Partners on the Frontier

U.S.Russian Cooperation in Science and Technology

Proceedings of a Workshop October 28, 1997

Office for Central Europe and Eurasia

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1998



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--> Partners on the Frontier U.S.–Russian Cooperation in Science and Technology Proceedings of a Workshop October 28, 1997 Office for Central Europe and Eurasia National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998

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--> NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: David Bernstein, Stanford University John A. Daly, Consultant Gerald Dinneen, National Academy of Engineering Harold Forsen, National Academy of Engineering Irving Lerch, American Physical Society Bruce L. R. Smith, Brookings Institution While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06042-7 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 98-84557 A limited number of copies of this report are available from: Office for Central Europe and Eurasia National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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--> The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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--> Contents     Preface   vii 1   The Political Context   1 2   Program Experiences to Date: Approaches and Lessons Learned   3 3   Selected Reviews of Programs   12 4   Directions for the Future: What Directions Are in the U.S. Interest?   19     Appendices         A Workshop Agenda on U.S.–Russian Cooperation in Science and Technology   33     B Participating Agencies and Organizations in October 27 Consultations   35     C Participants in October 27 Consultations and October 28 Workshop   36     D Background Information Sources   38

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--> Preface At the request of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council (NRC) hosted a workshop on October 28, 1997, to discuss the future of U.S.-Russian cooperation in science and technology (S&T). The purposes of the workshop were to (a) review lessons learned from experiences in bilateral cooperation during the past several years; (b) examine recent developments within the Russian S&T establishment that relate directly to U.S. interests; and (c) discuss bilateral approaches that can best serve U.S. interests during the next several years. An agenda of the workshop is included in Appendix A. To gain an overview of current cooperative activities, the NRC consulted with a number of government agencies and private sector organizations on October 27, 1997, concerning their recent and current program activities. Several well-informed specialists served as coordinators-rapporteurs for these consultative sessions; they in turn summarized their perceptions of the highlights of the sessions during the workshop on the following day. Their summaries are presented in Chapter 2. The number and types of cooperative activities that were considered were manifold. The selection of activities was somewhat arbitrary because the boundaries separating S&T from other types of collaboration are not precise. Also, some government officials were unable to attend the workshop due to scheduling conflicts and the private-sector representatives obviously could not speak for many activities beyond the purview of their companies and organizations. Nevertheless, the workshop participants were familiar with most of the significant bilateral activities that involve science and technology. This report summarizes the discussion at the meeting. No attempt was made

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--> by the NRC to achieve consensus on conclusions and recommendations, and none are offered. The report attempts to capture the sense of the meeting and to report on the views of the participants. In addition to the vast experience of the workshop participants, the NRC drew upon related activities that it and other organizations had carried out over the past 5 years. A list of some useful background sources is contained in Appendix D.