erative activities. Approximately $105 million was spent on bilateral projects with Russia in FY 1995; this figure does not include multinational projects in which Russia might be involved. The U.S. agency spending the most money on projects involving international cooperation in R&D is NASA. Here again, Russia is the largest bilateral partner in terms of dollars spent when only one partner can be identified.
Ms. Wagner then described a case study of a cooperative project in seismology that was intended to assess some costs and benefits of international S&T collaboration. The methodology used for the case study involved identifying the national goals for the international cooperation; matching the goals to measures; choosing measures and conducting an assessment; and assessing lessons learned.
The framework for applying the assessment tools looks first at the reasons for international cooperation, which in this case included the very large-scale equipment; the global nature of the subject; the unique foreign expertise or resources; and the U.S. government mission. The framework then considers the type of cooperation, which can be collaborative research, technical support, operational support, or standard database development.
CTI then chose three tools to match goals and assessments in this case study:
Among the findings of the assessment of this particular case study were:
These findings have since been published by RAND (see Appendix D).