. "4 U.S. and Japanese MNCs and the Shape of Global Competition." Global Economy, Global Technology, Global Corporations: Reports of a Joint Task Force of the National Research Council and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science on the Rights and Responsibilities of Multinational Corporations in an Age of Technological Interdependence. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1998.
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Global Economy, Global Technology, Global Corporations
28 In particular, see the discussion of the Motorola-Toshiba and Fujitsu-Sun alliances in National Research Council, 1992a, pp. 91-101, and the discussion of the Kirin-Amgen alliance in National Research Council, 1992b, pp. 74-81.
29 See the Japanese working group report.
30 Bleeke, Joel and David Ernst. 1995. “Is Your Strategic Alliance Really a Sale?” Harvard BusinessReview73:105.
31 There are exceptions, however. For example, several of Corning's joint ventures have achieved longterm success. Fuji Xerox is an example of a U.S.-Japan joint venture that has achieved long-term success.
32 For an examination of current barriers in light of historical conditions, see Wakasugi, Ryuhei. 1994. “Why Foreign Firm's Entry Has Been Low in Japan: An Empirical Examination.” Paper for the Conference on “Foreign Investment into Japan: Why So Small and How to Encourage? The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, October 1994.
33 LTCBR. 1994. Gaikoku Shihon ga Kaeru Nihon Sangyo(Foreign companies will transform Japanese industry). Tokyo: LTCBR.
34 LTCBR, 1994, p. 5.
35 U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1994, Chapters 7 and 8.
36 An optimistic assessment of Japan's prospects is given by Fingleton, Eamonn. 1995. Blindside: WhyJapan is Still on Track to Overtake the U.S. by the Year 2000.New York: Houghton Mifflin.