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Index A Adams v. Califano, 106, 113 Advocates for Women v. Marshall, 90 Affirmative action, 83, 85, 90, 119, 129, 131 and child cane, 117 in federal contracts, 87 Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC), 103, 117 Antinepotism rules, 51 Apartheid, 5 Apprenticeship programs, 48-49, 56, 67-68, 90, 92, 100 103, 119 Asian Americans, 27 AT*T (EEOC case study), 91-92, 93 B Barriers to employment, 44-56, 126 informal, 53 56, 119 institutionalized, 51-53 legal, 4~47 See also Discrimination Blacks, 3, 27, 29-30, 47, 48, 60, 73, 124 Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQj, 46, 86 Bradwell v. Illinois, 45 Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT), 101-103 Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 32-35 C Career ladders, 15 Career mobility, 7~76, 78-79 into and out of sex-atypical occupations, 78-79 opportunity and, 76 sex segregation and, 14-15 worker flexibility and, 78 Child care, 39, 73-75, 117-118, 127, 134-135 absence of alternatives, 74 affirmative action and, 117 federal programs, 117-118 occupations "compatible" with, 7, 39, 69 Childbearing, 42, 46 Civil Rights Act (1964), 43, 45 Title VI, 106 Title VII, 43, 44, 46, 47, 49, 51, 83, 85 87, 91, 119, 126 Class action suits, 86, 87 College enrollment rates, 63 Commission on Civil Rights, 11~114 Comparable worth, 87 See also Pay equity Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), 46, 93, 103, 104-105, 117, 119, 129, 130, 132 1978 reauthorization, 83 Compressed workweeks, 118 Contractors construction, 90 federal, 88-91 Contribution to husband's career, 70 Cultural beliefs, see Sex segregation, cultural beliefs and Current Population Survey (CPS), 10, 24 D Data and research recommendations, 135-139 Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 8, 10, 43 Discrimination, 2 in job assignments, 49-50 open, 49 patriarchy and, 48 and profitability, 48 69

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70 INDEX in promotions, 50 racial, 47 sex appeal and, 48 sexual, 47-S0 statistical, 4243 "taste" and, 47 theories of, 47-50 See also Sex segregation Division of labor and sex segregation, 7-8, 116 Dothard v. Rawlinson, 46 E Earnings, 4-5 effects of segregation on, 10-13 importance to family, 4 by race, 4, 123 women's as percent of men's, 1, 4, 10-11, 123 Economic Recovery Tax Act (1981), 117 Education materials, sex stereotypes in, 63, 112, 127 and occupational choice, 63-68 Office of, 106 policy recommendations, 130-135 and sex segregation, 63-68 vocational, see Vocational education Educational Amendment Act (1972), Title IX, 47, 83, 106, 108, 111, 112, 113-114, 116, 120, 129, 133 Employers, 8, 22-23 efforts to reduce sex segregation, 9~99, 119 H policy recommendations for, 132-133 Employment, barriers to, 44-56 discriminatory acts and behavior, 47-51 informal, 5~56 institutional, 51-53 legal, 45~7 Employment continuity, 72 Employment growth, sources of for women, 29-30 Enforcement, 91-96, 121 agencies, 130-132 powers of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 86 Equal Employment Opportunity Act (1972), 85 federal employees under, 91 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), 50, 121, 131 case studies, 91-93 early effectiveness of, 85 enforcement powers, 86 performance indexes of, 86 statistical studies of effectiveness, 94, 136 voluntary compliance, 92, 94, 97 Equal employment opportunity in construction, 90, 101 Equal employment opportunity laws, 77 See also Civil Rights Act (1964), Title VII; Equal Employment Opportunity Act (1972) Executive Order 11246 (11375), By, 85, 87-91, 1~, 117 debarment of contractors under, 88 F Family responsibility, 38-39, 69-75, 121, 127 child care, 39, 73-75, 117-118, 121, 127, 134-135 cultural beliefs about, 38, 69, 125 husbands' attitudes about, 16, 69 interventions to accommodate, 116-118 occupations "compatible" with, 7, 39, 69 policy recommendations, 134-135 relocation and, 69 and travel, 42 Federal contractors, 87-91 Federal employees, 91-92, 119 Federal job training programs, 103-106 effectiveness of, 106 Female-male relationships, 40-41 Fernandez v. Wyarz Oil, 46 Fetuses, occupations toxic to, 46 Firefighters Local Union No. 1784 v. Stotts, 52, 121 Flexitime, 118 Framingham Heart Study, 16 G General Electric v. Gilbert, 47 Griggs v. Duke Power Company, 46 Grove City College or. Bell, 112, 121 Head Start, 117 Hispanics, 3, 27, 30, 123 Home, women's role in, 38-39, 40, 69 Housewife, as occupation, 38 Housework, 16-17 Human capital theory, 70-73 I Income tax system, 116, 121 Index of segregation, 5, 18-20, 124 census information for, 18-19 in Japan, 19 projections through 1990, 34-35 stability of, 23 in Sweden, 19 Internal labor markets, 51 J Job Corps, 103-104 Job ladders, 53 motivation and, 79 Job mobility, see Career mobility Job posting, 50, 52-~3 Job segregation, 9 across firms, 12, 20-21 managerial "ranks" and, 12-13, 20

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INDEX wage consequences, 11-13 and wages, 123 within firms, 12 See also Occupational segregation; Sex segregation Job sharing, 118 Job Training Partnership Act (1983), 104, 106, 119 120 L Long v. California State Personnel Board, 46 Longitudinal studies, 136 M Male-female relationships, 3941 Media role of in occupational choice, 61 role of in sex stereotyping, 38, 61 Mentors and mentoring, see Sponsors and sponsoring Minorities, 3, 27, 29-30, 47, 48, 59-60, 73, 123-124, 136-137 earnings of, 4, 123 occupations of, 6, 7 participation in labor force, 3 See also Blacks; Hispanics N National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 16 National Science Foundation (NSF), 115 National Science Foundation Authorization and Science and Technology Equal Opportunities Act (1981), 11o Nepotism, 4849, 51 Networking, 54-55 o Occupational aspirations among blacks, 59 causes of, 60 among children and adolescents, 58-59 among college students, 60 expectations and, 60-61 opportunity and, 79, 127 parental influence on, 58, 60 among whites, 59 Occupational choice education and, 63 68 employment continuity and, 72 and family responsibility, 70-73 husband's attitude about, 69 marital status and, 71-72 and market conditions, 7~77 mathematics courses and, 65, 115, 121 occupational knowledge and, 68, 79, 127 opportunity and, 75-80, 127 socialization and, 5~63 Occupational mobility, 14-15 171 Occupational opportunity, 75-80, 127-128 Occupational prestige, 15-16 Occupational segregation, 9 by age, 25-27 census information for, 18-19, 22 child care and, 73-75 extent of, 20-22 and flexible work schedules, 118 by occupation, 27-30 and pregnancy, 47, 85, 86 projections through 1990, 32-35 protective labor laws and, 45~7, 87, 88 by race, 27, 30 reduction in, 22-23, 24-25 resegregation, 30-32 sex stereotypes and, 41-44 sexuality and, 41 stability of, 23-25 trends in, 22-32 wage consequences, 10-13 and wages, 123 within vs. between occupations, 1~11 See also Job segregation; Sex segregation Occupations classification of, 8-9, 137 female-dominated, 7, 23, 28-30, 123 female-intensive, 23 growth rates of, 33, 34 interdependence and, 54 male-dominated, 7, 23, 28, 31, 53 male-intensive, 23 potentially toxic to fetuses, 46 by race and sex, 6, 7 sex labeling and sex typing of, 8, 43-44, 63 See also Dictionary of Occupational Titles Office for Civil Rights (OCR), 112-114 Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 106 Office of Federal Contract Compliance (OFCC), 88, 117, 128-129 statistical studies of effectiveness, 9~96 Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP), 87-91, 101-103, 121, 131 construction contractors and, 90 gains by, 89 statistical studies of effectiveness, 94 96 On-thejob training, sex segregation and, 14, 119 Order Number 4, revised (1971), 87, 88, 117 Order Number 4 (1970), 87 p Participation in the labor force, 24, 39 by age, 3~ married vs. unmarried women' 3, 71-72 by race, 3 Pay equity, 1, 4, 10-11, 123 See also Comparable worth

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172 INDEX Personnel Administrators of Massachusetts v. Feeny, 46 Policy recommendations, 130-135 education and training, 133-134 employers, 132-133 enforcement agencies, 130-132 family responsibilities, 134-135 Preapprenticeship programs, 92 Pregnancy, 47, 85, 86 Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1981), 85 Prestige, sex segregation and, 15-16 Professional associations, 54 Protective labor laws, 45-47, 87, 88 Q Charles v. Phillip Morris, o2 Quotas, 87, 121 R Reason and emotion, 39, 41 Recruiting practices, 51 Reproductive hazards, 46 Research recommendations, 135-139 Resegregation, 30-32 technological change and, 32, 33 Resocialization, 57, 62 Retirement income, sex segregation and, 13, 123 Revised Order Number 4 (1971), 87, 88, 117 Role models, 6041 S Schools sex stereotyping in, 63-65, 114-115 tracking in, 64, 66, 127 See also Education; Vocational education Segregation, 5 defined, 5 index of, see Index of segregation and self-fulfillment, 9 voluntary, 5 See also Discrimination; Job segregation; Occupational segregation; Sex segregation Seniority, 14, 52, 92, 98 Sex appeal, 48 Sex differences, innate, 41 See also Sex stereotypes Sex labeling, 43~4, 53, 63, 88, 125 Sex-role socialization, 57-63, 126 and the media, 61 parental influence on, 58 and personality, 59-60 and skill and knowledge acquisition, 59, 62 Sex segregation, 1 and career mobility, 14-15 consequences of, 9-17 cultural beliefs and, 38~4, 125 design of work or tools and, 53 division of labor and, 7-8, 116 education and, 63-68 establishment level, 8, 21 extent of, 20-22 index of, see Index of segregation industry level, 8, 21-22 jobs vs. occupations, 9 networks and, 54-55, 80 and on-thejob training, 14 opportunity structure and, 75-80 and power within the family, 16 and prestige, 15-16 reduction efforts by employers, 96-99, 119, 132 133 reduction of (overview), 83-84, 118-122. See also specific entries research needed in, 137-139 and retirement income, 13, 123 and social security, 116, 121, 123 socialization and, 56-63 stability of, 1, 8 statistical discrimination and, 42-43 and stress, 16 and taxes, 116 and unemployment, 1~14 variability across cultures, 7-8 in vocational education, 65 68, 106 112, 127 wage consequences, 10-13 See also Job segregation; Occupational segregation Sex stereotypes, 38 contingent, 44 in educational materials, 63, 112, 127 informal, 54 and job labels, 43 and occupational segregation, 41-44 of teachers and counselors, 63, 64-65, 112 women as homemakers, 38-39, 40 women as sexual temptresses, 40 Sex typing, 8, 43-44, 63 Sex-atypical occupations, and prestige, 15-16 Sex-typical occupations, and prestige, 15-16 Sexual harassment, 4041, 44, 54, 99 Sexual relations, fear of, 40 women as provokers of, 40 Sexuality, 40-41 Smith-Hughes Act (1917), 66 Social Security Amendments (1967), Title II, 103 Social security system, 116, 121, 123 Socioeconomic index (SEI), 14-15 Sponsors and sponsoring, 55-56 Statistical discrimination, 42-43 Stereotypes, see Sex stereotypes Stress, sex segregation and, 16 Supervisory jobs, women in, 39-40, 49 T Teamsters v. United States et al., 52 Technological change, 32 Title IX, see Educational Amendment Act (1972)

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INDEX Title VII, see Civil Rights Act (1964) Tracking in school curricula, 64, 66, 127 U Unemployment, 5 sex segregation and, 13-14 Unions, 45, 48, 49, 85, 90, 92, 97-98 membership barred to women, 54 United Steelworkers of America (EEOC case study), 92, 97 V Veterans' preference, 14, 46 Visibility, 56 Vocational education, 65-68, 106112, 127 female enrollment in, 109-110 sex-atypical programs, 110 sex-typing in, 108-110 Vocational Education Amendments (1976), 83, 106- 107, 111, 120, 129-130, 133 state and local compliance with, 107-108 Vocational Education Data System (VEDS), 67, 108 Vocational Education Equity Study, 110 W Wage disparity, 1, 4, 10-11, 123 173 Whites, 3, 27, 28, 80 Women contribution to family income, 4 earnings as a percent of men's, 1, 4, 10-11, 123 employment growth, 29-30 as homemakers, 38-39, 40, 69 married vs. unmarred, 3, 71-72 number in labor force, 1 participation in labor force, 2-4 percent in labor force, 1, 3 as sexually provocative, 40 in supervisory jobs, 39-40, 49 time in work force, 3 and union membership Earners, 54 Women managers and supervisors, attitudes toward, 40, 49 Women's Educational Equity Act (WEA) (1974, 1978), 113 Women's Equity Action League, 88 Women's liberation movement, 84 Work Experience Survey (1982), 3 Work Incentive Program (WIN), 103, 104, 117, 118 Wright v. Olin Corporation, 46 z Zuniga v. Klebert County Hospital, 46