5 See Lincoln, Edward J. 1993. Japan's New Global Role.Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution and Bergsten, C. Fred and Marcus Noland. 1993. Reconcilable Differences? United States-Japan Economic Conflict.Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.

6 Belying the often-heard assertion that foreign MNCs often try to hide their success in Japan and that the main problem in Japan's trade relations with the United States and the rest of the world is a lack of public relations effort is the continuing effort of the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) which has devoted a significant part of its publication activity in recent years to publicizing cases of successful foreign companies in Japan. See JETRO. 1984. Japan's Manufactured Imports—23 Case Studies. Tokyo: JETRO; JETRO. 1989. A Survey on Successful Cases of Foreign-Affiliated Companies in Japan. Tokyo: JETRO; JETRO. 1990. The Challenge of the Japanese Market: How 144 Foreign-Affiliated Companies Succeeded.Tokyo: JETRO; JETRO. 1991. Manufacturing Success—Nine Foreign-Affiliated Companieswith Plants in Japan.Tokyo: JETRO; JETRO. 1992. Manufacturing Success Part II—Five Foreign-Affiliated Companies with Plants in Regional Japan.Tokyo: JETRO; JETRO. 1993. Manufacturing Success Part III—Eleven Foreign-Affiliated Companies Active in R&D, Parts and Consumer ProductsManufacturing.Tokyo: JETRO.

7 See OECD, 1992, pp. 101-111.

8 OECD, 1992, p. 108.

9 This movement deals with a wide range of issues, including human rights, labor practices, and environmental protection in developing countries. For the purpose of this report, we focus on aspects of these statements and guidelines that relate to technology access, development, and transfer in a broad sense.

10 Toyota Motor Corporation. 1992. “Guiding Principles at Toyota” Tokyo: Toyota; as summarized in United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 1994, pp. 323-324.

11 Toyota Motor Corporation, 1992.

12 Toyota Motor Corporation, 1992, p. 333.

13 Although others are sometimes mentioned, the primary “revisionists” are James Fallows, Chalmers Johnson, Clyde Prestowitz, and Karel Van Wolferen.

14 In the first category are Morita, Akio. 1992. “Nihon Keiei ga abunai” (Crisis for Japanese-style management). Bungei Shunju.February, pp. 94-103; and Nakatani, Iwao, 1990. Japan Puroburemu no Genten(Roots of the Japan Problem). Tokyo: Kodansha. In the second category is Sakakibara, Eisuke. 1993. Beyond Capitalism.Lanham, Md.: Economic Strategy Institute and University Press of America.

15 Chandler, Clay. 1992. “An Appeal to Change Cutthroat Ways Roils the Japanese Business Community. ” The Wall Street Journal.August 6, p. A5.



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