technology products but is also tree for any other product dependent on the market. Therefore, research and development have to be globalized.

The paradigm of modern technological innovation is rapidly changing. It is no longer as simple as the industrial sector enjoyed decades ago. It is increasingly market driven rather than technology driven. It is more interdisciplinary, interdepartmental, interindustrial, and international in nature. The innovation model is no longer explainable by a simple linear model, rather, a complex network model enjoys popularity among Japanese industrialists. In order to cope with the paradigm shift, many companies are forming strategic alliances across national borders in order to survive. The alliance network is so complex and tight that even nationalistic political pressure no longer can break such alliances. We think this trend is very desirable for increasing international collaboration and for improving world peace. International industrial collaboration is a strong weapon for comprehensive national security.

EMERGING ROLES OF MNCS

The strategic business alliance is a useful means of improving international collaboration; however, we have to move a step forward to establish global symbiotic competition kyoseiand kyocho to kyoso,2 as it is called in Japan. Looking into the 21st century, we see a much more difficult age that will require inventing numerous new technologies and applying them effectively in order to solve the many difficult problems we face if we are to achieve sustainable development. The cost of developing new technologies is increasing very rapidly. Global environmental science and technology are still difficult to promote based on an industrial economy.

Semiconductor technology is still a driving force for advancing the highly information-oriented society. However, the evolutionary innovation of current technology may reach a limit sometime in the first decade of the 21st century. We have to surmount major technological barriers for major technological innovations. Many scientists have been striving toward this goal; however, from an industrial point of view, there is no visible sign of a major breakthrough.

Global environmental problems and the shortage of food and energy resulting from the world population explosion are crucial problems for the human race as well as for nature. We have a serious challenge in creating and developing new technologies in order to solve such problems. Industry can develop evolutionary new technologies for saving energy and resources and reducing wastes and pollutants. However, the cause of global environmental problems has not been clearly correlated scientifically and Life Cycle Analysis is still difficult to apply without creating many problems even if the concept of LCA is very valuable.

In order to solve the global environmental problem, we have to develop a major new industry, which recycles wastes into useful resources. It has been said that the recycling industry is economically unjustified and has been looked down on as a low-technology industry. No substantial national R&D investment has been provided. Many countries have subsidized or even nationalized so called high-technology industry in order to develop the national economy and for the sake of national security. Why should we not be able to provide a similar support to the recycling industry? The new industry will provide substantial employment opportunities for people around the world. We have to develop new industries for improving the world economy and the global environment for sustainable development. For that aim, we have to further promote science and technology. If a company or even a nation alone cannot invest sufficient



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement