erative activities. Approximately $105 million was spent on bilateral projects with Russia in FY 1995; this figure does not include multinational projects in which Russia might be involved. The U.S. agency spending the most money on projects involving international cooperation in R&D is NASA. Here again, Russia is the largest bilateral partner in terms of dollars spent when only one partner can be identified.

Ms. Wagner then described a case study of a cooperative project in seismology that was intended to assess some costs and benefits of international S&T collaboration. The methodology used for the case study involved identifying the national goals for the international cooperation; matching the goals to measures; choosing measures and conducting an assessment; and assessing lessons learned.

The framework for applying the assessment tools looks first at the reasons for international cooperation, which in this case included the very large-scale equipment; the global nature of the subject; the unique foreign expertise or resources; and the U.S. government mission. The framework then considers the type of cooperation, which can be collaborative research, technical support, operational support, or standard database development.

CTI then chose three tools to match goals and assessments in this case study:

  • A survey of internationally co-authored papers in 1985 and 1995. The Science Citation Index was used to provide an indicator of whether there had been an increase or decrease in jointly published papers in this field of science.
  • A survey of seismology equipment to determine the extent to which U.S. companies were setting the technical standards for seismology equipment.
  • A survey of U.S. investigators working on cooperative projects with foreign counterparts to ask to what extent the foreign partner contributed monetary or in-kind contributions to the project.

Among the findings of the assessment of this particular case study were:

  • Jointly authored papers increased from 259 in 1985 to 351 in 1995, even while funding held constant in real terms.
  • The United States is leveraging foreign research dollars approximately dollar-for-dollar.
  • The United States is setting the standard in approximately 80 percent of the technical equipment used in seismology tools.
  • The United States is gaining unprecedented access to unique resources not generally available to foreign researchers.
  • Both qualitative and quantitative measures should be used in tandem to get a full picture of the costs and benefits of international collaborative research.

These findings have since been published by RAND (see Appendix D).

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