B Practices and Policies Tables

Portions of the Practices and Policies Tables appear in the Executive Summary and Chapters 2, 3, and 6 of the report.



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--> B Practices and Policies Tables Portions of the Practices and Policies Tables appear in the Executive Summary and Chapters 2, 3, and 6 of the report.

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--> TABLE B-1 U.S. Military Practices and Policies Pertaining to Body Composition, Fitness, and Pregnancy Practice or Policy DoD Directive/Instruction Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Coast Guard Frequency of Weight/Height, BF, and Fitness Assessment Formally evaluated and tested at least annually Semiannual Semiannual PRT optional for members > 50 years (NAVOP 064/90, 1990) Annual Semiannual At least annual and upon random urinalysis testing Assessment Procedures* Circumference measure technique Circumference measure if maximum allowable weight for height exceeded Circumference measure if maximum allowable weight for height exceeded Circumference measure if maximum allowable weight for height exceeded Circumference measure if maximum allowable weight for height exceeded Frame size determined by wrist measure (see COMDTINST M1020.8C, 1994)                 Circumference measure if maximum allowable weight for height exceeded Men's BF Standard Range: 18–26% Age Max %BF 22% Age %BF 18% Maximum allowable weight by frame size or if exceeded     17–20 20   <UN+> 29 20   Age %BF     21–27 22   30+ 24   < 30 23     28–39 24         31–39 25     40+ 26         40+ 27     (AR 600-9, 1986)                                 Women's BF Standard Range: 26–36% Age Max %BF 30% (NAVADMIN 071/93, 1993) Age %BF 26% Maximum allowable weight by frame size or if exceeded     17–20 30   > 29 28   Age %BF     21–27 32   30+ 32   < 30 33     28–39 34         31–39 35     40+: 36         40+ 37     (AR 600-9, 1986)            

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--> Fitness Test Annual Adjusted for age and gender Adjusted for age and gender (AR 350-41, 1993) Sit-reach Curl-ups×2 min Push-ups×2 min 1.5-mi run/walk or 500-yd swim (age and gender adjusted) Submaximal cycle ergometer test, percent of standard based on VO2 max, age and gender specific (AFI 40-501, 1996) Men: 3-mi run Curl-ups Push-ups Pull-ups×2 min None   Cardiovascular and muscular endurance 2-mi run Sit-ups×2 min† Push-ups×2 min + BF standards (OPNAVINST 6110.1D, 1990)   Women: 1.5-mi run Curl-ups Push-ups Bent-arm hang×2 min     (DODI 1308.3, 1995)           Duty Time for Physical Fitness May authorize 1 1/2 hrs 3×/wk Authorize duty time Commanding officer's discretion Commanding officer's discretion Part of weekly training day Commanding officer's discretion Deferrals/Waivers   Hospitalization Medical limitations Medical limitations ? Medical limitations     Prolonged treatment for medical limitations Unique body builds Up to 36%     Smoking cessation: after successful completion of a smoking cessation class, member given a one time 6-mo exemption to weight standards   Pregnancy • Exempt from body composition, fitness testing (AR 40-501, 1995) • Exempt from body composition, fitness testing • Exempt from body composition, fitness testing • Full-duty status and deployable until medical officer certifies that full duty is medically inadvisable • Exempt from body composition testing     • Nondeployable • 20-wk Rule (no shipboard duty after 20th week of gestation) • Restrictions based on work environment • May not participate in contingency operations or be deployed for operations aboard Navy vessels • >28 weeks, 40-h work week; no overseas duty     • At 20 weeks, standing at parade rest/attention <15 minutes • 6-h Rule (medical evacuation for ER must be within 6 hours) (OPNAVINST 6000.1A, 1989) • Pregnant members assigned to areas without obstetrical care will have assignment curtailed by 24th week (AFI 44-102, 1996)   • Other duty restrictions based on work environment; no rescue swimmer duties     • At 28 weeks, 40-h week/8-h day       • Not deployable during 20th week through 6 months postpartum

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--> Practice or Policy DoD Directive/Instruction Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Coast Guard Deferrals/Waivers Pregnancy   • 40-h work week   • Flight personnel are grounded unless cleared by medical waiver • Time to medical evacuation for emergencies <3 hours       • Standing at parade rest/attention no more than 20 minutes   • Excused from duties (physical training or standing in formation) that in the opinion of the medical officer are hazardous to her health or to her unborn child • No flight duties after 2nd trimester           • Remains available for worldwide assignment • Prenatal sick leave not to exceed 30 days           • Pregnant Marines stationed in Hawaii will not be detached after their 6th month; if overseas, they may be detached at their normal rotation tour date; if assigned to shipboard duty, the Marine will be reassigned at first opportunity and no later than the 20th week of pregnancy     Postpartum • Return to duty at 6 weeks • Return to duty at 6 weeks • Return to duty at 6 weeks • Return to duty at 6 weeks (or as soon after delivery as medical officer For nursing mothers, the 6-mo weight standards exemption following delivery     • Exempt from weigh-in until 6 • Exempt from weigh-in until 6 • Exempt from weigh-in until 6    

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-->     months months months certifies) will begin at the conclusion of the nursing period, but no later than 12 months postdelivery     •Physical training at own pace for 45 days •Exempt from fitness testing for 6 months •Deferment from deployment until 4 months postpartum •Exempt from weigh-in until 6 months       •Exempt from fitness testing for 135 days (FM 21–20, 1992) •Deferment from deployment until 4 months postpartum •Exempt from fitness testing for 6 months (AFI 40-502, 1994) •Exempt from fitness testing for 6 months •Postdelivery maternity leave up to 6 weeks     •Deferment from deployment until 4 months postpartum •No policy regarding breastfeeding •Commander may approve up to 18 months deferral •Deferment from deployment until 4 months postpartum •Not deployable until 6 months postpartum     •No policy regarding breastfeeding   •No policy regarding breastfeeding •(MCO 5000.12D, 1995) •Exempt from weight standards for up to 6 months           •No policy regarding breastfeeding   Medical Evaluation Requirement Required 3 months after entry if unsatisfactory Same as DoD Required before entry Required before entry Required before entry Upon being found not in compliance with weight standards, members shall be referred to a medical facility Referrals for Weight Loss Fat Reduction Program for 3 months; then medical referral   2-wk outpatient weight-management program Mandatory 90-d program   Upon initial referral to medical facility after being found not in compliance with weight standards, members receive counseling on proper nutrition and exercise to reduce their excess BF   Progress = ˜3–8 lb weight loss monthly or 1% reduction in BF each month   Also mandatory physical conditioning program 6-mo follow-up             1-y probationary period    

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--> Practice or Policy DoD Directive/Instruction Army Navy Air Force Marine Corps Coast Guard Referrals for Eating Disorders None Counseling, mental health, and nutritional group/ individual in-patient/out-patient treatment Nutrition/medical/psychological/counseling available Policy currently not addressed No specific treatment program Full-time nutrition/medical/ psychological counseling available       Assistance program available for self-referral     Assistance program available for self-referral Reasons for Discharge Continued failure of weight loss over reasonable period of time Pregnancy and overseas assignment—"it depends" Any 3 BF/PRT failures in 4 years (NAVADMIN 071/93, 1993) Considered if member fails to make satisfactory progress in the Weight Management Program on 4 occasions (AFI 40-502, 1994) ? Fails to comply with the weight standards by the end of their probationary period or upon initial medical referral, an underlying medical condition is found, and the medical officer determines that any weight loss/fat loss by member would be detrimental to the member's health, separation procedures are initiated       Waiver (review) for above (NAVADMIN 148/94, 1994)             Diagnosis of bulimia or anorexia nervosa       NOTE: DoD, Department of Defense; BF, body fat; PRT, physical readiness test; VO2max, maximal oxygen consumption. * See Table B-2 for equations. † Number of sit-ups performed in 2 minutes.

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--> TABLE B-2 U.S. Military Body Composition Equations Army (Vogel et al., 1988) Men Percent fat = 76.5 × Log10(abdomen II* - neck) - 68.7 × Log10(height) + 46.9 R = 0.82, SEE = 4.02 Women Percent fat = 105.3 × Log10(weight) - 0.200 × wrist - 0.533 × neck - 1.574 × forearm + 0.173 × hip -0.515 × height - 35.6 R = 0.82, See = 3.60 Navy (Hodgdon and Beckett, 1984a, b) and Air Force Men Density = -0.191 × Log10(abdomen II -neck) + 0.155 × Log10(height) + 1.032 Percent fat = 100 × [(4.95/density) - 4.5] R = 0.90, SEE = 3.52 Women Density = -0.350 × Log10(abdomen I† + hip + neck) + 0.221 × Log10 (height) + 1.296 Percent fat = 100 × [(4.95/density) - 4.5] R = 0.85, SEE = 3.72 Marine Corps (Wright et al., 1980, 1981) Men Percent fat = 0.740 × abdomen II - 1.249 × neck + 40.985 R = 0.81, SEE = 3.67 Women Percent fat = 1.051 × biceps - 1.522 × forearm - 0.879 × neck + 0.326 × abdomen II + 0.597 × thigh + 0.707 R = 0.73, SEE = 4.11 NOTE: Circumference measurements and height are in centimeters. SEE, standard error of the estimate. * Abdomen II is the circumference, measured in transverse plane, at the level of the umbilicus. † Abdomen I is the ''natural waist" and is defined as the smallest circumference, measured in the transverse plane, obtained between the lower margin of the xiphoid process and the umbilicus. SOURCE: Adapted from Hodgdon (1992).

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--> References AFI (Air Force Instruction) 40-502. 1994. See U.S. Department of the Air Force, 1994. AFI (Air Force Instruction) 40-501. 1996. See U.S. Department of the Air Force, 1996. AFI (Air Force Instruction) 44-102. 1996. See U.S. Department of the Air Force, 1996. AR (Army Regulation) 600-9. 1986. See U.S. Department of the Army, 1986. AR (Army Regulation) 350-41. 1993. See U.S. Department of the Army, 1993. AR (Army Regulation) 40-501. 1995. See U.S. Department of the Army, 1995. COMDTINST (Commandant Instruction) M1020.8C. 1994. See U.S. Department of the Navy, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 1994. DoDI (Department of Defense Instruction) 1308.3. 1995. See U.S. Department of Defense, 1995. FM (Field Manual) 21-20. 1992. See U.S. Department of the Army, 1992. Hodgdon, J.A. 1992. Body composition in the military services: Standards and methods. Pp. 57–70 in Body Composition and Physical Performance, Applications for the Military Services, B.M. Marriott and J. Grumstrup-Scott, eds. Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Hodgdon, J.A., and M.B. Beckett. 1984a. Prediction of percent body fat for U.S. Navy men from body circumferences and height. Report no. 84-11. San Diego, Calif.: Naval Health Research Center. Hodgdon, J.A., and M.B. Beckett. 1984b. Prediction of percent body fat for U.S. Navy women from body circumferences and height . Report no. 84-29. San Diego, Calif.: Naval Health Research Center. MCO (Marine Corps Order) 500.12D. 1995. See U.S. Department of the Navy, U.S. Marine Corps Headquarters, 1995. NAVADMIN (Naval Administrative Message) 071/93. 1993. See U.S. Department of the Navy, 1993. NAVADMIN (Naval Administrative Message) 148/94. 1994. See U.S. Department of the Navy, 1994. NAVOP (Naval Operational Message) 064/90. 1990. See U.S. Department of the Navy, 1990. OPNAVINST (Naval Operations Instruction) 6000.1A. 1989. See U.S. Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, 1989. OPNAVINST (Naval Operations Instruction) 6110.1D. 1990. See U.S. Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, 1990. U.S. Department of Defense. 1995. Department of Defense Instruction 1308.3. "Physical Fitness and Body Fat Programs." August 30. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Air Force. 1994. Air Force Instruction 40-502. "The Weight Management Program." November 7. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Air Force. 1996. Air Force Instruction 40-501. "The Air Force Fitness Program." February 1. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Air Force. 1996. Air Force Instruction 44-102. "Patient Care and Management of Clinical Services." February 1. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Army. 1986. Army Regulation 600-9. "The Army Weight Control Program." September 1. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Army. 1992. Field Manual 21-20. "Physical Fitness Training." September 30. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Army. 1993. Army Regulation 350-41. "Training in Units." March 19. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Army. 1995. Army Regulation 40-501. "Standards of Medical Fitness." August 30. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Navy. 1990. Naval Operational Message 064/90. "Physical Readiness Program." June 22. Washington, D.C.

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--> U.S. Department of the Navy. 1993. Naval Administrative Message 071/93. "Physical Readiness Program Changes." April 29. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Navy. 1994. Naval Administrative Message 148/94. "Physical Readiness Program Changes." August 25. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. 1989. Naval Operations Instruction 6000.1A. "Management of Pregnant Women." February 21. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. 1990. Naval Operations Instruction 6110.1D. "Physical Readiness Program." January 18. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Navy, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters. 1994. Commandant Instruction M1020.8C. "Allowable Weight Standards for the Health and Well-Being of Coast Guard Military Personnel." Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of the Navy, U.S. Marine Corps Headquarters. 1995. Marine Corps Order 500.12D. "Marine Corps Policy on Pregnancy and Parenthood." October 4. Washington, D.C. Vogel, J.A., J.W. Kirkpatrick, P.I. Fitzgerald, J.A. Hodgdon, and E.A. Harman. 1988. Derivation of anthropometry based body fat equations for the Army's weight control program. Technical report no. T1788. Natick, Mass.: U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Wright, H.F, C.O. Dotson, and P.O. Davis. 1980. An investigation of assessment techniques for body composition of women Marines. U.S. Navy Med. 71:15–26. Wright, H.F., C.O. Dotson, and P.O. Davis. 1981. Simple techniques for measurement of percent body fat in man. U.S. Navy Med. 72:23–27.

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