Index

A

ACOG. See American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG)

ACSM. See American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)

Advanced Individual Training (AIT), 235

African Americans

fat-free body composition of women, 223

Age distribution

BMI/percent body fat and, 47

body composition and, 47

body composition assessment, by age, 36

body fat upper limits for military women, selected age groups, 34-37

low body weight prevalence among military women, by age, 132

marriage percentage of military active-duty women by age, 130

minority active-duty women by age, 30

overweight prevalence of military personnel by age, 93

performance (physical) Army tests, failure rates by age, 68

weight for height maximum for Army women, selected age groups, 11

women, military, by age, 28

See also Population characteristics

Air Force. See U.S. Air Force

Air Force Form 352-9; 89

Air Force Instruction (AFI) 40-104; 89

Air Force Instruction (AFI) 40-501; 6, 66, 255

Air Force Instruction (AFI) 40-502; 7, 89, 90, 129, 257, 258

Air Force Instruction (AFI) 44-102; 6, 128, 255

Air Force Instruction (AFI) 44-135; 89

Air Force policies. See Specific policies

Air Force Nutrition Committee, 89

Air Force Office of Medical Logistics, 134

Air Force Pamphlet (AFPAM) 44-124; 89

Air Force Pamphlet (AFPAM) 44-132; 89

Air Force Pamphlet (AFPAM) 44-133; 89

Air Force Pamphlet (AFPAM) 44-135; 89

Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 40-5; 177

Air Force Secretary and Chief of Staff, 184

Air Force Weight Management Program (WMP), 89-90, 91

AIT. See Advanced Individual Training (AIT)



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--> Index A ACOG. See American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) ACSM. See American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Advanced Individual Training (AIT), 235 African Americans fat-free body composition of women, 223 Age distribution BMI/percent body fat and, 47 body composition and, 47 body composition assessment, by age, 36 body fat upper limits for military women, selected age groups, 34-37 low body weight prevalence among military women, by age, 132 marriage percentage of military active-duty women by age, 130 minority active-duty women by age, 30 overweight prevalence of military personnel by age, 93 performance (physical) Army tests, failure rates by age, 68 weight for height maximum for Army women, selected age groups, 11 women, military, by age, 28 See also Population characteristics Air Force. See U.S. Air Force Air Force Form 352-9; 89 Air Force Instruction (AFI) 40-104; 89 Air Force Instruction (AFI) 40-501; 6, 66, 255 Air Force Instruction (AFI) 40-502; 7, 89, 90, 129, 257, 258 Air Force Instruction (AFI) 44-102; 6, 128, 255 Air Force Instruction (AFI) 44-135; 89 Air Force policies. See Specific policies Air Force Nutrition Committee, 89 Air Force Office of Medical Logistics, 134 Air Force Pamphlet (AFPAM) 44-124; 89 Air Force Pamphlet (AFPAM) 44-132; 89 Air Force Pamphlet (AFPAM) 44-133; 89 Air Force Pamphlet (AFPAM) 44-135; 89 Air Force Policy Directive (AFPD) 40-5; 177 Air Force Secretary and Chief of Staff, 184 Air Force Weight Management Program (WMP), 89-90, 91 AIT. See Advanced Individual Training (AIT)

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--> Alcohol use BMD and,190 All Volunteer Force, 215 American Academy of Pediatrics, 147, 151 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG), 17, 143, 147, 150-151, 163-164, 165 pregnancy exercise recommendations, 139-142 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), 160, 283 eating disorders definition, 95 physical fitness position, 63 American Dietetic Association Manual of Clinical Dietetics, 89 Americans with Disabilities Act, 72 Anthropometry body composition measurements/techniques, 41-44, 46, 50, 55-56, 161, 221-222 circumference-based measurement, 16, 34, 42, 43, 44, 46, 158, 159, 160, 177-178 ethnic differences, 49 health risks, measure of, 50-51 See also Weight for height Apgar scores, 135 Appearance standard, military body composition and, ix, 3, 52-55 definition, 1, 25, 52, 54 health risks/implications and, 55, 160, 198 military readiness and, ix, 3, 160, 198 women, 27 ARI. See U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI) ARL. See U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Army. See U.S. Army Army Body Composition Program, 246, 247 Army Food and Nutrition Survey, 96, 118, 167, 175 Army Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel Women in the Army Policy Review Group, 70 Army Physical Fitness Update Survey, 183 Army Regulation (AR) 40-25; 17, 109, 161 Army Regulation (AR) 40-501; 6, 128, 255 Army Regulation (AR) 350-41; 5, 66, 69, 255 Army Regulation (AR) 600-9; 5, 36, 88, 95, 177, 239, 254 Army policies. See Specific policies Army Sample Survey of Military Personnel, 94, 134, 175, 179, 194 Army Weight Control Program, 88, 94, 98, 177, 235, 236 Asian populations body composition of Asian women, 224 Athletics Olympic female athletes' mean BMI, 52, 53-54 B Basic combat training (BCT) injury risk, fitness training impact on, gender differences, 77, 189, 192, 243-245 nutritional studies, 116-117, 162, 189 overweight incidence, 92, 94-95 See also Military personnel; Physical training; U.S. Army BCNH committee. See Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women (BCNH committee) BCT. See Basic combat training (BCT) Birth weight, 131, 140, 141, 142, 143-145, 147, 151. See also Pregnancy BMC. See Bone mineral content (BMC) BMD. See Bone mineral density (BMD) BMI. See Body mass index (BMI) Body composition age and, 47 appearance and, 52-55 ethnic differences, 181-182, 223-225 factors affecting, 47-50 gender differences, 181-182 genetic influences on, 47-49 health influence of, 50-51 historical background, 33-37 injury risk and, 50-51 minimum lean body mass, 14, 26, 157-161, 198 physical fitness and, 51-52, 75-80 standards, ix, 3, 25, 26, 27 task performance (load carriage) and, 2-3, 40, 182-183 undernutrition health consequences, 189-193 weight and composition overview, 37-41 See also Bone mineral content (BMC); Bone mineral density (BMD); Body composition assessment; Body composition components; Body fat; Fat-free mass (FFM) Body Composition and Physical Performance, 54, 91, 222, 282 Body composition assessment anthropometric measurements, 20, 41-44, 46, 50, 55-56, 221-222 Army policies/procedures, clinical impact, 246-247 body fat assessment, 34-38, 55 body fat assessment equations, 10-12, 16, 42-44, 46, 55 circumference-based body fat equations, 16, 34, 42, 43, 44, 46, 158, 159, 160, 177-178 civilian law enforcement and fire service policies, x, 288-289 criterion methods, 44-46, 56 DXA, 40, 45-46, 177-178, 182, 218, 222 equations, 55-56, 146 field methods, 20, 41-44, 50, 55-56 lactation and, 148-149 military accession minimum standards, 198 military equations, 9, 35, 55, 177, 259 military policies, ix, x, 5-7, 176-179, 254-258 military weight control programs and, 88-92

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--> military women and, methodological problems, 221-222 Navy/Marine Corps active-duty personnel, 226-227 performance, physical, of women, and, 221 postpartum and, 6-7, 20, 127-131, 142-147, 163-165 pregnancy and, 6-7, 20, 127-131, 163-165 military policies compliance estimates, 179-181 military women's standards, 14-16, 157-161 task performance and military standards, 2-3 TBW, 40-41, 45 techniques, 27, 31, 221-222 two-tiered body composition/fitness screen, recommendations, 158, 159 underwater weighing, 2, 10, 34, 42-46, 182, 222 variables, 41-42 See also Body composition; Body fat; Durnin and Womersley equation; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); Total body water (TBW); Weight; Weight for height Body composition components anatomical level, 40-41 general concepts, 37-41 molecular level, 40 See also Bone mineral content (BMC); Bone mineral density (BMD); Body composition; Body composition assessment; Fat-free mass (FFM); Total body water (TBW) Body fat age effects, 47-48, 49, 50 BMI and, 15, 47-48, 49, 50 distribution, 14, 48-49, 50, 157-161 ethnic differences, 48-49, 50, 223-225 health risk and, 49 maximum body fat, 14, 26, 157-161 military standards failure and women separated from service, 91 performance and, 75-76, 230 physical fitness and, 52 See also Body composition; Body composition assessment; Weight Body fat assessment. See Body composition assessment Body image dieting and, 13-14, 97 See also Weight Body mass index (BMI) body fat percentage relationship, age effects, 47-48, 49 fitness and, 15, 53-54, 158, 159, 160 health risk and, 10, 12, 38-39, 41 lean body mass, 14, 26, 157-161, 190, 198 Olympic female athletes, 53-54 overview of, 37-39 Body measurements. See Anthropometry Body weight. See Weight Bone mineral content (BMC), 190, 223-225, 241. See also Body composition; Body composition components Bone mineral density (BMD) alcohol use impact on, 190 calcium intake and, 241 diet impact on, 190, 193 ethnic differences, 177, 182, 223-225 female athlete triad and, 191, 193 genetics influence of, 189, 193 lean body mass influence of, 190 loss of bone density, 113 pregnancy/lactation impact on, 190 smoking impact on, 190, 193 weight loss influence of, 190 training impact and stress fractures, 191-192, 218-219 See also Body composition; Body composition components Breastfeeding. See Lactation Bureau of Naval Personnel (BUPERS), 134 C Cadaver analysis body compartment densities, 181 Calcium, dietary, 40, 119-120, 161, 162, 190, 241 adequate intakes (AIs), 120 Canadian Forces abolition of body composition testing, 71 Battle Efficiency Test, 71 Canadian Forces Exercise Prescription test (ExPres), 71 Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness, 71 physical fitness and performance study, 51 physical fitness testing, 71, 76 task performance testing, 71 Canadian Human Rights Commission, 71 Minimal Physical Fitness Standards, 71 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 17, 163 Children parental status of active-duty women, 130 parity among active-duty women, 137 CMNR. See Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) Coast Guard. See U.S. Coast Guard Coast Guard policies. See Specific policies Commandant Instruction (COMDTINST) M1020.8; 5, 36, 254 Commissioned officers Army PFT compliance, 180 Army weight standards compliance, 180 educational attainment of active-duty personnel, 29 ethnicity of military personnel, 45

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--> low body weight prevalence of military women, by rank, 132 marriage percentage for active-duty women, 130 minority active-duty women, 30 parental status of active-duty women, 130 pregnancy outcome, 137 pregnancy prevalence, 133-135 women by service branch, rank, and age, 28 See also Military personnel Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women (BCNH committee), x, xi, 3, 4, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 26, 30, 109, 120, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 173, 176, 185, 206, 281, 282 conclusions, 10, 12-14, 157-158, 161-162, 163 future research, 18-20, 161, 163, 165, 166, 168-169 recommendations, 14-18, 158-160, 162, 163-164 response to task questions, 14-18, 157-165 task, 23, 26-27 Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR), ix, x, 2, 3, 26, 54, 109, 120, 121, 122, 186, 222, 282 Criterion performance tasks (CPTs), 70. See also Military occupational specialties (MOSs); Performance testing Cycle Ergometry Program, 230 D DACOWITS. See Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS) Databases, 19, 31, 95, 166-168, 282 Defense Manpower Data Center database, 19, 166 Defense Research On-Line System (DROLS)/Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) Work Unit and Technical Report databases, 31, 282 Department of Defense Medical Automated Information Systems, 168 Medline, 31, 282 National Technical Information Service (NTIS), 31, 282 Psychinfo, 282, Psychlit, 31 Sport Database, 31, 282 DEA. See Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS), 2, 3 Defense Manpower Data Center, 12, 19, 31, 282, 283 Defense Women's Health Research Program (DWHRP), x, 2, 26, 118, 235, 282-283 Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 111-112. See also Reproductive health of women Demographics. See Population characteristics Department of Defense (DoD), 3, 4, 19, 20, 26, 43, 61, 64, 65, 66, 69, 70, 72, 91, 92, 127, 135, 139, 157, 164, 166, 168, 169, 178, 221 body composition and fitness policies, 177, 184, 254-258 strength requirements of job classifications for enlisted women: very heavy, 264-266 heavy, 267-269 moderate heavy, 269-271 medium, 272-274 light, 275-279 overweight prevalence of personnel, 93 women in active duty, 28 Department of Defense Directive (DoDD) 1308.1; 1, 2, 34, 61, 64, 69, 88, 176, 177, 178 Department of Defense Directive (DoDD) 1315.7; 131 Department of Defense policies. See Specific policies Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 1308.3; 1, 6, 66, 229 Department of the Army Military Nutrition Initiatives, 117 DHEA. See Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), 111, 187 Dieting cognitive performance impact of, 110, 192-193 health impact of, 192-193, 238-240 energy deficit, 110 female athlete triad, 110-115, 116 weight cycling, 99-100 chronic dieting risks, xi, 99-100, 109-116 nutritional status impact of, 27, 109-116 nutrient adequacy of diets, 115-116 prevalence among civilian women, 97, 99 prevalence among military women, 97-99 See also Disordered eating; Obesity prevention; Overweight; Weight cycling; Weight loss methods; Weight management issues; Weight management programs Dieting and Bingeing Severity Scale, 99 Diseases and disorders injury risk and body composition, 50-51 injury risk of women in fitness training at basic combat training, 243-245 See also Eating disorders; Female athlete triad; Health; Musculoskeletal diseases and disorders; Neurological diseases and disorders; Reproductive health of women Disordered eating assessment of, 238-240 chronic dieting, health implications, xi, 13, 109-116 chronic dieting, physical consequences, xi, 13, 99-100 definition, 95 health consequences of, 238-240 military women and, 14, 187-193, 220 prevalence, 97-99

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--> undernutrition, health consequences, 189-193 See also Dieting; Eating disorders; Weight; Weight management issues DoD. See Department of Defense (DoD) Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), 31 DSM-IV. See Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 40, 45-46, 177-178, 182, 218, 222. See also Body composition assessment Durnin and Womersley equation, 34. See also Body composition assessment DWHRP. See Defense Women's Health Research Program (DWHRP) DXA. See Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) E Eating Attitudes Feelings and Behavior Study, 175 Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), 111 Eating disorders female athlete triad and, 191 military women and, 187-189 symptoms, physical, 239 symptoms, psychological and behavioral, 240 U.S. Naval Academy female midshipmen and, 218 See also Diseases and disorders; Disordered eating; Weight; Weight management issues Eating Disorders Inventory, 95, 175, 187, 218, 238 Educational attainment active-duty military personnel and, 29 See also Population characteristics Energy cognitive performance and, 110 deficit, chronic, 99, 110 dietary and nutrient density, 115-116 female athlete triad and, 111-112 intake/expenditure balance, 161, 162 military women's requirements, 121 See also Female athlete triad; Nutrition Energy, Obesity, and Body Weight Standards Panel, 236 Enlisted personnel, military Army PFT compliance, 180 Army weight standards compliance, 180 educational attainment of active-duty personnel, 29 ethnicity of military personnel, 45 strength requirements of job classifications for enlisted women: very heavy, 67, 264-266 heavy, 67, 267-269 moderate heavy, 67, 269-271 medium, 67, 272-274 light, 67, 275-279 low body weight prevalence of military women, 132 marriage percentage for active-duty women, 130 minority active-duty women, 30 parental status of active-duty women, 130 pregnancy outcome, 137 pregnancy prevalence, 133-135 women, by service branch, rank, and age, 28 women separated from service for failure of body fat standards, 91 See also Military personnel Ethnicity body composition, ethnic variations, 181-182 bone density/body fat formula, ethnic differences, 225 fat distribution, ethnic differences, 48-49, 50, 55 fat-free body composition of women, ethnic differences, 223-225 FFM, ethnic differences, 48, 50 low body weight prevalence of military women, ethnicity, 132 military active-duty women, 29, 30 military personnel, ethnicity, 45 pregnancy outcome of Navy women, by ethnicity, 138 See also African Americans; Asian populations; Hispanic populations; Native Americans; Population characteristics Exercise ACOG pregnancy guidelines, 140, 142, 150 habits of military women, 69 iron status impact of, 119 lactation and, 149 pregnancy/postpartum and, 27, 139-142, 150-151, 163-165 See also Physical fitness F Fat-free mass (FFM) ethnic differences, 48, 50, 181-182, 223-225 performance and, 76-77, 80 prediction models/equations, 34, 42-43, 44-46, 160-161 skeletal muscle and, 16 strength and endurance and, 16, 20, 40-41 strength training and, 77-78, 80 See also Body composition; Body composition components Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 31 FFM. See Fat-free mass (FFM). Female athlete triad, 95, 190-191 causative factors, 110-115, 191 chronic dieting physical consequences, 99 eating disorder component, 191 military women prevalence, 115 musculoskeletal injury risk in active-duty women, 115

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--> reproductive component, 191 skeletal component, 191 skeleton effects of, 242-243 See also Dieting; Eating disorders; Energy Field Manual (FM) 21-20; 17, 129, 257 Field Manual (FM) 100-5; 25 Field rations. See Operational rations Fire services body composition, physical fitness, and task performance testing policies, 27, 73-74, 289 Fitness. See Physical fitness Five a Day for Better Health, 118 Fluid intake, 121, 162 FNB. See Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) Folate, 120, 161, 162 Folic acid birth defects and, 120, 150 IOM perinatal intake recommendations, 150 See also Nutrition Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 112, 113. See also Reproductive health of women Follow-Up for Fitness Survey, 185 Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), xi, 17, 161, 286 Food Guide Pyramid, 115 FSH. See Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) G GAO. See General Accounting Office (GAO) Gender body composition gender variations, 181-182 body composition military equations for men and women, 35 educational attainment of active-duty personnel, by gender, 29 fitness-/gender-integrated training, impact on injury risk of Army women in BCT, 243-245 food ration preferences/consumption of military personnel, gender differences, 237-238 military accession, weight standards, gender bias, 227 overweight prevalence in military personnel, by gender, 93 performance (physical) Army tests, failure rates by gender, 68 See also Population characteristics; Women; Women, military General Accounting Office (GAO), 4, 31, 282, 283 report on job-specific performance testing, 70-72 Genetics BMD, genetic influence, 189 body composition influences, 47 Gestational weight gain. See Pregnancy; Weight H Health body composition, fitness, and performance, relation to, ix, 27 body composition influence on, 50-51 military women/men and, 219-220 military women's health and fitness standards, 157-161 undernutrition, consequences of, 189-193 U.S. Naval Academy female midshipmen profile, 217-218 See also Diseases and disorders; Eating disorders; Musculoskeletal diseases and disorders; Neurological diseases and disorders; Nutrition; Nutritional status of military women; Reproductive health of women Health and Nutrition Survey, 185 Health and Physical Readiness Program, 69 Health Risk Appraisal, 10, 19, 93, 167, 168-169, 175 Health Survey of the Air Force, 175, 187 Healthy People 2000; 10, 12, 18, 63, 93, 94, 96, 147-148, 164, 185 Hispanic populations body composition of women, ethnic differences, 224 I ''I Am the American Soldier," 94 Incremental dynamic lift test, 70. See also Performance testing Institute of Aerobic Fitness, 71 Institute of Human Performance, 42 Institute of Medicine (IOM), ix, xi, 2, 3, 4, 14, 18, 20, 26, 27, 91, 100, 120, 143-145, 147, 163-164, 169, 249, 282, 283, 286-287, 288-289. See also Body Composition and Physical Performance; Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women (BCNH committee); Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR); Pregnancy; Weighing the Options Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study, 50 International Consensus Conference on Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health, 62 Iron anemia, iron-deficiency, and, 118-119 dietary, 118-119, 122, 161, 162, 231-232 exercise impact on, 119 IOM pregnancy recommendations, 17, 150 neuropsychological function of women and, 231-232 status and performance, 118-119 See also Nutrition

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--> J Job redesign task performance, military improvement strategies, 79-80 See also Military occupational specialties (MOSs); Performance; Strength requirements L Lactation BMD and, 190 exercise effects on, 27, 197, 248 prevalence in military women, 27, 148, 151, 163-165 military return-to-duty standards, 3, 17, 163-165, 196-197 military studies, 148 nutrition and, 150 physical activity and, 149, 165 postpartum return to duty and, 196-197 postpartum weight loss and, 148-149, 165, 196-197, 248-250 pregnancy weight restrictions implications, 247-248 See also Postpartum; Pregnancy Law enforcement services body composition, physical fitness, and task performance testing policies, 27, 73, 74, 288 See also Metropolitan Ontario Police Department; Police Officers' Physical Abilities Test (POPAT) LH. See Luteinizing hormone (LH) Literature survey bibliographic database searches, 282 citations, relevant, selection, 282 material, additional searches and requests, 282-283 material types considered, 283 search term formulation, 281 topic area determination, 281 Longitudinal Analysis of Lifestyle, Health, and Readiness, 175 Low body weight appearance, military, and, 52, 55 prevalence among military women, 95-96, 132 See also Weight; Weight management issues Luteinizing hormone (LH), 112, 116. See also Reproductive health of women M Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 40 Major Command (MAJCOM), 89 Marine Corps. See U.S. Marine Corps Marine Corps Order (MCO) 5000. 12D; 7, 129, 257 Marine Corps policies. See Specific policies Marital status marriage percentage of active-duty women, 130 parental status of active-duty women, 130 See also Population characteristics Maternity. See Pregnancy MEPSCAT. See Military entrance physical strength capacity test (MEPSCAT) Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 34, 43, 178 Metropolitan Ontario Police Department, 73. See also Police Officers' Physical Abilities Test (POPAT), job-specific, 73 Military entrance physical strength capacity test (MEPSCAT), 70 Military occupational specialties (MOSs) fitness, occupation-related, 70-72, 77, 80, 160 performance testing, occupation-specific, 71-72 strength requirements, 4, 13, 16, 65, 161 strength requirements of job classifications for enlisted women: very heavy, 67, 264-266 heavy, 67, 267-269 moderate heavy, 67, 269-271 medium, 67, 272-274 light, 67, 275-279 See also Criterion performance tasks (CPTs); Job redesign; Occupational classification (OCC) Military personnel accession weight standards, gender bias, and inconsistencies, 227 body composition assessment standards, 36 body composition equations for men and women, 9, 35 educational attainment of active-duty personnel, 29 ethnicity of, 45 health, fitness, and nutrition of, 219-220 overweight prevalence of, 93 See also Appearance standard, military; Basic combat training (BCT); Commissioned officers; Enlisted personnel, military; Military occupational specialties (MOSs); Nutritional status of military women; Operational rations; Readiness, military; U.S. Air Force; U.S. Armed Forces; U.S. Army; U.S. Army Reserves; U.S. Coast Guard; U.S. Marine Corps; U.S. Navy; Women, military Military rations. See Operational rations Military readiness. See Readiness, military Military Recommended Dietary Allowances (MRDAs), x, 3, 13, 17, 27, 109, 116, 117, 120, 121, 122, 161-162, 186, 189, 233, 238 Minorities. See Ethnicity MOSs. See Military Occupational Specialties (MOSs) MRDAs. See Military Recommended Dietary Allowances (MRDAs) MRI. See Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Musculoskeletal diseases and disorders FFM and skeletal muscle, 16, 20, 40, 41 female athlete triad and, 115 female athlete triad effects on skeleton, 242-243 fitness and, 77

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--> injury, 20, 77 stress fracture injuries, 218-219 stress fracture risks of fitness training, impact on Army women in BCT, 243-245 See also Diseases and disorders; Health N National Academy of Sciences, x, xi, 31, 282, 286 National Center for Health Statistics, 236 National Fire Protection Association, 74, 283 "Recommended Practice for Physical Performance and Conditioning Programs," 74 National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES), 48, 96, 178, 227 Third Report on Nutrition Monitoring in the U.S., 117 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 63 Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP), 282 Consensus Conference, 1985, 43 Consensus Conference on Optimal Calcium Intakes, 241 Consensus Development Panel, 227 Technology Assessment Conference Panel, 100, 102 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, 1988, 144-145 National Research Council (NRC) Recommended Healthy Weight Guideline, 38 National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity, 100 Native Americans body composition of women, ethnic differences, 224 NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Naval Administrative Message (NAVADMIN) 071/93; 258 Naval Administrative Message (NAVADMIN) 148/94; 258 Naval Health Research Center, 31, 229 Naval Operational Message (NAVOP) 064/90; 5, 36, 66, 254 Naval Operations Instruction (OPNAVINST) 6000.1A; 6, 128, 255 Naval Operations Instruction (OPNAVINST) 6110.1D; 6, 66, 90, 255 Naval Reproductive Outcome Survey, 138, 148 Navy. See U.S. Navy Navy Health and Physical Readiness Program, 229 "Navy Nutrition and Weight Control Self-Study Guide: Forge the Future," 90 Navy policies. See Specific policies Navy Weight Loss Program, 90 Neurological diseases and disorders zinc and iron nutriture, and neuropsychological function of women, 231-232 See also Diseases and disorders NHANES. See National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES) NIH. See National Institutes of Health (NIH) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 79 NRC. See National Research Council (NRC) Nutrients. See Folic acid; Iron; Protein, dietary; Zinc, dietary Nutrition military studies results, 116-118, 161-163 nutrient adequacy of weight loss diets, 115 postpartum and, 150, 163-165 pregnancy and, 150, 163-165 See also Energy; Folic acid; Health; Iron; Protein, dietary; Zinc, dietary Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 38, 41, 117 Nutrition Medicine Service, 89 Nutritional status of military women Army women, 233-234 assessment of, 13, 185-186 conclusions, 161-162 dieting, chronic, consequences, xi, 109-116 discussion, 162-163 health and fitness and, 219-220 nutrient intake, 17 nutrients, altered status, 118-122 rations (operational) and dining hall meals, impact on, xi, 116-122 recommendations, 162 research recommended, 20, 163 studies, military, results, 116-118, 161-163 undernutrition, health consequences, 189-193 U.S. Naval Academy female midshipmen, 217-218 See also Health; Nutrition; Women, military O Obesity. See Overweight; Weight; Weight management issues Obesity prevention, 102-103. See also Dieting; Overweight; Weight; Weight loss methods; Weight management issues; Weight management programs Occupational classification (OCC) strength requirements of job classifications for enlisted women: very heavy, 67, 264-266 heavy, 67, 267-269 moderate heavy, 67, 269-271 medium, 67, 272-274 light, 67, 275-279 See also Military occupational specialties (MOSs) Occupations, military. See Military occupational specialties (MOSs); Occupational classification (OCC)

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--> Olympics female athletes' mean BMI, 52, 53-54 Operation Joint Endeavor, 194 Operational rations gender differences in preferences and consumption, 237-238 nutrient density, 116-118, 162-163 nutritional status of active-duty women, influence on, 116-122, 161 -163 Overweight prevalence in military women, 93, 96 See also Dieting; Obesity prevention; Weight; Weight loss methods; Weight management issues; Weight management programs P Parity. See Children Perceptions of Wellness and Readiness Assessment (POWR'95), 19, 94, 167, 168, 169, 175, 181, 185, 187, 217-218, 226-227, 238 Performance body fat and, 75-76 cognitive, x, 119, 192-193 FFM and, 76-77, 182-183 improvement strategies, military, 77-80 job redesign, 79-80 neuropsychological function of women, and zinc and iron nutriture, 231-232 occupational training, 77-80 physical, x, 118-119 physical, effects of alterations in excess weight, 230 physical, relationship to body composition and FFM, 182-183 physical, women's, and body composition, 221 strength training, military, 77-80 See also Job redesign Performance testing Army physical performance tests, failure rates, 68 Canadian Forces task performance testing, 71 civilian, xi, 72-75 civilian law enforcement and fire services testing policies, 31, 73-74, 288-289 methods, 27, 70-72 military, x, xi, 2-3, 13, 26, 27, 70-72 policies of various government agencies, 31, 73-74 strength and endurance tests and standards, 16 See also Criterion performance tasks (CPTs); Incremental dynamic lift test; Performance PFT. See Physical fitness test (PFT) Physical Activity and Health, 63 Physical fitness Air Force assessment, 230 assessment, civilian, 72-75 assessment, military, 27, 31, 34, 64-72, 230 BMI and, 15 body composition and, 3, 51-52, 55, 198 body fat standards vs., 52 definition, 62-64 health and, 64-69 injuries and, 77 law enforcement/fire services, civilian, assessment policies, 288-289 military accession, minimum standards, 198 military policies, ix, x, 5-7, 61-80, 176-179, 254-258 military policy/standards compliance estimates, 179-181 military standards, x, 3, 14-16, 64-72, 157-161 military women and, x, 219-220 MOSs and, 70-72 nutrition and physical activity impact on, military women, x occupation-related, 70-72 postpartum and, 127-133, 142-143, 146-147, 163-165 pregnancy and, 127-133, 163-165 task performance and, x, xi, 2-3, 13, 70-72, 75-80 two-tiered body composition/fitness screen, recommendations, 14-16, 158, 159 variables affecting, 62 See also Athletics; Exercise; Physical training; Physical readiness test (PRT); Readiness, military Physical fitness test (PFT), 80, 88, 90, 177, 179, 180, 216, 217 Air Force, 184, 255 Army, 183, 228, 255 compliance, 180 policies, 64-66 postpartum policies, 127-133 See also Physical fitness; Physical training Physical readiness test (PRT) Marine Corps, 255 Navy, 183-184, 229, 254-255 See also Physical fitness Physical training injury risk impact of for Army women in BCT, 243-245 military fitness programs, 64-72, 183-185, 228, 229 military ongoing training, 16, 69, 72, 160, 191-192 See also Basic combat training (BCT); Exercise; Physical fitness test (PFT); Physical fitness; Physical readiness test (PRT) Police forces. See Law enforcement services Police Officers' Physical Abilities Test (POPAT) job-specific, 73 Population characteristics women in military, characteristics, x, 174-176, 198, 215-216 See also Age distribution; Educational attainment; Ethnicity; Gender; Martial status

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--> Postpartum Army policies and procedures, clinical impact, 246-247 body composition assessment, 7, 254-258 exercise impact and, 163-165, 248-249 military body composition policies, 7, 254-258 military physical fitness policies, 7, 127-133, 254-258 military return-to-duty fitness testing policies, 20, 27, 163-165, 196-197 military weight standard compliance policies, 127-133 nutrition during, 150, 163-165 physical fitness and, 142-143, 146-147, 150, 163-165 weight loss and retention, 142-143, 145-146, 147, 148-149, 150, 248 -250 See also Lactation; Pregnancy; Reproductive health of women; Women POWR'95. See Perceptions of Wellness and Readiness Assessment (POWR'95) Pregnancy Army policies and procedures, clinical impact, 246-247 BMD and, 190 civilian policies, 31 exercise and, 17-18, 27, 139-142, 163-165 ACOG recommendations, 17-18, 140, 142 maternal weight gain, 18, 143-145, 147, 163-165 IOM recommendations, 143-145, 147 maternal weight restrictions and lactation, 17-18, 247-248 military body composition and fitness policies, 6-7, 254-258 military duty restriction policies, 6-7, 128-129, 195-196 military return-to-duty standards, 3, 17-18, 163-165, 196-197 military service careers and, 18, 27 military weight standard compliance policies, 127-131, 163-165 military women rates, 133-135, 139, 194-195 Navy policies, 251 Navy women's, outcome of, 138 nutrition during, 17-18, 150, 163-165 outcome in military women, 135-139 risk factors, 131-133 See also Birth weight; Lactation; Postpartum; Reproductive health of women; Women Protein, dietary and performance, 120 See also Nutrition PRT. See Physical readiness test (PRT) Q Quetelet's index. See Body mass index (BMI) Quick Diagnostic Interview Schedule, 187, 218 R Rations. See Operational rations RDAs. See Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) Readiness, military appearance goals vs., health implications, 160, 198 assessment perceptions, 181 command perspective, 176 definition, ix, 1-2, 25-26 weight management issues, 103 women and, 215 See also Military personnel; Performance testing; Physical fitness Recommendations for Research on the Health of Military Women, 281 Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), 13, 17, 109, 120, 241. See also Military Recommended Dietary Allowances (MRDAs) "Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Fitness in Healthy Adults," 63 Reproductive health of women female athlete triad and reproductive component, 191 menstrual irregularities, 110-115, 191-192 training activities impact, 191-192 See also Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA); Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); Luteinizing hormone (LH); Postpartum; Pregnancy Return-to-duty standards, military guidelines for pregnant/postpartum/lactating women, 163-165, 196-197 postpartum, x S San Antonio Heart Study, 50 Smoking. See Tobacco use Sports. See Athletics Stanford Eating Disorders Questionnaire, 98 Stanford Five-City Study, 102 Strength requirements job classifications for enlisted women, strength requirements of: very heavy, 67, 264-266 heavy, 67, 267-269 moderate heavy, 67, 269-271 medium, 67, 272-274 light, 67, 275-279 tests and standards for strength and endurance, 16 See also Job redesign

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--> Strength training fitness and gender-integrated training risks, Army women in BCT, 243-245 injuries, stress fracture, and, 218-219 performance improvement strategies, 77-78, 80 Stress fracture. See Musculoskeletal diseases and disorders Study of the Military Services' Physical Fitness, 33-34 Support Behaviors Inventory, 131 Survey of Health-Related Behaviors among Military Personnel, 10, 19, 93, 95, 167, 168-169, 175, 180-181, 186, 219 Survey of Nutrition Knowledge of Active-Duty Naval Personnel, 175, 180 Surveys, 19-20, 166-169, 175. See also Army Food and Nutrition Survey; Army Physical Fitness Update Survey; Army Sample Survey of Military Personnel; Eating Attitudes Feelings and Behavior Study; Eating Disorders Inventory; Follow-Up for Fitness Survey; Health and Nutrition Survey; Health Risk Appraisal; Health Survey of the Air Force; Healthy People 2000; National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES); National Maternal and Infant Health Survey; Naval Reproductive Outcome Survey; Perceptions of Wellness and Readiness Assessment (POWR'95); Stanford Eating Disorders Questionnaire; Support Behaviors Inventory; Survey of Health-Related Behaviors among Military Personnel; Survey of Nutrition Knowledge of Active-Duty Naval Personnel; Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; Weight Loss Practices Survey Symposium on Women in Uniform, 31, 73 T Table of Organization and Equipment (TO&E), 228 Task performance body composition, military standards, ix, x, 2-3 military testing, ix, 2-3 Task redesign. See Job redesign TBW. See Total body water (TBW) Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, 112, 114 Tobacco use BMD and, 190 TO&E. See Table of Organization and Equipment (TO&E) Total body water (TBW), 40-41, 45. See also Body composition assessment; Body composition components U Underwater weighing. See Body composition assessment Underweight. See Low body weight Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 73 USACHPPM. See U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) U.S. Air Force body composition and fitness policies, 5-7, 254-258 body composition assessment, 34, 36, 49 body composition equations, 34, 35, 43 educational attainment of active-duty personnel, 29 ethnicity of personnel, 45 Health and Wellness Centers, 184 strength requirements of job classification for enlisted women: very heavy, 67, 264-266 heavy, 67, 267-269 moderate heavy, 67, 269-271 medium, 67, 272-274 light, 67, 275-279 minority active-duty women, 30 overweight prevalence, 93 physical fitness and, 5-7, 66, 254-258 pregnancy and postpartum policies, 6-7, 128-129, 254-258 pregnancy outcome, 137, 139 pregnancy prevalence, 133, 134-135 women in, characteristics of, 27, 28, 130, 174 women in, low body weight prevalence of, 132 women in, maximum allowable body fat, 37 See also Air Force Weight Management Program (WMP); Cycle Ergometry Program; Military personnel; Women, military USAMRMC. See U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) USARIEM. See U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) U.S. Armed Forces, 1, 2. See also Military personnel; U.S. Air Force; U.S. Army Reserves; U.S. Coast Guard; U.S. Marine Corps; U.S. Navy U.S. Army body composition and fitness policies, 5-7, 246-247, 254-258 body composition assessment, 34, 36, 49 body composition equations, 9, 35, 42-43, 44, 259 educational attainment of active-duty personnel, 29 ethnicity of personnel, 45 minority active-duty women, 30 overweight prevalence in, 93 PFT compliance, 180 physical fitness assessment standards, 66 physical fitness program, 228 physical performance test failure rates, 68 pregnancy and postpartum policies of, 6-7, 128-129, 195, 246-247, 254-258 pregnancy outcome in, 136-137

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--> pregnancy prevalence in, 133, 134 strength requirements of job classification for enlisted women: very heavy, 67, 264-266 heavy, 67, 267-269 moderate heavy, 67, 269-271 medium, 67, 272-274 light, 67, 275-279 weight-for-height maximum, 11, 39 weight management program outcome, 91 weight standards compliance, 180 women, body weight satisfaction and status, 234-237 women in BCT, fitness training impacts on injury risk, 243-245 women in, characteristics of, 27, 28, 130, 174-175 women in, low body weight prevalence in, 132 women in, maximum allowable body fat, 37 women in, nutritional issues of, 233-234 See also Army Air Corps Aviation Psychology Program; Army Body Composition Program; Army Medical Remedial Enlistment Program; Army Weight Control Program; Basic combat training (BCT); Physical fitness test (PFT); Military personnel; Women, military U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM), 31 U.S. Army Chief of Staff, 65, 228 U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), 31 U.S. Army Nutrition Research Center, 220 U.S. Army Physical Fitness School, 64, 65, 69, 183, 228 U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI), 71, 183, 228 U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), 31, 70, 78, 79, 183, 228, 234 Exercise Physiology Division, 70 Military Nutrition Division (Military Nutrition and Biochemistry Division), 234 U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), 31, 78, 79 U.S. Army Reserves, 1, 95, 98 U.S. Coast Guard body composition assessment, 36 body composition and fitness policies, 5-7, 254-258 physical fitness assessment standards, 66 pregnancy and postpartum policies, 6-7, 128-129, 254-258 See also Military personnel; Women, military U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 63. See also Healthy People 2000 U.S. Forestry Service, 31 U.S. Marine Corps body composition and fitness policies, 5-7, 254-258 body composition assessment, 34, 36, 49 body composition cross-sectional profile, 226-227 body composition equations, 9, 35, 42, 43, 44, 259 educational attainment of active-duty personnel, 29 ethnicity of personnel, 45 minority active-duty women, 30 overweight prevalence in, 93 physical fitness assessment standards, 5-7, 66, 254-258 pregnancy and postpartum policies, 6-7, 128-129, 254-258 pregnancy outcome in, 137 pregnancy prevalence in, 133, 134 readiness, military, assessment, 181 weight management program outcome, 91 wellness assessment, 181 women in, characteristics of, 27, 28, 130, 174 women in, low body weight prevalence of, 132 See also Military personnel; Navy Weight Loss Program; Women, military U.S. Marshals, 31 U.S. Military Academy, 95, 116, 117, 188, 235 Cadet Weight Management Program, 95 U.S. Naval Academy, 95, 98, 192, 218, 219 female midshipmen characteristics, 218-219 U.S. Navy appearance and, 54-55 body composition and fitness policies, 5-7, 254-258 body composition assessment, 34, 36, 49 body composition cross-sectional profile, 226-227 body composition equations, 9, 35, 43, 44, 259 education of active-duty personnel, 29 ethnicity of personnel, 45 strength requirements of job classifications for enlisted women: very heavy, 67, 264-266 heavy, 67, 267-269 moderate heavy, 67, 269-271 medium, 67, 272-274 light, 67, 275-279 minority active-duty women, 30 overweight prevalence in, 93 physical fitness assessment, 5-7, 51, 66, 254-258 pregnancy and postpartum policies, 6-7, 128-129, 195-196, 251, 255 -258 pregnancy outcome in, 137-138 pregnancy prevalence by rank, 133-134 readiness, assessment, 181 weight management program outcome, 91 wellness assessment, 181 women in, characteristics of, 27, 28, 130, 174-175 women in, health and nutrition of, 217-218 women in, low body weight prevalence of, 132 women in, maximum allowable body fat, 37 See also Military personnel; Navy Weight Loss Program; Navy Health and Physical Readiness Program; Physical Readiness Test (PRT); Women, military

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--> U.S. Park Service, 31 U.S. Public Health Service, 150 U.S. Surgeon General, 63. See also Physical Activity and Health W Weighing the Options, 100-102 Weight Army women body satisfaction and status, 234-237 gestational weight gain, 143-145, 147 loss and BMD and, 190 maintenance problems, 97 military accession weight standards, gender bias, 227 military weight standards compliance, 180 military weight standards upper limits, 10-12, 34 performance effects of alterations in excess weight, 230 postpartum weight loss, 145-146, 147 postpartum weight loss' impact on lactation, 248-249 pregnancy weight restrictions' impact on lactation, 247-248 problems, real and self-perceived, in military women, 92-96, 103 See also Body image; Dieting; Disordered eating; Eating disorders; Low body weight; Obesity prevention; Overweight; Weight for height; Weight loss methods; Weight management issues; Weight management programs Weight cycling body composition and, 99-100 health risk and, 100 resting energy expenditure and, 100 See also Dieting; Weight management issues Weight for height, 11, 12, 34, 39, 43, 178. See also Anthropometry; Body composition assessment; Weight Weight loss diets. See Dieting; Obesity prevention; Weight Weight loss methods military women's methods, 97-99 success factors for weight management, 101-103 successful weight management methods, 100-103 See also Dieting; Obesity prevention; Weight; Weight management programs Weight Loss Practices Survey, 99 Weight management issues body image, 97 body weight satisfaction and status of Army women, 234-237 civilian, 99, 103 health consequences of weight control behavior, 238-240 military, 97-99, 103, 161-163 success factors for weight management, 101-103 successful weight management methods, 100-103 See also Dieting; Disordered eating; Eating disorders; Low body weight; Obesity prevention; Overweight; Weight; Weight cycling Weight management programs civilian, 27, 99, 103 military, xi, 26, 27, 33, 87, 103, 161-163 outcomes, 90-91, 92 policies, 88-92, 127-133, 163-165 military readiness issues, 103 successful methods, 100-103 success factors, 101-103 See also Army Weight Control Program; Dieting; Navy Weight Loss Program; Obesity prevention; Weight WMP. See Air Force Weight Management Program (WMP) Women body composition and physical performance of, 221 premenopausal calcium needs, 241 zinc and iron nutriture, neuropsychological function, 231-232 See also Gender; Lactation; Postpartum; Pregnancy; Reproductive health of women Women in the Fire Services, 283 Women, military appearance standard and, ix, 27 Armed Forces numbers, 28 Army BCT, impact on injury risk of women, 243-245 Army body weight satisfaction and status, 234-237 Army maximum weight-for-height limits, 11 body composition assessment standards, 36 body composition equations, 9, 35 body fat standards failure, separation from service for, 91 disordered eating, 220 DoD numbers, by service branch, 28 educational attainment of active-duty personnel by gender, 29 enlisted corps, 28 fitness and health of, 157-161, 219-220 lactation of, 17, 18, 148, 196, 197 low body weight prevalence, 132 minority active-duty personnel, 30 nutrition, health, and fitness of, x, 17, 109-122, 157-161, 185-186, 219-220 officers, 28 performance tests, failure rate by gender, 68 population characteristics of, x, 27, 28, 174-176 postpartum return to duty, 17, 18, 196, 197 pregnancy and, 131-133, 133-139, 194-195 strength requirements of job classifications for enlisted women: very heavy, 67, 264-266 heavy, 67, 267-269 moderate heavy, 67, 269-271

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--> medium, 67, 272-274 light, 67, 275-279 overview of, 215-216 overweight prevalence, 93, 96 surveys of, 175 U.S. Naval Academy female midshipmen, characteristics, 218-219 U.S. Naval Academy female midshipmen, health and nutrition, 217-218 See also Nutritional status of military women; Readiness, military; Women Women's Research and Education Institute, 31 Workshop on Women in Uniform, 283 Workshop on Assessing Readiness in Military Women, 121, 281 abstracts, 215-251 agenda, 206-210 participants, 211-214 questions raised, 197-199 summary, 173-199 World Wide Web, 4, 31 Z Zinc, dietary neuropsychological function of women and, 231-232 See also Nutrition