Appendix G Glossary

A

AAC (Alaska Administrative Code):

Code of laws for the State of Alaska.

ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game):

State agency responsible for overseeing the management of fish and wildlife within state jurisdiction.

Alia:

Samoan fishing catamaran made of aluminum, or fiberglass and wood, approximately 30-feet long. Alia are used in various fisheries including trolling, longline, and bottomfishing.

American Samoa:

An unincorporated territory of the United States in the southern Pacific Ocean South of Hawaii. American Samoa includes the islands of Manua, Tutuila, and the Rose and Swains Atolls.

ANCSA (Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act):

Legislation passed in 1971 that provided monetary and land compensation for Alaskan natives as an agreement to relinquish additional land claims. The act established village corporations and regional corporations designed to conduct business operations from the initial settlement on behalf of native shareholders.

APICDA (Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association):

Community Development Quota Association composed of the villages of Akutan, Atka, False Pass, Nelson Lagoon, Nikolski, and St. George.



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--> Appendix G Glossary A AAC (Alaska Administrative Code): Code of laws for the State of Alaska. ADF&G (Alaska Department of Fish and Game): State agency responsible for overseeing the management of fish and wildlife within state jurisdiction. Alia: Samoan fishing catamaran made of aluminum, or fiberglass and wood, approximately 30-feet long. Alia are used in various fisheries including trolling, longline, and bottomfishing. American Samoa: An unincorporated territory of the United States in the southern Pacific Ocean South of Hawaii. American Samoa includes the islands of Manua, Tutuila, and the Rose and Swains Atolls. ANCSA (Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act): Legislation passed in 1971 that provided monetary and land compensation for Alaskan natives as an agreement to relinquish additional land claims. The act established village corporations and regional corporations designed to conduct business operations from the initial settlement on behalf of native shareholders. APICDA (Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association): Community Development Quota Association composed of the villages of Akutan, Atka, False Pass, Nelson Lagoon, Nikolski, and St. George.

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--> B BBEDC (Bristol Bay Economic Development Corporation): Community Development Quota Association composed of the villages of Aleknagik, Clark's Point, Dillingham, Egegik, Ekuk, Manokotak, Naknek, King Salmon/Savonoski, South Naknek, Togiak, Twin Hills, Pilot Point/Ugashik, and Port Heiden. biomass: The amount, or mass, of fish. Board of Fisheries: Commission in the State of Alaska formed for purposes of the conservation and development of the fishery resources. The Board of Fisheries is composed of seven members appointed by the governor. The governor appoints each member on the basis of interest in public affairs, good judgment, knowledge, and ability in the field of action of the board, and with a view to providing diversity of interest and points of view in the membership. The appointed members are residents of the state and are appointed without regard to political affiliation or geographical location of residence. The commissioner is not a member of the Board of Fisheries. Board members serve three year terms. BSAI (Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands): Area of the EEZ off the coast of Alaska including Bering Sea and the western side of the Aleutian Island chain. bycatch: Fish caught in a fishery but discarded or released for economic or regulatory reasons. This does not include fish caught in a recreational catch and release program. C Carolinians: Natives of the Northern Mariana Islands. catcher: Vessel that harvests fish but does not have on-board processing capacity. catcher-processor: Vessel that can both catch and process the catch on-board. Also referred to as factory-trawlers in the North Pacific. CBSFA (Central Bering Sea Fishermen's Association): Community Development Quota Association composed of the village of St. Paul. CDP (Community Development Plan): Plan submitted to the State of Alaska by the CDQ association detailing the means of harvesting the quota allocation and proposing how the funds generated from the harvest or leasing of quota will be used. The CDP is required to detail the ways in which funds will be distributed and used in the CDQ program. CDQ (Community Development Quota): A program in western Alaska under which a percentage of the total allowable catch of Bering Sea commercial fisher-

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--> ies are allocated to specific villages. The villages that are eligible for this program must be located within 50 miles of the Bering Sea coast, or an island within the Bering Sea, meet criteria established by the Governor of Alaska, be a village certified by the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, and consist of residents who conduct more than half of their current commercial or subsistence fishing in the Bering Sea or waters surrounding the Aleutian Islands. These villages cannot have previously developed harvesting or processing capacity capable of substantial participation in the Bering Sea fisheries in order to qualify for the program. Currently, the CDQ program allocates 7.5 percent of the total allowable catch in the pollock, halibut and sablefish, crab, and groundfish fisheries to the Community Development Quota Program. CFEC (Commercial Fisheries Entry Commission): An independent, quasi-judicial regulatory agency responsible for promoting the sustained yield management of Alaska's fishery resources and the economic health and stability of commercial fishing by regulating entry into the fisheries. The CFEC controls the number of permits and qualifying criteria of fishing permits. CFR (Code of Federal Regulations): A codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the Executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. Chamorro: Natives of the Northern Mariana Islands and Guam charterboat: A boat designed for carrying passengers for hire who are engaged in recreational fishing. commercial: Fishing where the primary intent of the fishing is to sell, barter or trade the catch. CNMI (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands): Also, Northern Mariana Islands, Northern Marianas, and NMI. Commonwealth of the United States in the Western Pacific. Includes the islands of Saipan, Tinian, Rota, and many others in the Marianas Archipelago. CVFC (Coastal Villages Fishery Cooperative): Community Development Quota Association composed of the villages of Cherfornak, Cheevak, Eek, Goodnews Bay, Hooper Bay, Kipnuk, Konigianak, Kwigillingok, Mekoryuk, Newtok, Nightmute, Platinum, Quinhagak, Scammon Bay, Tooksok Bay, Tuntutuliak, Tununak. The CVFC is the predecessor to the CVRF. CVRF (Coastal Villages Region Fund): Community Development Quota Asso-

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--> ciation composed of the same villages that composed its predecessor the CVFC. The CVRF was formed in 1997. D DCRA (Department of Community and Regional Affairs): Agency in the State of Alaska responsible for overseeing the management of the Community Development Quota Program. DFW (Division of Fish and Wildlife): Agency in the Northern Mariana Islands responsible for overseeing fisheries and wildlife management. E EEZ (exclusive economic zone): Zone extending from the shoreline out to 200 nautical miles in which the country owning the shoreline has the exclusive right to conduct certain activities such as fishing. In the United States, the EEZ is split into state waters (typically from the shoreline out to 3 nautical miles) and federal waters (typically from 3 to 200 nautical miles). F Fa'a Samoa: The term means the Samoan Way. This is an all encompassing concept that dictates how Samoans are meant to behave. Fa'a Samoa refers to the obligations that a Samoan owes his or her family, community and church and the individual's sense of Samoan identity. factory-trawler: (see catcher-processor) finfish: Fishery species not including crustaceans, cephalopods, or other nonvertebrate species. fishery management council: Eight regional fishery management councils are mandated in the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act to be responsible for developing fishery management plans for fisheries in federal waters. Councils are composed of voting members from NMFS, state fishery managers, and individuals selected by governors of the coastal states. Nonvoting members include the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other federal officials. Regional councils exist for the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Mid-Atlantic, New England, North Pacific, Pacific, South Atlantic, and Western Pacific regions. FMP (fishery management plan): Management plan for fisheries operating in the federal EEZ produced by regional fishery management councils and submitted to the Secretary of Commerce for approval. These plans must meet certain mandatory requirements in the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act before they can be approved or implemented.

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--> Fono: Traditional Samoan village council. The Fono is responsible for administering justice within the village and can pass down a wide range of judgments. G GOA (Gulf of Alaska): Region of the EEZ off the shore of Alaska extending from the southeastern edge of Alaska to the eastern side of the Aleutian Chain. groundfish: Fish species found on or near the bottom or floor of the ocean (e.g., halibut, yellowtail flounder). Guam: A territory of the United States in the Western Pacific. It is south and adjacent to the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. H handline: A fishing line designed for handlining. Typically, handlines with baited hooks are dropped and retrieved by hand. They may be trolled. handlining: A method of fishing in which the fisherman uses one or more handlines. highliner: A fisherman who is regarded as having a fishing operation with high catch and profits. I IFQ (individual fishing quota): Fishery management tool used in the Alaska halibut and sablefish fisheries and in other fisheries that allocates a certain portion of the TAC to individual vessels or fishermen based on initial qualifying criteria. This allocation can be transferred or sold. If the IFQ is transferable, it is sometimes referred to as an individual transferable quota (ITQ). IP (Imapiqamiut Partnership): A partnership established between Coastal Villages Fishing Cooperative and Golden Age Fisheries. The partnership was dissolved in 1998 due to pressure from the State of Alaska concerning the performance of the partnership. IPHC (International Pacific Halibut Commission): International management and advisory body established in 1923 to oversee the management of halibut in the North Pacific. The member states to the commission include the United States and Canada. The IPHC is responsible for conducting stock assessments, and setting the TAC for the stock in a given year. J JV (joint venture): Cooperative arrangements between foreign and U.S. harvesters to prosecute a fishery occurring inside of federal waters. Joint ventures were used extensively in the late 1970s through the 1980s in the North Pacific fisheries, particularly in the pollock and crab fisheries. Currently, there are no JV arrangements in the North Pacific EEZ.

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--> L longline: Fishing method using a horizontal mainline to which weights and baited hooks are attached at regular intervals. The horizontal mainline is connected to the surface by floats. The mainline can extend from several hundred yards to several miles and may contain several hundred to several thousand baited hooks. longliner: A vessel specifically designed to catch fish using the longline fishing method. M Manu'a: An island group in the eastern part of American Samoa. Mau Zone: A fishery zone under the bottomfish FMP of the Western Pacific Council mothership: Vessel, typically anchored, to which catch is delivered. Typically motherships will process the catch onboard. Most motherships receive catch from several different vessels. MHI (main Hawaiian islands): The inhabited portion of the Hawaiian islands, composed of Hawaii, Kauai, Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Niihau, Kahoolawe, and Kaula. MSFCMA (Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act): Federal legislation responsible for establishing the fishery management councils and the mandatory and discretionary guidelines for federal fishery management plans. This legislation was originally enacted in 1976 as the Fishery Management and Conservation Act; its name was later changed to the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act, and in 1996 was renamed the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. mt (metric ton): 1,000 kilograms (equivalent to 2,206 pounds). multispecies: A fishery in which more than one species is caught or captured at the same time. In the case of the CDQ program, the multispecies quota includes all commercial species other than crab, halibut, sablefish, and pollock. N NMFS (National Marine Fisheries Service): Federal agency within the Department of Commerce responsible for overseeing fishery science and regulation. NMFS is part of NOAA NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration): Agency within the Department of Commerce responsible for ocean and coastal management. NMFS is part of NOAA.

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--> NPFMC (North Pacific Fishery Management Council): One of eight regional councils mandated in the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters off of the state of Alaska. It is comprised of voting members from NMFS, state fishery managers from Alaska, Washington, and Oregon, and individuals selected by the governors of the three states. Alaska has six voting members, Washington has three voting members, and Oregon has one voting member. Nonvoting members include the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other federal officials. NSEDC (Norton Sound Economic Development Corporation): Community Development Quota Association composed of the villages of Brevig Mission, Diomede/Inalik, Elim, Gambell, Golovin, Koyuk, Nome, Savoonga, Shaktoolik, St. Michael, Stebbins, Teller, Unalakleet, Wales, White Mountain. NWHI (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands): All islands in the Hawaiian Island chain Northwest of the Main Hawaiian Islands. P pelagic: The ocean surface, or the open ocean. PIAFA (Pacific Insular Area Fishing Agreement): Potential fishery agreement between the State of Hawaii, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, the uninhabited U.S. territories in the western Pacific, and foreign fishing nations. Such an agreement, if approved, would allow foreign vessels to fish within the U.S. EEZ by payment of fees in excess of administrative costs. These fees can be used to develop specific fishery-dependent research and development in the region. purse seine: Fishing for certain species, usually tuna, in which the school of fish is encircled with a large vertical net with a closable bottom. The fish are trapped by closing the bottom of the net. R recreational: Fishing where the primary intent of the fishing is for sport and pleasure and not the sale, barter, or trade of the fish. S setline: A long heavy fishing line to which several hooks are attached in a series. SSC (scientific and statistical committee): Fishery management advisory body composed of federal, state, and academic scientists that provides scientific advice to a fishery management council. surimi: A protein paste derived from processing raw fish. Surimi can be com-

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--> bined with flavoring agents and other substances to create marketable foodstuffs (e.g., imitation crab meat). T TAC (total allowable catch): Total catch permitted to be caught from a stock in a given time period, typically a year. In the United States, this limit is determined by fishery management councils in consultation with NMFS and scientific and statistical committees where they are used. transshipment: To transfer product from one ship to another at-sea for further transport of the product. trolling: Fishing technique where a lure is attached to a line dragged through the water. This technique is used in fishing for tuna and other pelagic species. trawling: Fishing technique in which a net is dragged behind the vessel and then retrieved when full of fish. This technique is used extensively in the harvest of pollock, cod, and other species in North Pacific fisheries. U U.S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries: Fishery regulatory body that preceded the National Marine Fisheries Service, the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, and the establishment of the fishery management councils. W WPRFMC (Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council): One of eight regional councils mandated in the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act to develop management plans for fisheries in federal waters off of the state of Hawaii, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and uninhabited territories in the Western Pacific. It is comprised of voting members from NMFS, state fishery managers from Hawaii, territorial representatives from the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam and American Samoa, and individuals selected by the governors of the four states. Hawaii has 5 voting members, the Northern Mariana Islands has 2 voting members, Guam has 2 voting members, and American Samoa has 3 voting members. Nonvoting members include the U.S. Coast Guard, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other federal officials. Y YDFA (Yukon Delta Fisheries Development Association): Community Development Quota Association composed of the villages of Alakanuk, Emmonak, Kotlik, and Sheldon Point.