • explore coupling between solar radiation and Earth's atmosphere, magnetosphere, and plasmasphere • study solar plasma transport and energization, including solar wind sample return and investigation of coronal mass ejections Conduct human missions to explore the Moon, Mars, and the asteroids Establish long-term human presence in space • low-Earth orbit (LEO) and beyond-LEO space habitats • lunar and Martian bases Study the Earth Establish better understanding of global processes through remote sensing • investigate seasonal, interannual, and long-term variability in:   — land cover and use   — atmospheric chemistry and dynamics from troposphere to mesosphere   — the dynamics of the ocean and the cryosphere   — interactions among biospheric systems • natural hazard prediction and management • geodesic missions • weather prediction • environmental and infrastructure management • resource identification and management

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Page 39 Provide Other Services to Users on Earth Provide communications services to users on Earth • mobile communications • direct broadcast communications • fixed-service communications • geographic information systems Expand navigation services to launch vehicles and spacecraft at all altitudes Space Operations and Infrastructure Preserve the near-Earth environment • expanded space debris tracking system • space debris cleanup Utilize off-Earth resources for terrestrial and space activities • tests of robotic utilization of local resources • surface mining of planets and small bodies (e.g., asteroids, comets) Study the effects of microgravity • biological processes • effects of microgravity on humans • physical processes • fluid mechanics and transfer • combustion • chemical processes Create new services • spacecraft staging, assembly, and refurbishing services • point-to-point transport on Earth via space • space-based power depots for use in terrestrial activities and transmission to spacecraft and planetary bases • manufacturing (materials and pharmaceuticals) in space • space tourism • disposal of hazardous materials • space-based cultural/entertainment activities