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APPENDIX G FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURE 1 Selected Forecasts of Oceanborne Trade FIGURE 2a Relationship of Tanker and Bulk Carrier Vessel LEanSpO~ t posts per Ton of Cargo Relationship of Container-Carrying Capacity to Cost/Container 160 Worldwide Trend Toward Larger Vessels 161 A Production Meter System With a Nucleonic Density Gauge and a Crossed-Pointer Display 162 The Leverman and a Production Meter System as Parts of a Closed-Loop Control System FIGURE 6 Crossed Pointer DisPlaY ~. FIGURE 7 FIGURE 2b FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 159 160 Dredging Program of the U.S. Army Corps town, FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 Engineers Characterization of Materials Dredged by afar ran ~ f Urn; ~ ^~ ~ e! An Example of a Precision Dumping Operation Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site (1983) FIGURE 10 Suspended Material Concentrations in the Wake of a Mechanical Dredging Operation....................... Relationship Between the Concentration of Suspended ~ _ ~_ J _ ~ ~. ~ FIGURE 11 163 164 ...... 165 Army 166 167 168 o''as' m From the Cutter and the Relative Production of a 61 cm (24 in.) Cutterhead Dredgee ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 169 FIGURE 12 Relationship Between Concentration of Suspended Solids in the Near-Surface Overflow Plume and the Distance (in my Downstream of the Overflow Ports170 FIGURE 13 Relationship Between Suspended Solids Concentration Along the Plume Centerline and Distance Downcurrent From Several Open-Water Pipeline Disposal Operations.... 171 FIGURE 14 Mid-Depth (0.9 m) Turbiditv Plume Generated by a 71 cm FIGURE 15 TABLE 1 TABLE 2 (28 in.) Pipeline Disposal Operation in the Atchafalaya Bay. Current Flow is Generally Toward the Northeast.... 172 Characteristics of the Descending Mass of Sediment Discharge From a Surface Barge ~173 Number of Vessels in Foreign Trade Calling on Ports of the United States, 1980, by Type and Design Draft 174 Proposed Deep-Draft Port Dredging Projects 175 157

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158 TABLE 3 Draft Of Vessels Sailing To Or From Selected U.S. Ports 1981 ~179 TABLE 4 Port Calls of Bulk Carriers and Tankers at Four Ports in 1980, by Actual and Design Drafts 181 TABLE 5 Approximate Cargo Tons/Foot of Draft for Selected TABLE 6 Port Calls by General Cargo Vessels by Draft, 1980 TABLE 7 TABLE 7b TABLE 8 TABLE 8b TABLE 9 TABLE 9b TABLE 10 TABLE 11 TABLE 12 TABLE 13 TABLE 14 TABLE 15 181 Foreign Dry Bulk Carriers In the worry fleet, tuba. Dry Bulk and Combination Carriers on Order, 1984. Crude Oil Tankers in the World Fleet, 1984, hv DWT and Draft 182 183 184 185 187 . Tankers on Order, 1984, Containerships and Roll-On/Roll-Off Vessels World Fleet, 1984, by Draft and Length Over-All 188 ContainershiPs and Roll-On/Roll-Off Vessels on Order 189 190 by DWT and Draft.............. in the , Freight Rates for Bulk Carriers World Ports Capable of Handling 150,000 DWT (+) Vessels Port Improvement Activities Worldwide (Responses Query of Committee on National Dredging Issues) 192 Estimated Costs and Trade by Selected Ports, 1990 194 Planning, Approval, Authorization, and Funding Process 191 tor Major Navigation Pro j eats . Average schedule for navigation Projects, ,` ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ it: _ ~ ~ ~ ~ . _--_ _ Army TABLE 16 Year of Authorization of Main Channels TABLE 17 TABLE 18 TABLE 19 TABLE 20 TABLE 21 . 195 197 Selected . Proposals for Dredging to Depths Between 40' and Cost of Maintenance Dredging............................ Federally Funded Maintenance Dredging Projects.......... Concentrations of Selected Constituents in Dredged Sediments and Average Global Crustal Materials.......... Summary of Biological Effects of Contaminants in Marine 198 206 209 210 211 212

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-to o en o 100 O 50 cat it o 160 1 ~ --I ....... ....... _ .. ... _ _ 1 50,000 nm voyage 2 25,000 n m voyage Bu I k carrier oily , - ,L I .... . ~ _ _ _ Tanker 2 2 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 15 50 100 150 DEADWEIGHT IN 1,000 TONS 200 300 FIGURE 2a Relationship of Tanker and Bulk Carrier Vessel Size to Transport Costs per Ton of Cargo SOURCE: Schonknecht et al., 1983 25 LL ~20 oh it he _ 8 o LL o x 'I. 1 5 10 5 - - - - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 VESSEL CAPACITY (TEU) FIGURE 2b Relationship of Container-Carrying Capacity to Cost/Container SOURCE: C. R. Cushing, 1984.

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162 MAGN ETIC FLOWN ETER I t ~ I I It DATA ~- PROCESSOR 1 _~ RECORDER L Lo DENSITY GAUG E ,W, DISPLAY FIGURE 4 A Production Meter System With a Nucleonic Density Gauge and a Crossed-Pointer Display

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164 . ~ O A Al ant \ _ CU Yr)~/~c _ FIGURE 6 Crossed Pointer Display

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167 41 09.6 41 09.2 72 52.0 72 51.8 _ ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 1 1 G: i%~: l 1~< ~; _- {~ _ '-~*. C) ~ .~ -- 1 - c ~ -'~- - . . _ . . 'WAS ~ SAC ~ ~J A. ~ \~ A,: , SAC 0 80 160 SCALE (m) art__, '~^5 / W it; S~` ;~.-'0\iI . . . . 72 51.4 51.4 . . . I FIGURE 9 An Example of a Precision Dumping Operation at the Central Long Island Sound Disposal Site (1983) 41 09. 41 09. 41 09.

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202 TABLE 16 (continued) Port and State Project Date Channel Size and Type New York/ New York (Port includes 16 projects deeper than 14 New Jersey NY Entrance & Aug. 26, 1937 45'x 2000' entrance (Ambrose Anchorages channel) 45'x 2000' anchorages (Upper Bay) Aug. 30, 1935 35'x 800' entrance (Sandy Hook) July 5, 1884 30'x 1000' Sandy Hook/Ambrose Channel connection Hudson R., NY Aug. 26, 1937 45'x 2000' w/ 48'x 2000' at upper & NJ end, 40'x 30' side channels (Weehawken, etc.) NY & NJ Channel May 28, 1935 35'x 600/500' Sandy Hook Bay & Arthur Kill 35'x 800/1000' in Kill van Kull (37' in rock) Oct. 27, 1965 Kill van Kill widened East River Sept. 22, 40'x 1000', 35'x 550' upper, 1922 35'x 1000' at Long Island Sound Buttermilk Jan. 13, 1902 35'x 500' Adjacent Brooklyn Channel May 1935 40'x 500' channels Waterfront & Bay Ridge & Red March 3, 1899 40'x 1200' & East R./ Hook channel July 3, 1930 40'x 1750'Upper Bay Connections Newton Creek July 3, 1930 23'x 130'East R./Brooklyn Wallabout Chan March 3, 1899 20'x 230/350' side channels Gowanus Creek July 16, 1952 30'x 500/200' Newark Bay Mar. 22, 1945 35'x 700' bay (500' above Port Newark) 37' at turn connecting w/Kill van Full (access to sea via NY & NJ channel project) Hackensack R. Sept. 3, 1954 32'x 400/300' (34' in rock) Passaic R. July 3, 1930 30'x 300' lower river North Morehead City Dec. 31, 1970 42'x 450' entrance, 40x 400/600 Carolina bay Wilmington May 17, 1950 40'x 500' bar & entrance 38'x 400' river Oregon Yaquina Bay July 3, 1950 40'x 400' entrance, 30'x 300' bay and Harbor Coos Bay Dec. 30, 1970 45'x 700' entrance, tapers to 35'x 300 35'x 300 bay (w/bend widenings) Portland (Columbia R. Sept. 3, 1954 48'x 1/2 mile bar channel Mouth) (Columbia R. & Oct. 23, 1962 40'x 600' river Lower Willamette) Astoria (same as Portland, plus 40'x 800' basin)

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203 TABLE 16 (continued) Port and State Project Date Channel Size and Type vanla Puerto Rico South Carolina Texas Pennsyl- Penn Manor (Del. R. Phila- Sept. 3, 1954 delphia /Trenton) Delaware R. June 20, 1938 Philadelphia to Sea (Schuylkill R.) July 24, 1946 Aug. 8, 1917 Chester & Marcus Hook (Delaware R. Philadelphia at sea) Mayaguez Ponce San Juan Charleston (Shipyard R.) (Ashley R.) Brownsville (Brazos Is) Matagorda Freeport (July 18, (Oct. 22, 1976) March 2, 1945 Aug. 26, 1937 May 17, 1950 July 3, 1958 May 17, 1950 40'x400' river Philadelphia to Fairless Works (35x 300, 12x 200 above Penn Manor) 40'x 1000' entrance, 40'x 800' to Philadelphia 40'x 400/500 west side + 37'x 500/600' east side (adjacent channels at Philadelphia-Camden 33'x 400', 33'x 300', lower river 26'x 200, 22'x 200', upper river June 28, 1938 Aug. 30, 1935 Sept. 23, 1976 Oct. 1, 1976 Aug. 4, 1976 Direct access to/from 40'x 800' channel to Philadelphia (40'x 1000' bay entrance) 30'x 1000/500' entrance 36'x 600' entrance, 36'x 400' inner 48'x 800' bar, 46/40'x 800' bay, 40'x 400', 450' inner channels Oct. 17, 1940 35'x 1000' entrance, 35'x 600/400' Cooper River [40' conditionally authorized, not built] [Phase I design for 42' entrance, 40' river] 30'x 300/200' 30'x 300' 38'/36'x 300' bar & entrance, 36'x 200' bay and land cut, 36 x 300/ 500 upper 38'x 300' bar & entrance, 36'x 200' bay 38'x 300' bar, 36'x 200' entrance 36'x 200/400' inside, 30 x 200 side channel (Dec. 31,1970) [47'x 400' bar, 45'x 400' entrance 45'x 400/375 inside, 30 x 200, 36 x 200 sides (1970 project not built)] Galveston Harbor and Channel (channel is Gulf entrance for Galveston, Houston, Texas City) July 3, 1958 42'x 800' outer bar, 40'x 800' inner bar and bay entrance June 23, 1971 40'x 1125' harbor channel

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204 TABLE 16 (continued) . Port and State Project Date Houston July 3, 1958 Texas City July 14, 1960 Corpus Christi Aug. 13, 1968 Sabine Pass Oct. 23, 1962 Port Arthur Beaumont Orange Sept. 3, 1954 (Sabine Neches Waterway) Virginia Norfolk (Thimble Shoal's channel is entrance for Norfolk, Newport News and other ports) Norfolk project bay channel also used by Newport News and other ports) (Thimble Oct. 27, 1965 45'x 1000' bay channel with Shoals) 32 x 450 adjacent channels (both sides) part way 45'x 1500' bay, 45'x 800' to Lamberts Point 40'x 750/450' above Lamberts point and up Elizabeth R., lower South Branch 35'x 250' Elizabeth R., upper South Branch 25'x 500/200 Elizabeth R., East Branch Channel Size and Type 40'x 400' bay and lower 1/2 land cut 40'x300' upper land cut to Sims Bayou June 30, 1948 36'x 300' above Sims Bayou (Manchester) 40'x 400' bay 47'x 700' outer bar, 45'x 600' jetty entrance, 45'x 600/500/ 400' bay 45'x 300/400' to La Quinta (Reynolds) 45'x 300/400' harbor & basins 42'x 800' bar, 40'x 800/500' entrance 40'x 500' pass & land cut (Port Arthur) 40'x 400' Neches R. (Beaumont) 30'x 200' Sabine R. (Orange) (Norfolk) Oct. 27, 1965 Oct. 22, 1976 March 2, 1907+ Newport News (Channnel to Oct. 27, 1965 Newport News) Washington Grays Harbor Chehalis R. Kalama & Longview (Col. R. Mouth) (Col. R. & Lower Willamette) March 2, 1945 Sept. 3, 1954 Sept. 3, 1954 Oct. 23, 1962 45'x800' 30'x600' bar, 30'x350' bay 30'x200' river 48'xl/2 mile bar channel 40'x600' Columbia R.

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205 TABLE 16 (continued) Project Date Channel Size and Type Vancouver (on Columbia but with three different depths) (Col. R. Mouth) 48'xl/2 mile bar channel Col. & Lwr 40'x600' to mile 1055, 35'x500' Willamette) above (Col. R. Auk. 26, 1937 27' Vancouver to the Dalles) Everett (Everett Hbr & Snohomish R.) Bellingham Seattle Port Angeles (Ediz Hook) Tacoma Sept. 3, 1954 Aug. 26, 1937 July 3, 1930 July 3, July 3, March 2, 1930 1958 1919 March 3, 1925 March 7, 1974 June 13, 1902 30'x700/900' to bay waterfront 26'x200' Squalicum Waterway 30'x363.2' Whatcom Waterway 34'x750' West Waterway 34'x7 5 0/400 East Waterway (local overdredging to 40') 30 'x200 ' lower, 20x150, 15x150 upper Duwamish R. Breakwater project W/12 '-15' small boat basin. 30' shoal removal Reauthorized 29 'x500', 22'x500 ', 19'x500/250 ' City WW Reauthorization proposed) 35'x300' N1/2, 30'x350' S1/2 lower WW 35'x600/300 upper Blair WW Aug. 26, 1927 & 30'x200' w/widenings, Hylebos July 3, 1930 waterway Note: Authorization dates shown are the earliest dates with the specified channelts) at present depth and width. Subsequent authorizations for extensions, bend widenings and other minor modifications not shown. Dimensions for channels with tapering width or depth shown with a slash. Dual-depth channels have separate dimensions shown for each side (i.e., Boston, Philadelphia). A series of dimensions is shown for channels that taper in steps. SOURCE: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Office of Civil Works.

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206 TABLE 17 Proposals for Dredging to Depths Between 40' and 46' Port Fall River, Mass. New London, Conn. New Haven, Conn. Bridgeport, Conn. Newark, N.Y. (Kill van Kull) Existing Proposed Cost Depth Depth (106) 35 33 35 35 35 Howland Hook 35 (Arthur Kill) N.Y. Gowanus Creek 30 Channel, N.Y. Port Jefferson, N.Y. 16 Elizabeth R., 30/35 Norfolk, Va. Elizabeth R., 35/40 Norfolk, Va. Charleston, S .C. Savannah, Ga. Jacksonville, Fla. Ft. Pierce, Fla. San Juan, P.R. Tampa, Fla. 25 36 40 40 ~0 40 40 40 $ 66 unav $ 23 unav $229 $ 15 $ 26 40 $ 3 40 40/45 40/45 35 42 38 38 40 44 40 40 34 32 36 45 43 Charlotte Harbor, Fla. Preeport, Tex. Corpus Christi, 40 45 Tex. 40 Status Approved; deferred Recommended by federal study; being reviewed for approval 11 Being studied Recommended by federal study; being reviewed for approval Being studied Recommended by federal study; being reviewed for approval unav. Approved; deferred $ 5 Approved; under way $ 73 Recommended by federal study; being reviewed with other Norfolk deepening proposal (cost included in over-all proposal) Being studied $ 30 $ 80 $160 Being studied $ 51 $ 65 $178 unav $ 90 $ 90 11 Recommended by federal study; being reviewed for approval Approved; nearing completion Being Studied Approved Approved; under way

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207 TABLE 17 (continued) Existing Proposed Cost Port Depth Depth (106) Status Brownsville, 36 42 $ 23 Recommended by federal Tex. study; being reviewed (port has explored private financing) Grays Harbor, 30 46 $ 71 Recommended by federal Wash. study; being reviewed Everett 30 40 unav. Being studied Blair Waterway 35 45 $ 30 Recommended by federal Tacoma, Wash. study; being reviewed Sitcum Waterway 35 40 $ 32 " Tacoma, Wash. San Pablo Bay, 35 45 $166 Approved; under way Calif. Oakland, 35 42 $ 38/ Outer harbor ($38 Calif. $ ? million) recommended; inner harbor deepening being studied Richmond 35 41 $ 51 Recommended by federal Calif. study; being reviewed for approval Honolulu, 35 40 unav. Approved; underway Hawaii Hilo, Hawaii 35 40 $ 4 Being studied Apra Harbor, 35 40 $ 4 Guam Baltimore, 42 50 $420 Approved; no appropria Md. tion Norfolk/ 45 55 $480 Recommended by federal Newport News, study; being reviewed for Va. approval York R., 22 50 $500 Being studied Va. Mobile, Ala. 40 55 $407 Recommended by federal study; being reviewed for approval Pascagoula, 38 55 unav. Being studied Miss. New Orleans/ 40 55 $525 Recommended by federal Baton Rouge, study; being reviewed for La. approval Sabine-Neches 40 50 3344 Being studied Waterway, Beaumont, Port Arthur, Orange, Sabine Pass Harbor, Tex. \

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208 TABLE 17 (continued) Existing Proposed Cost Port Depth Depth (106) Status Galveston, 40 55 $139 Being studied; port has Tex. sought private funding- now completing new envi ronmental impact state ment required by court decision Texas City, 40 50 $167 Recommended by federal Tex. study; being reviewed for approval Houston, Tex. 40 50 $270 Being studied Freeport, 36 50 unav. " Tex. Corpus Christi, 40 50 unav. " Tex. Columbia R. 48 60a unav. Bar, Ore., Astoria, Ore., Kal ama, Longview, Vancouver, Wash. Astoria, Ore. 40 50 unav. " N.Y. Harbor & 45/35 70/60 $413 Being studied adjacent channels, Stapleton/ Port Jersey Delaware R., transshipment facility, Pa. Los Angeles/ Long Beach, Calif. 40 55/60 80 90 unav. 11 $460 Being studied San Francisco, 45 55 unav. Approved; under way Calif. aWill not result in 60' port channel - bar subject to waves and swell; greater depths required - would be compatible with Columbia River depths of perhaps 50'. SOURCE: Heiberg (1983).

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209 TABLE 18 Cost of Maintenance Dredging Annual Average Cost/ Annual Average Cost/ State/ Maintenance Cost Cargo State/ Maintenance Cost Cargo Port($ thousands)Ton Port ($ thousands)Ton Alaska Mississippi Anchorage1453.6.83 Gulfport 1899.21 53 Alabama Pasacagoula 2485.5.10 Immobile5303.2.83 New Hampshire California Portsmouth 140.7 05 Humboldt1243.9 94 New Jersey Long Beach72.0.00 Camden 264.4 09 Los Angeles72.0.00 Gloucester 245.4 Oakland1143.3.16 Paulsboro 2522.9 Redwood City Trenton Richmond118.21.06 New York/ Sacramento New Jersey 12905.7.13 San Diego0New York San Francisco39.1.02 Albany 1907.5.22 San Pablo503.1.02 North Carolina Stockton9 79.8.49 Morehead C. 19 69.6.65 Connecticut Wilmington 3041.6.39 Bridgeport224.8.07 Oregon New Haven566.9.06 Astoria 881.7.56 New London7.8.00 Coos Bay 3652.3.66 Delawarea10322.9Portland 12567.1.04 Delaware City516.5Yaquina Bay 1379.219.99 New Castle1202.2Pennsylvania Wilmington1851.0.52 Chester 4.1 Florida Marcus Hook 3446.4 Canaveral2438.7.90 Penn Manor 1376.6 Charlotte1322.5.98 Philadelphia 6702.0.06 Fernandinab Puerto Rico Jacksonville3098.7.20 Mayaquez 106.7.28 Key West25.7.14 Ponce 77.7.00 Miami20.3.00 San Juan 852.9.08 Palm Beach209.9.13 Rhode Island Panama City210.0.13 Providence Pensacola633.6.26 South Carolina Port Evergla.83.7.00 Charleston 5816.9 Port St. Joe167.8.13 Texas Tampa2309.41.90 Beaumont 3990.9.08 Georgia Brownsville 3116.61.21 Brunswick3409.52.38 Corpus Christi 6202.1.16 Savannah10429.8.85 Freeport 3590.8.18 Hawaii Galveston 1638.8.02 Hilo352.2.32 Houston 8312.5.08 Honolulu167.703 Port Arthur 3990.9.13 Kawaihae Texas City 19545.1.08 Keweenaw Virgin Islands Nawiliwili535.3.68 St. Thomas Port Allen63.7.62 Virginia Louisiana Newport News 932.0.04 Baton Rouge18297.5.23 Norfolk 2801.7.05 New Orleans 16661.9 . og Washington Maine Anacortes Portland 613.4 .05 Bellingham 140.8 .08 Searsport Everett 457.0 .20 Maryland Grays Harbor 4668.4 1.44 Baltimore 2477.6 .05 Ralama 199 .6 .15 Massachusetts Longview 4645.5 .54 Boston 181.1 too Port Angeles 19.3 .00 Fall River 133.2 .03 Seattle 376.5 .02 New Bedford/ Tacoma 44.5 .00 Fairhaven Vancouver 1185.5 43 Salem aSee consolidated Delaware River summary. bMaintained by U.S. Navy.

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211 TABLE 20 Concentrations of Selected Constituents in Dredged Sediments and Average Global Crustal Materials Dredged Materials Range in Moles Kg~' Average Crustal Materials Constituent of Sediment (except as noted) Range in Moles Kg Trace Metals Iron 0.02 - 0.90 0.61 - 1.03 Manganese (0.4 - 10) x10-3 (12 - 18) x10-3 Zinc (0.5 - 8) x 10-3 (0.92 - 1.26) x 10-3 Copper (0.8 - 9400) x 10-6 (460 - 1090) x 10-6 Nickel (0.2 - 2.6) x 10 3 (0.62 - 1.69) x10 3 Chromium (0.02 - 3.8) x 10-3 (0.92 - 1.92) x 10-3 Lead (5 - 1900) x10-6 (48 - 77) x10 6 Cadmium (0.4 - 600) x 10-6 (0.89 - 1.6) x 10-6 Mercury (1 - 10) x 10-6 (0.149 - 0.398) x 10 6 . _ . . . . . . . Synthetic Organic Substances Chlorinated Pesticides Polychlorinated Biphenyl Compounds 0 - 10 mg kg~ 0 - 10 mg kg~ Other Properties pH Chemical Oxygen Demand Oil and Grease 6 - 9 0.03 - 0.04 0.1 - 5 g kg~ SOURCES: Dredged materials adapted from Engler, 1981; average crustal materials adapted from Rahn, 1976.

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