28 In particular, see the discussion of the Motorola-Toshiba and Fujitsu-Sun alliances in National Research Council, 1992a, pp. 91-101, and the discussion of the Kirin-Amgen alliance in National Research Council, 1992b, pp. 74-81.

29 See the Japanese working group report.

30 Bleeke, Joel and David Ernst. 1995. “Is Your Strategic Alliance Really a Sale?” Harvard Business Review73:105.

31 There are exceptions, however. For example, several of Corning's joint ventures have achieved longterm success. Fuji Xerox is an example of a U.S.-Japan joint venture that has achieved long-term success.

32 For an examination of current barriers in light of historical conditions, see Wakasugi, Ryuhei. 1994. “Why Foreign Firm's Entry Has Been Low in Japan: An Empirical Examination.” Paper for the Conference on “Foreign Investment into Japan: Why So Small and How to Encourage? The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, October 1994.

33 LTCBR. 1994. Gaikoku Shihon ga Kaeru Nihon Sangyo(Foreign companies will transform Japanese industry). Tokyo: LTCBR.

34 LTCBR, 1994, p. 5.

35 U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1994, Chapters 7 and 8.

36 An optimistic assessment of Japan's prospects is given by Fingleton, Eamonn. 1995. Blindside: Why Japan is Still on Track to Overtake the U.S. by the Year 2000.New York: Houghton Mifflin.



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