Appendix C
Participant Biographies

Forum Chairs

Michael T. Clegg is Dean of the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences at the University of California, Riverside. He is the leading student of the evolution of complex genetic systems. He is recognized internationally for his contributions to understanding the genetic and ecological basis for adaptive evolutionary changes within populations and at higher taxonomic levels. Clegg's current research interests include: population genetics of plants; plant molecular evolution; plant phylogeny; and genetic conservation in agriculture. He received his Ph.D. degree in genetics from the University of California at Davis. Clegg is member of the National Academy of Sciences and chairman of the Board on Biology.

Dale Bauman's primary research areas include regulation of nutrient use in bovine lactation, growth, and pregnancy and bovine mammary gland biology. Bauman and his colleagues crystallized the concept of homeorhesis, the process of long-term regulation of nutrient use during a particular physiological state such as lactation. His concepts of metabolic regulation are widely accepted and applied to many aspects of developmental biology. He received his undergraduate and masters degrees from Michigan State University and his Ph.D. degree in nutrition-biochemistry from the University of Illinois. Prior to his appointment at Cornell University, he was an associate professor at the department of dairy science at the University of Illinois. Dr. Bauman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and chairman of the Board on Agriculture.



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--> Appendix C Participant Biographies Forum Chairs Michael T. Clegg is Dean of the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences at the University of California, Riverside. He is the leading student of the evolution of complex genetic systems. He is recognized internationally for his contributions to understanding the genetic and ecological basis for adaptive evolutionary changes within populations and at higher taxonomic levels. Clegg's current research interests include: population genetics of plants; plant molecular evolution; plant phylogeny; and genetic conservation in agriculture. He received his Ph.D. degree in genetics from the University of California at Davis. Clegg is member of the National Academy of Sciences and chairman of the Board on Biology. Dale Bauman's primary research areas include regulation of nutrient use in bovine lactation, growth, and pregnancy and bovine mammary gland biology. Bauman and his colleagues crystallized the concept of homeorhesis, the process of long-term regulation of nutrient use during a particular physiological state such as lactation. His concepts of metabolic regulation are widely accepted and applied to many aspects of developmental biology. He received his undergraduate and masters degrees from Michigan State University and his Ph.D. degree in nutrition-biochemistry from the University of Illinois. Prior to his appointment at Cornell University, he was an associate professor at the department of dairy science at the University of Illinois. Dr. Bauman is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and chairman of the Board on Agriculture.

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--> Participants John M. Antle is a professor in the department of agricultural economics and economics at Montana State University. His research areas and teaching fields include environmental and natural resource issues in agriculture, econometric analysis of agricultural production, international economics, and economic development. He served as senior economist on the President's Council of Economic Advisers, where he was responsible for agricultural, trade, and environmental policy. He received his undergraduate degree at Albion College and his masters and Ph.D. degrees in economics from the University of Chicago. Antle currently serves on the National Academy of Sciences' Board on Agriculture. Sandra S. Batie is Elton R. Smith Professor in Food and Agricultural Policy at Michigan State University. Her research includes work in agro-environmental policy, soil conservation policy, water quality policy, research methodology, and rural development policy. Prior to her current position, she was professor of agricultural economics at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and has had two sabbaticals: one at the Conservation Foundation, and the other at the National Governors' Association. Batie received her undergraduate degree in economics from the University of Washington and her masters and Ph.D. degrees in agricultural economics from Oregon State University. She chaired the Committee on Long-Range Soil and Water Conservation and currently serves on the Board on Agriculture. Jeff Bennetzen is professor in Purdue University's department of biological sciences, director and co-founder of the International Grass Genome Initiative, and director of the Purdue Genetics Program. His research interests include plant genome organization, function, and evolution; particularly as determined by comparative genome mapping. He is also interested in the hyper-evolution of plant disease resistance genes and compensatory changes in the pathogen. Bennetzen received his undergraduate degree in biology from the University of California at San Diego, and his Ph.D. degree in biochemistry and genetics from the University of Washington in Seattle. Hans Bohnert was educated at the University of Heidelberg in Germany and received his Ph.D. degree in physiological chemistry. He is professor in the departments of biochemistry, molecular and cellular biology, and plant sciences at the University of Arizona. His laboratory research focuses on the molecular genetics and physiology of environmental stress responses in plants with particular emphasis on the gene expression and metabolic changes of plants challenged by high salinity ("salt stress"). Metabolic engineering is used to transfer genes for entire stress-protective pathways into stress-sensitive plants.

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--> Leonard S. Bull is associate vice provost at North Carolina State University, Raleigh, for International Programs. He received his undergraduate and masters degrees in dairy science and dairy cattle nutrition from Oklahoma State University and his Ph.D. degree in animal nutrition from Cornell University. Following postdoctoral study in medical physiology at the University of Virginia, he held faculty positions at University of Maryland, University of Kentucky, and University of Maine. Bull's research interests include energy metabolism, digestive physiology, and energy intake regulation relative to body composition in animals. He currently serves on the Board on Agriculture. Sam Buttram is manager of genetic research for Kansas at Dekalb Swine Breeders, Inc., and is responsible for the testing, selection, and genetic improvement of Dekalb's Genetic Nucleus Lines. He is also responsible for scheduling the production of great-grandparent and grandparent lines at Dekalb's company-owned locations and is involved in the testing and development of new lines. Buttram's educational background includes his undergraduate degree in agriculture from Western Kentucky University, his masters degree in animal nutrition from Texas Tech University, and his Ph.D. degree in animal breeding and statistics from Iowa State University. Anthony J. Cavalieri is vice president of Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. Prior positions include director of the department of research specialists, a group providing support to Pioneer's plant breeders in pathology; director of technology support which included the department of research specialists, technology access, regulatory affairs, and the data management department; and director of trait and technology development which includes Pioneer's biotechnology effort as well as related sciences. He received his Ph.D. degree from the University of South Carolina in biology with major emphasis in plant physiology and completed his postdoctoral research on soybean water relations at the University of Illinois. Mary Elizabeth Clutter is assistant director of biological sciences at the National Science Foundation. Her research interests include the function of polytene chromosomes in plant embryos. Prior to her career at the National Science Foundation, Clutter worked at Yale University in biological research. She received her undergraduate degree from Allegheny College and her Ph.D. degree in botany from the University of Pittsburgh. Robert James Cook is research leader of the Root Disease and Biological Control Research Unit with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service at Washington State University. He is a leader in the field of biocontrol of plant diseases. He pioneered the use of bacteria that grow on root surfaces and controlled fungal diseases not amenable to control by other meth-

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--> ods. By genetic analysis of the effective bacterial strains, he determined that phenazine-type antibiotics are involved in biocontrol of root infecting pathogens. Cook is member of the National Academy of Sciences. At North Dakota State University he obtained both his undergraduate and his masters degrees; he continued his studies at the University of California, Berkeley where he received his Ph.D. degree. Robert Cook-Deegan's primary research areas include genetics, history of the genome project, bioethics, neuroscience, cancer, mental health, dementia, and science and health policy. He is senior program officer with the Institute of Medicine's National Cancer Policy Board at the National Academy of Sciences. Cook-Deegan received his undergraduate degree from Harvard College and his masters degree from the University of Colorado. Neal G. Copeland is director of the Mammalian Genetic Laboratory and head of the Molecular Genetics of Oncogenesis Section of the ABL-Research Program at the NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center. Prior to his current position he worked at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor Maine. Copeland received his undergraduate degree in biology and his Ph.D. degree in biochemistry from the University of Utah. William DeLauder is president of Delaware State University. Prior to assuming the office of president, DeLauder served as associate professor of chemistry, acting chair and then full professor and chair of the chemistry department. DeLauder received his undergraduate degree from Morgan State College and his Ph.D. degree in physical chemistry from Wayne State University. As a postdoctoral fellow, he conducted research in physical biochemistry at the Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire du C.N.R.S. in France. His research on the physical properties of macromolecular systems and on the fluorescence properties of proteins has been published in leading scientific journals. In 1990 he was appointed to the National Advisory Council of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health. He currently serves on the Board on Agriculture. Daniel Drell is biologist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Human Genome Program in the Office of Health and Environmental Research. His major responsibilities have included the DOE Microbial Genome Program, Bioremediation and Its Societal Implications and Concerns (BASIC) of Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program, and the Bioinformatics of Human Genome Program. Drell received his undergraduate degree Magna cum Laude from the department of biology at Harvard College. He continued his studies at

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--> the University of Alberta, Edmonton where he received his Ph.D. degree from the department of immunology. Kellye Eversole is president of Eversole Associates. She is consultant to the National Corn Growers Association where she has been primarily responsible for federal governmental relations for the National Corn Genome Initiative, mapping and sequencing the maize genome. She has been involved in the development of research legislation and policy matter affecting the agricultural industry, including the 1981, 1985, 1990, and 1996 farm bills. Nina Fedoroff is interested in molecular biology, genetics, gene regulation, and transposable elements. She has worked on RNA replicase of the bacteriophage f2, the structure of nuclear RNAs, the primary structure of the 5s ribosomal RNA gene cluster of Xenopus laevis, the genetics, structure and regulation of maize transposable elements, and the use of maize transposons in gene discovery. Building upon the work of Barbara McClintock, Fedoroff elucidated the sequence of some of these elements, demonstrated their utility of gene cloning and was instrumental in converting the study of plant transposable elements into one accessible by molecular techniques. Fedoroff works in the Biotechnology Institute at Pennsylvania State University. She is member of the National Academy of Sciences. She received her undergraduate degree from Syracuse University and her Ph.D. degree in molecular biology from Rockefeller University. Essex Finney, Jr. is recently retired associate administrator of the Agricultural Research Service. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and serves on the Board on Agriculture. His primary research interests are in development of rapid nondestructive methods for measuring quality characteristics of food and other agricultural products. He served as senior policy analyst at the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President; associate director of the North Atlantic Area, ARS/USDA; and director, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, ARS/USDA. Finney received his undergraduate degree in agricultural engineering from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, his masters degree from Pennsylvania State University, and his Ph.D. degree in agricultural engineering from Michigan State University. Cornelia Flora is director of the North Central Regional Center for Rural Development and professor of sociology at Iowa State University. Her research interests include rural America and global restructuring; agriculture and communities; science and sustainability; and rural economic development through self-development strategies. Prior to Flora's appointment at Iowa State University, she was professor and head of the department of sociology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, University Distinguished Professor at Kansas State University, and program advisor for agricultural development at the Ford Foun-

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--> dation. She received her undergraduate degree at the University of California, Berkeley and her masters and Ph.D. degrees in rural sociology at Cornell University. Flora currently serves on the Board on Agriculture. David John Galas is president, CEO, and chief scientific officer at Darwin Molecular Corporation. His research interests include molecular genetics of transposition, and the mechanisms and consequences of these recombination processes; and molecular interactions of DNA with proteins, and their consequences in gene control and recombination. Galas secured all of his degrees in physics from the University of California; studying at Berkeley for his undergraduate degree, and at Livermore for his masters and Ph.D. degrees. He currently serves on the Board on Biology. Jim Gibb is vice president of the National Cattlemen's Beef Association's Center for Quality and chairman of the Beef Improvement Federation (BIF) Systems Committee. He also serves on the executive committee of the International HACCP Alliance. Gibb received his undergraduate degree from the University of Illinois and continued his studies at Colorado State University where he completed his Ph.D. degree. Honors he has received include induction into the American Polled Hereford Association Hall of Merit for Education and Research, and BIF's continuing service award. Major M. Goodman has applied both traditional and modern methods to the study of evolution and genetic diversity in cultivated plants. For example, he developed a variance ratio method for measuring evolutionary divergence in maize and also demonstrated for the first time that a dehydrogenase enzyme is essential for normal embryogenesis in plants. He is professor in the department of crop science at North Carolina State University. Goodman studied genetics and received his masters and his Ph.D. degrees from North Carolina State University. He completed his undergraduate work at Iowa State University. Goodman is member of the National Academy of Sciences. Teresa Gruber received her undergraduate degree in agriculture from the University of Nebraska. She continued her studies to obtain her Ph.D. degree in plant breeding from the University of Minnesota, and her J.D. degree from Georgetown University Law Center. Gruber is Trade and Agriculture counsel, and legislative assistant to U.S. Senator J. Robert Kerrey from Nebraska. She is responsible for agriculture, agricultural appropriations, and trade issues for members of the Senate Agriculture Committee and Senate Finance Committee. George R. Hallberg is associate director and chief of Environmental Research at the University of Iowa Hygienic Laboratory. He is adjunct professor at the University of Iowa and Iowa State University. He served as a committee member

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--> for the Board on Agriculture's report Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture and currently serves on the Board on Agriculture. Other service includes the USEPA National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology. His research interests include environmental monitoring and assessment, agricultural-environmental impacts, integrated farm management, chemical/nutrient fate and transport, and health effects of environmental contaminants. He received his undergraduate degree from Augustana College and his Ph.D. degree in geology from the University of Iowa. Wallie Hardie is president of the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA). He farms 2,300 acres near Fairmount, North Dakota, where he grows corn, soy-beans, and sugar beets. Hardie is a founding member of the North Dakota Corn Growers Association. He holds undergraduate and masters degrees in agricultural economics from North Dakota State University. Prior to farming full time, Hardie worked as research specialist for the University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in St. Paul, Minnesota. Edward Kahealani Kaleikau is division director of the plants division in the National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service. He is the USDA representative to the NSF/DOE/USDA Arabidopsis Sequencing Project and serves on numerous governmental committees on genetics and bio-technology. Kaleikau received his Ph.D. in plant genetics from Kansas State University and was a postdoctoral research fellow at Stanford University where he worked on plant mitochondrial gene expression. Arthur Kelman is university distinguished scholar at North Carolina State University. Kelman's research areas include biochemical mechanisms of resistance in plants to bacterial diseases; nature and activity of pectic and proteolytic enzymes in plant tissues; the role of calcium nutrition in resistance of plants to phytopathogenic bacteria causing tissue maceration; the nature of wound healing processes in plants; and techniques for detection and identification of phytopathogenic bacteria. He has experience in science, technology, and public policy. He is member of the National Academy of Sciences and has served on numerous committees and boards. Kelman received his undergraduate degree in biology from the University of Rhode Island and his masters and Ph.D. degrees in plant pathology from North Carolina State University. Hans J. Kende is professor at the Michigan State University-Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory. He has made major discoveries about plant hormones; Kende showed that cytokinins are synthesized in roots and inhibit senescence in leaves, he isolated ACC synthase, and elucidated the role of ethylene and gibberellin in the growth of rice. Kende is recognized, world-wide, as a

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--> leader in plant physiology. He is member of the National Academy of Sciences and received his Ph.D. degree in botany from the University of Zurich. Gurdev S. Khush is principal plant breeder and head of the Division of Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biochemistry at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines. Khush is the premier breeder of rice in the world today. His contributions in rice genetics and breeding have provided the scientific basis for the Green Revolution in Asia and other parts of the world. Khush is a National Academy of Sciences foreign associate member. He received his undergraduate degree from Punjab University in India and completed his Ph.D. degree in genetics at the University of California at Davis. T. Kent Kirk is professor in the department of bacteriology at the University of Wisconsin, and adjunct professor of wood and paper science at North Carolina State University. He is past director of the Institute for Microbial and Biochemical Technology, Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service. Kirk's scientific expertise is in the area of the biochemistry of wood decay by fungi and the industrial application of fungi and enzymes. He received his undergraduate degree from Louisiana Polytechnic Institute, and masters and Ph.D. degrees from North Carolina State University. Kirk is member of the National Academy of Sciences and currently serves on the Board on Agriculture. Michael J. Knapp is vice president for program development at the National Center for Genome Resources where he is responsible for creating the Genetics and Public Issues program, overseeing the company's external communications, managing government relations, and developing and implementing fund-raising plans. He received his undergraduate degree in economics and government from the College of William and Mary in Virginia. Brian A. Larkins is Porterfield Professor of Plant Sciences in the department of plant sciences at the University of Arizona. His research has made outstanding contributions to understanding the biology of seed proteins. He characterized the zein seed protein genes of maize and illuminated the events leading from gene expression through to deposition of zein proteins into protein bodies of the maize kernel with significant implications for protein nutrition of humans worldwide. Larkins is member of the National Academy of Sciences. He received both his undergraduate degree and his Ph.D. degree in botany from the University of Nebraska. Dan Laster is center director for the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Clay Center in Nebraska. He obtained his undergraduate degree in agriculture at the University of Tennessee. He continued his studies at the University of Kentucky, where he received his masters

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--> degree in animal nutrition, and at Oklahoma State University, completing his Ph.D. degree in animal breeding and physiology. Prior to his experience with the USDA, Laster held professorship, research, and managerial positions in universities and in the private sector. C. S. Levings is Professor Emeritus at North Carolina State University. His research has opened up the field and made major contributions to higher plant mitochondrial genetics. He demonstrated only maternal mitochondrial inheritance, uniqueness of organization of higher plant mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial DNA differences for male sterility, and plasmid-like DNAs which have the potential of acting as vectors in the genetic engineering of the mitochondrial genome. Levings is member of the National Academy of Sciences. He studied at the University of Illinois where he received his undergraduate degree in agricultural science and completed his masters and Ph.D. degrees in genetics and plant breeding. Harley W. Moon is the F.K. Ramsey Chair in Veterinary Medicine at Iowa State University. He is member of the National Academy of Sciences and currently serves on the Board on Agriculture. Moon's research interests include vaccines for preventing E. coli infection in farm animals, livestock disease eradication, and prevention of edema disease in swine with genetically-modified vaccines. Prior to his current position, Moon was director at the ARS/USDA Plum Island Animal Disease Center, and professor in the department of veterinary pathology at The Ohio State University. He received his undergraduate, D.V.M., and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Minnesota. William L. Ogren is Professor Emeritus at the University of Illinois and past research leader in the photosynthetic research unit of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Ogren's research interests include biochemistry, physiology, and molecular genetics, and photorespiratory carbon metabolism. His past professional experiences include plant physiologist at ARS/USDA, and affiliate in the department of agronomy at the University of Illinois. Ogren received his undergraduate degree at the University of Wisconsin and his Ph.D. degree at Wayne State University. He is member of the National Academy of Sciences and serves on the Board on Agriculture. Ronald L. Phillips is currently Regents' Professor in the department of agronomy and plant genetics at the University of Minnesota. His research includes initiating the regeneration of maize plants from tissue culture, investigating somaclonal variation, demonstrating reactivation of quiescent transposable elements in plants from tissue cultures, and documenting variable numbers of rRNA genes in maize inbreds and enormous amplification of DNA during endosperm development. He is member of the National Academy of Sciences. He studied at Purdue

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--> University and received both his undergraduate and his masters degrees. Phillips continued his education and completed his Ph.D. work in genetics at the University of Minnesota. Bernard Phinney is Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is member of the National Academy of Sciences and has served on many committees. His primary research interests revolve around plant hormones, especially the gibberellins (GAs) research on the biosynthesis and genetic control of the steps in the pathway; genetics analysis, cloning and gene expression of dwarf mutants (GA mutants) in maize; and identification and quantification of gibberellins in eukaroytes (plants). He received his undergraduate and his Ph.D. degrees in botany from the University of Minnesota. Stephen D. Rounsley is assistant investigator in the department of eukaryotic genomics at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR). He finished his undergraduate studies in biological studies at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, United Kingdom. Rounsley continued his education at the University of California, San Diego, where he completed a thesis entitled ''Diverse Roles for MADS box genes in the development of Arabidopsis thaliana,'' and received his Ph.D. degree. Colin Guy Scanes is executive associate dean and associate director of the College of Agriculture and the Iowa Agricultural and Home Economics Experiment Station at Iowa State University. His educational background includes his undergraduate degree in biological chemistry and zoology and his doctorate of science degree from Hull University in the United Kingdom. Scanes completed his Ph.D. degree in zoology at Wales University. He has held past professorship and administrator positions at Rutgers University and the University of Leeds. Peter A. Schad is vice president for bioinformatics and biotechnology at the National Center for Genome Resources; and adjunct professor at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque and New Mexico State University in Las Cruces. Schad received his undergraduate degree in biology from Rutgers University in New Jersey. He obtained his masters degree in microbiology from The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. Schad continued his studies at Oregon Health Sciences University to receive his Ph.D. degree in microbiology and immunology. Ronald Sederoff is the leader in the molecular genetics of forest trees. With colleagues, he showed that in Sequoia sempervirens, chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA are paternally inherited. His group was the first to transfer a gene into a conifer. His research provides the base supporting the genetic engineering of forest trees. The purpose of his current work is to better understand the biology

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--> of forest trees and to use this information to accelerate breeding. In spite of the long generation times of these organisms, Sederoff and colleagues have developed methods for genomic mapping of individual trees and applied those methods to complex trait analysis, particularly growth and disease resistance. He is a National Academy of Sciences member and serves on the Board on Biology. Sederoff received his Ph.D. degree in zoology from the University of California in Los Angeles. George E. Seidel, Jr. is a professor of physiology at Colorado State University. His areas of study include superovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro oocyte maturation and fertilization, cryopreservation of livestock embryos, and embryo microsurgery. He received his undergraduate degree from Pennsylvania State University, and his masters and Ph.D. degrees in reproductive physiology from Cornell University. Seidel is member of the National Academy of Sciences and currently serves on the Board on Agriculture. Christopher R. Somerville is director of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. His research has applied the techniques of microbial genetics to the dissection of plant metabolic and developmental pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. He resolved important problems in photosynthesis, plant lipid metabolism, and plant hormone response, and his success with this approach has established Arabidopsis as the quintessential organism in plant genetics research. Somerville is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He completed his undergraduate, masters, and Ph.D. degrees in genetics at the University of Alberta. Shauna Christine Somerville's research is primarily focused on the function of genes that confer resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis. Her lab is engaged in map-based cloning of genes and the use of gene chips or gene microarrays to measure the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. Her work had developed a micro array which monitors the expression of approximately 600 disease-related genes. Somerville contributed to the Arabidopsis EST project that has produced 35.000 partial gene sequences of Arabidopsis genes and she has been engaged in mapping large numbers of disease-related ESTs on to the Arabidopsis genome by anchoring to YAC clones. Somerville received her undergraduate degree in genetics and her masters in plant breeding from the University of Alberta. She received her Ph.D. degree in agronomy and plant physiology from the University of Illinois. James Tavares is program manager with the Division of Energy Biosciences at the U.S. Department of Energy. Prior to joining DOE, he was with the Board on Agriculture of the National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences, where he worked on many reports addressing issues in agriculture, biotechnology, natural resources, and science research policy. Tavares also served as asso-

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--> ciate executive director of the Board. He is a graduate of Brown University and earned his Ph.D. degree in biology from Yale University. Shirley M. Tilghman is currently Howard A. Prior Professor of the life sciences and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Princeton University. Working in P. Leder's laboratory, Tilghman was the first to clone the beta-globin cDNA of mice and show that the gene had an intron. She identified the H19 gene in mice, an early example of parental imprinting, and showed how this gene and its regulatory elements initiate and maintain parental imprinting. Other research interests include using genetics to understand the role of the genes involved in the development of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in the mouse, and studying genes whose expression pattern is determined by whether the gene is inherited from mothers or fathers. Tilghman is a National Academy of Sciences foreign associate member and Institute of Medicine member. She received her Ph.D. degree from Temple University in biochemistry. Koichiro Tsunewaki's research has provided an unparalleled understanding of the evolution of wheat and related species. He described informative and useful interactions of nearly 500 nuclear-cytoplasmic combinations produced through years of breeding, traced maternal lineage of wheats by analysis of chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs, and discovered new male sterility, haploid, and other cytogenetic systems. He is professor in the department of bioscience at Fukui Prefectural University in Japan. Tsunewaki is foreign associate member of the National Academy of Sciences. Barbara Valentino Evolving Communications Washington, D.C. J. Craig Venter is the founder, president, and director of The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR). Prior to the formation of TIGR, Venter worked at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke at the National Institutes of Health. He developed a new strategy to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in gene discovery which has revolutionized the biological sciences, particularly in the fields of genome research, molecular biology, and medical biology. Using this technology, the scientists at TIGR have accomplished important milestones in the structural, functional, and comparative analysis of genomes and gene products in viruses, eubacteria, pathogenic bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, both plant and animal, including humans. Venter completed his Ph.D. degree in physiology and pharmacology at the University of California, San Diego. He also received honorary doctor of science degrees from Monmouth College, West Long Branch in New Jersey, and from Emory & Henry College in Virginia.

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--> Catherine E. Woteki s the Under Secretary for Food Safety at the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Her educational background includes her undergraduate degree in biology and chemistry at Mary Washington College in Virginia, and her graduate degree in human nutrition at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Prior to her commitment to the USDA, Woteki has held directorships at the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. James B. Wyngaarden is Professor Emeritus at Duke University. His expertise includes the control of purine synthesis; purine metabolism in normal and gouty man; metabolism of iodine and steroids; oxalate synthesis; inborn errors of metabolism and human genetics. He studied medicine and received his degree at the University of Michigan and has received numerous honorary doctorate of science degrees. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine. Wyngaarden's experience spans pharmaceutical corporate and industry administration; federal government agency administration; and hospital and medical center administration. Roger E. Wyse is dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and director of the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. His prior positions include professorship, administrative and research responsibilities with Rutgers University, Utah State University, Michigan State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Wyse received his undergraduate degree in agronomy from The Ohio State University. He completed his masters degree in crop science, his Ph.D. degree in plant physiology, and his post doctoral study in biochemistry, all at the University of Michigan. Bob Zimbleman is executive vice president of the American Society of Animal Science. His specialty is anchored in reproductive endocrinology, animal health, and science policy. Zimbleman received his undergraduate education at Colorado State University and completed his masters and Ph.D. degrees at the University of Wisconsin. His research experience includes improving fertility, cell division and anaphase movement of chromosomes, and biomedical ethics. James J. Zuiches became dean of the College of Agriculture and Home Economics at Washington State University, following his work as program director for Food Systems and Rural Development at the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. He received his masters and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from the University of Wisconsin. Zuiches currently serves on the Board on Agriculture and was a member of the Committee on the Future of Colleges of Agriculture in the Land Grant University System.