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Appendix D—
Technologies Assessed by the Committee

Communications

broadband, high-power, high data-rate, redundant systems

communications system-on-a-chip

high-dielectric constant patch antennas

high-frequency (› Ka band) antennas

high-power (broadcast) antennas

high-power, solid-state transponder systems

phased-array antennas

up-down transmission technologies, including raindrop compensation

wideband (i.e., optical) communications

Earth-Based Systems

automated and semi-automated processing of image data

autonomous ground control

development of space systems using nanotechnology

image storage and dissemination

integrated design systems

large-scale information management and simulation

low-cost operations

paperless designs

rapid system prototyping tools using multimedia capabilities

verification and validation approaches and databases for commercial off-the-shelf technologies



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Page 40 Appendix D— Technologies Assessed by the Committee Communications • broadband, high-power, high data-rate, redundant systems • communications system-on-a-chip • high-dielectric constant patch antennas • high-frequency (› Ka band) antennas • high-power (broadcast) antennas • high-power, solid-state transponder systems • phased-array antennas • up-down transmission technologies, including raindrop compensation • wideband (i.e., optical) communications Earth-Based Systems • automated and semi-automated processing of image data • autonomous ground control • development of space systems using nanotechnology • image storage and dissemination • integrated design systems • large-scale information management and simulation • low-cost operations • paperless designs • rapid system prototyping tools using multimedia capabilities • verification and validation approaches and databases for commercial off-the-shelf technologies

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Page 41 Guidance and Control • advanced attitude-control technologies • all star-tracker attitude-reference system • avionics-on-a-chip (multichip module) • coordinated operation of spacecraft fleets • fault-tolerant electromechanical actuators • high-accuracy, low-mass star trackers and gyros • interferometric fiber-optic gyros (IFOGS) • low-cost, reliable, position-tracking and telemetry systems (with built-in collision avoidance) • micromechanical sensors • miniature momentum-exchange devices • modular avionics • precision spacecraft pointing • redundant (multistring) solid-state avionics • use of Global Positioning System for guidance and control Information Technologies • artificial intelligence systems • automatic fault recovery • autonomous systems • data compression technologies • data fusion • digital systems processing • distributed functions among spacecraft • effective human-machine interfaces • high-density, fiber-optic sensor networks • high-density, low-cost command and data handling with open architecture • high-temperature electronics • hundred-fold increase in processing capability • integrated vehicle health-monitoring systems • low-cost, high-capacity, low-mass, radiation-resistant, solid-state memories • neural nets • neuro-engineering systems • onboard image processing • onboard mission planning capability • parallel computer processor architectures • radiation-hardened electronics • sequencing systems • system standards to expand software reuse

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Page 42 Launch • ‹ 3,000 lb. thrust scale pump-fed liquid rocket propulsion • air-augmented/breathing rockets • automated ground processing • clean solid propellants • electromagnetic launch/assist • environmentally compatible boosters • gel propellants • high-energy density chemical propellants • high-energy liquid propellants • high thrust-to-weight engines • hybrid launch vehicle • hypersonic airplane first stage • integrated solar upper stage • laser propulsion for ground-to-orbit launch • lightweight integrated vehicle structures • lightweight launch vehicle structures • lightweight propellant tanks • low-cost, reliable cryogenic propulsion • lower-cost launchers • mass drivers • modular launch vehicle • oxygen/kerosene rocket-based combined cycle engines • reusable oxygen/kerosene rocket engines with thrust-to-weight ratios greater than 100 • single-stage to orbit launchers Materials • advanced coatings • advanced composite materials • advanced composites manufacturing and processing • atomic oxygen-resistant coatings for solar cells • high-temperature materials for rocket engines • lightweight, high-strength, high-temperature materials for launch vehicles • low-mass, high-reflectivity composites (for telescope mirrors) • organic coatings (instead of hermetically sealed containers) • silicon carbide structures Power • advanced solar power • arc-proof, environmentally durable solar arrays • beamed power

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Page 43 • compact electrical power supplies • flywheels • high-conversion efficiency, low-mass solar arrays • high-efficiency, high-power, low-mass power generating systems • high-power sources at millimeter wavelengths • higher-energy density batteries • integrated energy conversion/energy storage concepts • large-capacity energy storage systems • large gossamer fresnel lenses for concentrating solar energy • lithium ion batteries • long life, lighter, cheaper regenerative fuel cells • long-term, compact nuclear-electric systems • long-term nonphotovoltaic power sources • low-cost, high-efficiency solar arrays • low-cost power storage devices • low-mass, high-capacity, low-cost power storage • more efficient long-term solar power conversion • nuclear power sources • power conversion • power management and distribution-on-a-chip • smart power-management systems • sodium sulfur batteries • solar cells with different bandgap energies with better than 40 percent efficiency • thin-film solar arrays Propulsion • antimatter propulsion • concentric combustion chamber engine • electric propulsion • high-energy density matter propulsion • high-energy density storable propellants • high-performance, less expensive, more producible electric propulsion • high thrust-to-weight engines • laser propulsion • magnetic sail • nontoxic storable bipropellants • nuclear fusion propulsion • nuclear propulsion • nuclear-thermal rocket • propulsion for 50 kg spacecraft • rockets using native propellants

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Page 44 • solar sail • solar-thermal propulsion • tethers for momentum exchange/electromagnetic maneuvering • xenon thrusters Robotics • curious, autonomous, adaptive probes • mobile robots • partially self-replicating robots • rovers • small robots for planetary mining, manufacturing, assembly • telerobotics Sensors • active sensors using synthetic aperture radar and high-frequency microwaves • free-flying, synthetic-aperture radars and interferometers • high-power local oscillators • high-resolution, stereoscopic Earth sensing systems • high-sensitivity, room temperature mid-infrared detector arrays • highly-integrated, multifunctional atmospheric sounders • hyperspectral focal planes • infrared interferometer (for planet detection) • large-aperture, deployable, optical telescopes with active alignment • large-format, low-noise, long-wavelength, direct-detection sensors • low-cost, low-power imaging sensors • low-mass, low-power radars • low-noise heterodyne mixers • microcalorimeters for high throughput spectroscopy • microsensors • microwave technologies • multiband phased arrays • multispectral sensors • remote sensing signal chain miniaturization • smaller autonomous instruments • solid-state sensor systems with high spectral and spatial resolution • space-based lidars Spacecraft Systems and Electronics • almost monolithic small spacecraft • highly integrated multifunction modules • integrated instruments

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Page 45 • integrated low-power electronic microsystems (communications, guidance) • integrated power and propulsion bus • microminiaturization • miniaturized electronics • multichip modules and chip-on-board technologies • optical buses • superconducting devices Structures • active interferometric system technologies, such as active delay lines and space-qualified precision metrology • adaptive membranes and space fabrication techniques for large optics • adaptive structures • deployable structures • gossamer films in multi-km sizes • inflatable structures • lightweight composite spacecraft • lightweight debris shielding • lightweight structures • microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) • multifunctional structures • spinning spacecraft (for gravity) • structures to reduce vibrations on crewed platforms • technologies and processes for deploying ''quiet" structures to precise dimensional tolerances • tethers Thermal Control • advanced coatings for thermal control and electrostatic discharge control • electrochromic radiator surfaces • electronics able to function at high temperatures • electronics able to function at low temperatures • electronics cooling with direct immersion heat pipe • graphite/aluminum radiator panels • improved heat-rejection technologies • long-life cryocoolers • low-mass, low-power cryocoolers • multichip modules with integral thermal control • nuclear heat sources • rugged thermal protection for reentry • spacecraft that can approach the sun

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Page 46 Working in Space • aerocapture/aerobraking • autonomous landing • chemical processing of off-Earth resources • construction with off-Earth resources • lasers for debris shielding/removal • lightweight, high-efficiency cryogenic liquefaction • long-term cryogenic fluid storage in space • planetary surface transportation technologies • remote (cryogenic) fluid transfer and handling • remote robotic rendezvous, docking, and other operations • space traffic management systems • structures for planetary surfaces • surface/subsurface sample acquisition • terraforming technologies