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Conmbutors MASAHIKO AOKI is Takahashi Professor of Japanese Studies and Economics at Stanford University and professor of economics, University of Kyoto. Dr. Aoki has held faculty positions in economics at Harvard University. He is a fellow of the Econometric Society and an associate editor of the Internat'~l Journal of industrial Organizations; he serves on various government committees in Japan. Dr. Aoki received his B.A. and M.A. degrees in economics from the University of Tokyo and his Ph.D. in economics from the University of Minnesota. WILLIAM O. BAKER retired in 1980 as chain of the board of Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., following service since 1973 as president. He joined Bell Laboratories in 1939, becoming head of polymer research and development in 1948; from 1951 to 1954 he was assistant director of chemical and metallurgical research, and dunug the next year was director of physical sciences research. He became vice-president of research in 1955 and had overall responsibility for Bell Laboratories research programs for the next 25 years. Vice-chairman of the New Jersey Board of Higher Education and co-author of A Nation at Risk: The lmperanve for Educational Refonn (1983), he is a trustee of Carnegie- Mellon. Princeton, and Rockefeller (chain universities. On the Board of Overseers of the College of Engineenug and Applied Science at the University of Pennsylvania, he serves also as a trustee of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, the Fund for New Jersey, General Motors Cancer Research Foundation, the Charles Babbage Institute, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (chairman). He presently serves as director of the Summit Bancorporation, Johnson & Johnson, Annual Reviews, and the Health Effects Institute. Dr. Baker received a Ph.D. degree from Princeton University, holding Harvard and Proctor fellowships, after receiving a B.S. in physical chemistry from Washington College. 607

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608 CONTRIBUTORS -ROBERT HAYES BURNS BALDWIN is chairlllan of the Morgan Stanley Advisory Board, a select group of business and financial leaders who offer advice and counsel on key issues of importance to both Morgan Stanley and its clients throughout the world. He retired as chairman of Morgan Stanley, Inc., on January 1, 1984, after serving in that post since January 1983. He had served as president and managing director of Morgan Stanley from 1973 to December 1982. Mr. Baldwin joined Morgan Stanley in April 1946 and became a general penner in 1958. On June 30, 1965, he retired as a general partner and became a limited partner of the fern. The followin, day he was sworn in as Under Secretary of the Navy and remained in that position until July 31, 1967. He resumed a general partnership in Morgan Stanley & Co. on September 1, 1967. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations; a member of the Advisory Council of Stanford University's Graduate School of Business; a senior member of the Conference Board; chairman of Cities In Schools (Washington, D.C.); a director of Arthur J. Gallagher & Co. (Chicago) and of Organization Resources Counselors (New York); a trustee of the Presbyterian Hospital in the City of New York and chairman of the current fund drive for the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center; and a trustee of the Geraldine Rockefeller Dodge Foundation (Morristown, New Jersey) and of the Committee for Economic Development. Mr. Baldwin recently served as a member of President Reagan's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness. He is past-chairman of the Securities Industry Association and a past member of the Business Roundtable and its Policy Committee. STEPHEN D. BECHTEL, JR., is chairman of Bechtel Group, Inc., a leading world- wide engineering/construction fIrrn. First employed by one of the Bechtel companies in 1941, Mr. Bechtel held many jobs and responsibilities, both in the field and in the San Francisco home office, before being elected president in 1960. In 1973 he was elected chai',~an, a position that had been vacant since the retirement of his father, S. D. Bechtel, in 1965. Mr. Bechtel is chairman of the National Academy of Engineering; a member of the Business Council; a life-term councillor of the Conference Board; a member of the Board of Trustees of the California Institute of Technology; a member of Caltech's Building and Grounds Committee; a member of the President's Council, Purdue University; a director of the National Action Council on Minorities in Engineering; an honorary trustee of He California Academy of Sciences; an officer of the French Legion of Honor; a member of the Policy Co~r~ninee of the Business Roundtable; and a member of the Labor- Management Group. Mr. Bechtel's other business affiliations include board directorship of International Business Machines Corporation. Mr. Bechtel holds a B.S. degree in civil engineering from Purdue University and an M.B.A. from Stanford University School of Business. MICHAEL J. BOSKIN is professor of economics, chairman of the Center for Economic Policy Research at Stanford University, and research associate, National Bureau of Eco- nomic Research. He is the author of approximately 50 articles and editor of six volumes of essays on taxation, fiscal policy, capital formation, labor markets, social security, and related

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CONTRIBUTORS 609 subjects. The recipient of numerous honors and awards, Dr. Boskin received his B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees (the latter in 1971) from He University of California, Berkeley. He has been a consultant and frequent witness to the committees of Congress dealing with economic policy and to the Treasury Department. He was a member of several of President Reagan's economic policy task forces during the 1980 presidential campaign. Dr. Boskin's current research is focused on more comprehensive and conceptually proper government budgets, analysis of postwar U.S . consumption and saving, tax theory and policy, and social security and the economic status of the elderly. ALBERT BOWERS is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Syntex Corporation. Dr. Bowers joined Syntex in 1956 as a group leader in research and subsequently held a number of research and management positions in the international pharmaceutical and life sciences company. Among his major scientific accomplishments is his pioneering work in developing methods for the selective fluorination of steroids, leading to the synthesis of new topical corticoids for the treatment of skin diseases. He is a former chairman of the board and currently a director of the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of U.S. Leasing, Inc.; the Business-Higher Education Forum; and the Rockefeller University Council. He is a founding member of the Board of Trustees of the University of California San Francisco Foundation. Dr. Bowers was born in Manchester, England. He graduated from London University with a B.Sc. degree in chemistry, earned a Ph.D. degree in organic chemistry at the University of Manchester, and did postdoctoral studies in the United States under a Fulbnght Fellowship. HARVEY BROOKS is Benjamin Peirce Professor of Technology and Public Policy and Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Physics at Harvard University. He came to Harvard from General Electric in 1950 as professor of applied physics. He became dean of engineering and applied physics in 1957 and served in that capacity until 1975, when he was appointed professor of technology and public policy and transferred most of his teaching and research to the Kennedy School of Government, where he heads the Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program. Dr. Brooks has served in many government and quasi-government advisory positions, including those with the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards of He Atomic Energy Cornrnission, the President's Science Advisory Committee, the National Science Board, the Naval Research Advisory Committee, and various project advisory committees to the Office of Technology Assessment. He was also chairman of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Science and Public Policy and of its Commission on Socim technical Systems, and was cochai~Tnan with E. L. Ginzton of its Committee on Nuclear and Altemative Energy Systems, whose report, Energy in Transition, 1985-2010, was published in 1979. In 1982 Dr. Brooks was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Advanced Technology Competition and the Industrialized Allies. In 1983 he contributed an essay, `'Technology As a Factor in American Competitiveness," to the volume U.S. Competitiveness in the World Economy, edited by George Lodge and Bruce Scott and

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610 CONTRIBUTORS published by Harvard Business School Press as one in a series of colloquia in honor of the seventy-f~ anniversary of the Harvard Business School. He is a graduate of Yale University (A.B., 1937) and holds a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard (1940). H. W. COOVER retired as vice-president of Eastman Kodak Company in 1984. After joining the Eastman Kodak Company in 1944, he held positions of leadership in the research and development functions of the Tennessee Eastman Company and the Eastman Chemicals Division, including vice-president and director of research. Prom 1973 to 1981 he was executive vice-president and in 1981 was named vice-president of Eastman Kodak Company. After 1973 he had overall responsibility for the R&D program for the seven companies comprising the Eastman Chemicals Division of Eastman Kodak Company and had direct responsibility for the leadership of some 1,300 R&D scientists and engineers. Dr. Coover has devoted much tune and energy to achieving increased awareness among industrial research managers of their responsibility to be innovative and progressive in their approaches to He management of research. His creative leadership has inspired a number of commercially significant technological advances. Dunug the time of his lead- ership of its R&D effort, the Eastman Chemicals Division grew from $319 million in sales to $2.3 billion in 1983. Dr. Coover's management and leadership capabilities have been recognized by his peers through his participation in a number of research management organizations, including the Industrial Research Institute =), for which he served as president in 1981-1982. Under his leadership, a Strategic Plan for the 1980s was de- veloped to provide long-range direction in IRI. Dr. Coover is a graduate of Hobart College and received his master's and doctorate degrees in chemistry from Cornell University. He is the author of more than 60 papers and more than 400 patents. He is a member of numerous professional societies and a member of the National Academy of Engineenog. PAUL A. DAVID, professor of economics and professor of history by courtesy at Stanford University, was named the William Robertson Coe Professor of American Economic History in 1977. A former Fulbright Scholar, Guggenheim Fellow, Visiting Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, and the Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions at the University of Cambridge, Professor David is an elected fellow of the International Econometnc Society and a fellow of He American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received his A.B. degree in economics, summa cum laude, and his Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. Professor David is internationally known for his contributions to the development of a new approach to economic history in which the methods of modern economics are used in recons~uci~ng and analyzing the economic life of past eras. His research has focused on technological, institutional, and demographic factors in long-tenn economic change. He is the author of Technical Choice, Innovation and Economic Growth: Essays on American and British Experience in the Nineteenth Century and Reckoning With Slavery: A Critical Essay in the History of American Negro Slavery; editor of Nanons and House- holds In Economic Growth; and a frequent contributor to professional journals. Professor David has sewed recently as a consultant to the Committee on Science and Technology Policy of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and

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CONTRIBUTORS 611 currently codirects the Technological Innovation Program under the auspices of the Center for Economic Policy Research at Stanford University. GEORGE A. EADS is dean of the School of Public Affairs at the University of Maryland, College Park. He joined the school as a professor in December 1981. Between June 1979 and January 1981, Professor Eads served as a member of President Carter's Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) where he supervised the council's pariic- ipation in policy areas such as energy, agriculture, industry, and international trade. He was especially active in regulatory reform issues and, on behalf of CEA, chaired the Regulatory Analysis Review Group. He was the ITS. delegate to the High-Level Group on Positive Adjustment Policies of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and De- velopment and chaired the subgroup on Policy Transparency. He cochaired the interagency review of industrial policy undertaken by the Carter administration during the spring and summer of 1980. Prior to joining CEA, Professor Eads headed the Rand Corporation's Research Program in Regulatory Policies and Institutions, a program that he founded. He has also served as executive director of the National Commission on Supplies and Shortages, as assistant director for governmental operations and research of the Council on Wage and Price Stability, and as special assistant to the Assistant U.S. Attorney General, Antitrust Di- vision. He has taught at Harvard, Princeton, and the George Washington University. Professor Eads received his B.A. degree in economics from the University of Colorado and his graduate degrees in economics from Yale. ANN F. FRIEDLAENDER is a professor of economics and civil engineering and dean of the School of Humanines and Social Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- nolog~y (MIT). She came to Mll in 1974 as professor of economics and civil engineenog and served as head of the Department of Economics in 1983 and 1984. Prior to that she taught at Boston College from 1965 to 1974. Professor Friedlaender has served on a number of directorships, panels, and committees including the following: Board of Directors, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1983 to the present; Board of Directors, Consolidated Rail Corporation, 1978 to 1981; and Executive Committee, American Economic Association, 1981 to 1984. In addition, she has served on the Board of Editors of the following journals: Transportation Science, since 1979; Public Finance Quarterly, since 1972; Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1972 to 1978; and American Economic Review, 1973 to 1974. Professor Friedlaender received a B.A. degree from Radcliffe College in 1960 and a Ph.D. from MIT in 1964. N. BRUCE HANNAY was vice-president for research, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey, until 1982. Dr. Hannay joined Bell Laboratones in 1944. He is the author of approximately 80 technical articles, primarily in the areas of mass spectroscopy, molecular structure, semiconductors, and solid-state chemistry. He has served on many National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Sciences, and National Research Council committees and as an adviser to many univer- sities' government agencies, and international organizations. Dr. Hannay is a member of the National Academy of Engineenng, a member of the

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612 CONTRIBUTORS National Academy of Sciences, a corresponding member of the Mexican National Acad- emy of Engineenng, and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is past-president of the Electrochemical Society and of the Industrial Research Institute and past-chauman of Directors of Industrial Research. He is Chapman of science advisor councils at Atlantic Richfield and Gulf Applied Technologies and a member of advisory councils at Cortexa International Fund (Parisbas), SCIJTECH Holdings, Chrysler, Comsat, and United Technologies; he has also served on the Merck Institute Board of Scientific Advisors. He is on the Board of Directors of the General Signal Corporation, Plenum Publishing Corporation, Rohm and Haas Company, Alex. Brown Cash Reserve Fund and Tax-free Fund, and Flag Investors Fund. Dr. Hannay graduated from Swa~nore College in 1942 (B.A. in chemistry) and received M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in physical chemistry from Princeton University in 1943 and 1944, respectively. GEORGE N. HATSOPOULOS is the founder, chairman of the board' and president of Thermo Electron Corporation, a company whose principal business is the development and manufacture of process equipment and instruments for energy-intensive industries. Since its founding in 1956, Thermo Electron has grown to an international company win sales of over $250 million. Dr. Hatsopoulos received his education at the National Technical University of Athens and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) where he received his B.S. degree in 1949, M.S. degree in 1950, M.E. degree in 1954, and his Sc.D. degree in 1956. Dr. Hatsopoulos served on the faculty of MIT from 1956 to 1962 and has continued his association with the Institute, currently serving as senior lecturer. He is a member of the board of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston and a member of the board of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He has testified at numerous Senate and congressional hearings on national energy policy and capital formation and has served on many national committees on energy conservation, environmental protec- tion, and international exchange. Dr. Hatsopoulos is a member of the National Academy of Engineenug and received the Pi Tau Sigma Gold Medal Award for Outstanding Achievement in the Field of Engineering for the years 1950 to 1960. He is the principal author of Tree books, including Principles of General Therrno- c~namics (1965), and has published more than 60 articles in professional journals. WILLIAM R. HEWLETI is ~rice-cha~man of He board of the Hewlett-Packard Com- pany. With David Packard, he founded Hewlett-Packard in 1939. Mr. Hewlett is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He has been a trustee of the Carnegie Institution of Washington since 1971 and became chairman of the Board of Trustees in 1980. Mr. Hewlett previously served as a trustee of Stanford University and of the Rand Corporation and as a director of the Chase Manhattan Bank, Chrysler Corporation, and Utah International. Mr. Hewlett holds B.A. and E.E. degrees from Stanford University and an M.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1985 he received the National Medal of Science from President Ronald Reagan.

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COlVTRIBUTORS 613 EDWIN C. HOLMER is president of Exxon Chemical Company in Danen, Con- necticut, and is also a vice-president of Exxon Corporation. Exxon Chemical is responsible for Exxon's worldwide chemicals business. Mr. Holmer joined the Exxon organization in 1942 as a process engineer at the Bayway Refinery in Linden, New Jersey, after receiving a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Following a series of engineering assignments with Exxon Research and Engineenng Company, he was appointed assistant director of the Chemicals Research Division in 1956. In 1959 Mr. Holmer transferred to the Jersey Pro- duction Research Company in Oklahoma and was named president three years later. In 1964 Ex~con's exploration and production research organizations were combined into Exxon Pro- duction Research Company in Houston, and Mr. Holmer became its first president. He moved to Exxon Chemical in 1966 as senior vice-president and director, was appointed executive vice-president in 1968, was named executive vice-president of Esso Middle East in 1974, and assumed the presidency of Exxon Chemical in May 1976. Mr. Holmer is immediate-past-chairman of the Board of Directors of the Chemical Manufacturers Association; i~runediate-past-chairrnan and a member of the Executive Committee of the Society of Chemical Industry, American Section; a member of the Advisory Board of the Center for History of Chemistry; a member of the Board of Directors of the International Executive Service Corps; and a member of the Board of Directors of National Starch and Chemical Corporation. PETER W. HUBER, an associate of Science Concepts, Inc., in Washmgton, Am.;., is a lawyer and an engineer. He has a doctorate in mechanical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and served as an assistant and later associate professor at MIT for six years. His law degree is from Harvard Law School. He clerked on the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals for fudge Ruth Bader Ginsburg and then on the U.S. Supreme Court for Justice Sandra Day O'Connor. Mr. Huber's professional expertise is health, safety, and environmental regulation in federal administrative agencies and in the courts. He is the author of numerous papers and law review articles in this area, the latest of which is "Safety and the Second Best: The Hazards of Public Risk Management in the Courts,'' published in the March 1985 issue of the Columbia Law Review. DALE W. JORGENSON is currently Frederic Eaton Abbe Professor of Economics at Harvard University, where he has been professor of economics since 1969. Before amving at Harvard, Dr. Jorgenson taught at the University of Califoniia, Berkeley, from 1959 to 1969. He has been visiting professor of economics at Stanford University and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and visiting professor of statistics at Oxford University. He has also served as Ford Foundation Research Professor of Economics at He University of Chicago. Dr. Jorgenson was elected to membership in the National Academy of Sciences in 1918 and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1969. He was elected to fellowship in the A~mencan Association for the Advancement of Science in 1982, the An~encan Statistical Association in 1965, and the Econometnc Society in 1964. He received the John Bates Clark Medal of the American Economic Association in 1971. He holds a B.A. degree from Reed College and A.M. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University.

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614 CONTRIBUTORS MILTON KATZ is Henry L. Stimson Professor of Law and director of international legal studies, Harvard Law School, emeritus. He is currently Distinguished Professor of Law at Suffolk University Law School and is a past-president of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Mr. Katz has served in many academic, professional, and governmental capacities, including U.S. executive officer, combined Production and Resources Board (U.S.-U.K.- Canada); lieutenant commander, USNR, and deputy chief of secret intelligence, OSS; chief of the Marshall Plan in Europe (with rank of ambassador) and chairman of the Financial and Economic Committee of NATO; chain, National Research Council's Committee on the Life Sciences and Social Policy; and member of the National Academy of Engineenug's Committee on Technology and International Trade and Economic Issues. Mr. Katz is the author of numerous articles and books, including Foreign Economic Policy for the Twentieth Century (with others), (1958); (with Kingman Brewster) Law of International Transactions and Relations (1960~; The Things ThatAre Caesar's (1966); The Relevance of international Adjudication (1968~; Man's Impact on We Global Envi- ronment (with others), (1970~; Assessing Biomedical Technologies (with others), (1975); Technology, Trade, and the U.S. Economy (with others), (1978~; and Strengthening Conventional Deterrence in Europe A Proposal for the 1980's (with others). DONALD KENNEDY received his A.B., A.M., and Ph.D. degrees in biology from Harvard IJniversity. A Stanford faculty member since 1960, he received the Dinkelspiel Award, the university's highest honor for outstanding service to undergraduate education, in 1976. He was chairman of the Department of Biological Sciences from 1965 to 1972 and Chapman of the Program in Human Biology from 1974 to 1977. From 1976 to 1977 Dr. Kennedy served as senior consultant to the then-new Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, and in 1977 took a two-year leave to become commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration. In August of 1979 Dr. Kennedy returned to Stanford to become vice-president and provost, and on August 1, 1980, he became Stanford's eighth president. BURTON H. KLEIN is professor of economics, emeritus, of the California Institute of Technology. Prior to becoming a professor of economics at Caltech, he conducted numerous studies of research and development at the RAND Corporation. At Caltech, Dr. Klein has profited from lessons learned from other disciplines when bringing dynamic considerations into play. In his book Dynamic Economics (1977), he contrasted a static concept of stability (micros/ability) with a dynamic concept (macro- stability). He argued that unpredictable behavior at the microlevel leads to smooth progress at the macroleveh In Prices, Wages, and Business Cycles (1984), Dr. Klein provided a statistical demonstration of how the quest for micros/ability, especially if aided by gov- erTlment, can lead to increasingly large economic downturns. His current interests are to explain the particular behaviors necessary to assure the longer-run survival of ferns, and a new book, near completion, that will show that the anns race can be regarded as a positive-sum cooperative game between the various bureaucratic participants. Dr. Klein holds B.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University.

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CONTRIBUTORS 615 STEPHEN J. KLINE is professor of mechanical engineering and professor of values, technology, science and society at Stanford University. Since joining Stanford in 1952, Professor Kline has served as director of the Thermosciences Division and is currently supervisor of the Intemal Flow Program. Professor Kline has served as a consultant to various private corporations including General Motors Research, General Electric, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., and Proctor and Gamble. Professor Kline holds B.S. and M.S. degrees from Stanford, and he earned his Sc.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1981. RALPH LANDAU, former chairman of the board of The Halcon SD Group, Inc., New York City, is now with Listowel Incorporated. From 1941 to 1945 he was a process development engineer for M. W. Kellogg and head of the chemical department of Kellex Corporation, a subsidiary. In 194S Dr. Landau became executive vice-president of Sci- entific Design Company, Inc., of which he was cofounder and co-owner. In 1963 Sci- entific Design became Halcon International, Inc., with Dr. Landau as president. From 1975 he was chairman of this high technology company in the chemicals field; it was succeeded in 1981 by The Halcon SD Group, Inc. In 1966 he cofounded the Oxirane Company with Atlantic Richfield Corporation. Oxirane has become a major petrochemical company entirely based on new technology, with seven plants producing about 5 billion pounds of products per year. In 1980 Halcon sold its half-interest in Oxirane to ARCO. His numerous affiliations with universities and industry include the following: Dr. Landau is a life member of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Corporation and vice-president of the National Academy of Engineering; a life trustee of the University of Pennsylvania, a trustee of the California Institute of Technology, a trustee of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, and a director of the Aluminum Company of America. He is an adjunct professor of management, technology, and society of the University of Penn- sylvania. He is consulting professor of economics at Stanford University and a fellow of the faculty of the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1931 with a bachelor of science degree and in 1941 from Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a doctor of science; both degrees are in chemical engineering. In 1985 he was among the first recipients of the National Medal of Technology from President Ronald Reagan. ROBERT MALPAS, C.B.E., is a managing director of the British Petroleum Com- pany. He is chairman of BP Chemicals, BP Ventures, and Scicon International. He is responsible for the Group's Research and Development and for its Engineenng and Technical Centre. Mr. Malpas was born in England in 1927. He has a first class degree in mechanical engineering from Durham University. In 1948 Mr. Malpas joined Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI). Having become head of engineering in the Petrochemical Division, he was appointed a general manager of a joint venture in Spain in 1963, work for which he was awarded the Spanish Order of Civil Merit. From 1966 to 1975 he worked in ICI Europa, of which he was made chief executive in 1973, before becoming a main board

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616 CONTRIBUTORS director of ICI in 1975. In 1975 he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (C.B.E.~. In 1978 Mr. Malpas resigned from ICI to become president of Halcon International, Inc., a New York-based chemicals process research company, which was in 1982 acquired by Texas Eastern Corporation. He joined BP in 1983. EDWIN MANSFIELD is director of the Center for Economics and Technology and professor of economics at the University of Pennsylvania. Before joining the University of Pennsylvania faculty, he taught at Carnegie-Mellon, Yale, Harvard, and the California Institute of Technology. Professor Mansfield has been elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Econometric Society, and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, and he has held Fulbright and Ford Foundation fellowships. He received the 1982 Publication Award of the Patent Law Association and has served as U.S. chairman of the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Working Party on the Economics of Science and Technology. In 1984 he was appointed to the National Technology Medal Committee. He has been an editor of six journals, including the Journal of the America? Statistical Association, and is general editor of a series of books on technological change published by the Univeristy of Wisconsin Press. He is the author of 150 articles and 20 books, including leading texts In introductory economics, microeconomics, and statistics. JAMES D. MARVER is special partner/pnucipal in the San Francisco Corporate Finance Department at L.F. Rothschild, Unterberg, Towbin, where he divides his time between venture capital, private placements, and public offerings. Previously he was with Goldman, Sachs & Co. and SRI International (formerly Stanford Research Institute). The holder of a Ph.D. degree from the University of California, Berkeley, and a B.A. from Williams College, Mr. Marver has published a book, several chapters, and numerous articles and book reviews in such diverse fields as corporate finance, government regu- latory policy, social policy, and consulting. He has also been a consultant to many private and public organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, and has been a lecturer at California State University, San Jose. RUBEN F. ME l-l LER is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of TRW Inc. He was elected to his present position in December 1977, after serving as president and chief operating officer since 1969. He has been a director of the company since 1965. Dr. Mettler serves on the boards of BankAmenca Corporation and Merck & Company. He is chairman of the Board of Trustees of the California Institute of Technology, chairman of the Business Council, and a former chairman of the Business Roundtable. Dr. Mettler received the Eta Kappa Nu award for the Nation's Most Outstanding Young Electrical Engineer in 1954. The U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce named him one of the Ten Outstanding Young Men in America in 1955. In 1965 he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. In 1966 he received one of the first Alumni Distinguished Service Awards given by He California Institute- of Technology. Bom in Shafter, California, in 1924, Dr. Mettler attended Stanford and then the California Institute of Technology, where he received a B.S. degree in electrical engi- neering in 1944. In 1946, after completing Navy service, he entered graduate school at

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CONTRIBUTORS 617 Caltech and received an M.S. degree in 1947 and a doctorate in electrical and aeronautical . . eng~neenng two years later. GORDON E. MOORE is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Intel Corporation, a company that he cofonaded in 1968. Prior to that time he was director of research and development for the Semiconductor Division of Fairchild Camera and In- strument Corporation. He was one of the eight founders of Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in 1957; the organization evolved into the Semiconductor Division. Dr. Moore received a B.S. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1950 and a Ph.D. in chemistry and physics from the California Institute of Technology in 1954. In 1976 he was elected to membership in the National Academy of Engineenug. GLEN R. MORENO was born in California in 1943. He was educated at Stanford University (A.B. with Distinction, 1965) and Harvard Law School AD., 1969). He spent a year at the University of Delhi as a Rotary Foundation Fellow (1965-1966~. He joined Citibank in 1969 and is now group executive of Citicorp's Investment Bank for Europe/Middle East/Afuca. He is a member of Citicorp/Citibank Policy Committee, chairman of Citicorp Investment Bank Limited, and a director of several Citicorp affiliates. Mr. Moreno is a director of the Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields and a governor of the Ditchley Foundation. DAVID A. NORMAN is president and chief executive officer of Businessland, Inc., which he founded in 1982. Businessland computer centers sell and service microcomputers and related office automation equipment to business and professional people, in addition to providing customer training at each center. Before founding Businessland, Mr. Norman was president, chief executive officer, and director of DATAQUEST Incorporated, which he founded in 1971. He was responsible for all phases of management, consulting, research, and marketing. In 1978, DATAQUEST Incorporated became a wholly owned subsidiary of the A. C. Nielsen Company. He was also a founder and vice-president of Creative Strategies, a privately held research consulting fun. Mr. Nonnan received a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Minnesota and an M.S. degree in industrial engineering from Stanford University. DANIEL I. OKIMOTO is associate professor of political science and Director, Northeast Asia-United States Forum on International Policy at Stanford University. Professor Okimoto was a coeditor of and contributor to Competitive Edge: The Semi- conductor industry in Japan and the auditor of Between MITI and the Market: Japanese industrial Policy for High Technology (forthcoming from Stanford University Press) Professor Okimoto holds a B.A degree from Princeton University, an M.A. from Harvard University, and a Ph.D. in political science from the University of Michigan. KEITH L. R. PAVIlT is deputy director of the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at the University of Sussex. SPRU is a research group of natural and social scientists working on problems of policy for R&D and technical innovation, both in the industnal- ized and developing counties. From 1961 to 1970 Professor Pavitt worked at the Or-

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618 CONTRIBUTORS ganisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in the Directorate for Scientific Affairs on a variety of science and technology policy problems. He was a visiting lecturer at Princeton University in 1971, and from 1971 to 1984 he was a senior fellow at the Science Policy Research Unit' leading SPRU work on science and technology policy in industrial countries. Professor Pavitt is also director of studies for postgraduate research. His current research is on the sources, directions, and determinants of innovative activities and their implications for theory and for policy. Professor Pavitt read engineering and industrial management at Cambridge and eco- nomics and public policy at Harvard. WILLIAM J. PERRY is the managing partner of H&Q Technology Parmers. Prior to forming H&Q Technology Partners, he was an executive vice-president of Hambrecht & Quist Incorporated, an investment banking fine in San Francisco specializing in high technology companies. Before joining Hambrecht & Quist he was Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering. As the Under Secretary,, he was responsible for all weapon systems procurement and all research and development; he was the principal adviser to the Secretary of Defense on technology, communications, intelligence, and atomic energy. Dr. Perry was one of the founders of ESL, Inc., in 1964 and served as its president until 1977 when he entered government. Before that, he had been with Sylvania/General Telephone and was the director of the company's Electronic Defense Laboratories. He is currently a senior fellow at Stanford University and was elected to the National Academy of Eng~neenng in 1970. Dr. Perry is a director of ARGOSystems, Avantek, Par Technology, Inc. Stanford Telecommunications, Inc., and a number of private companies. He is a trustee of Rocke- feller University' MITRE Corporation, and the Carnegie Endowment for Intemational Peace and serves on a number of U.S. government advisory boards, including the Pres- ident's Commission on Strategic Forces and the Defense Science Board. Dr. Perry received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Stanford University and his Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University, all in mathematics. JOSEPH M. PETTIT is the eighth president of the Georgia Institute of Technology; he was appointed in October 1971 . Prior to that time he was at Stanford University where he served as professor of electrical engineering and dean of the School of Engineering. Before joining the Stanford faculty in 1947, Dr. Pettit spent five years in research and development at Harvard University and at the Airborne Instruments Laboratory, Inc., in New York. He was awarded the Presidential Certificate of Merit for his contributions in radar countermeasures dunug World War II. He served as a member of the National Science Board and is currently one of eight university presidents on the DOD/University Forum. Dr. Pettit is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and is currently chairman of its Education Advisory Board. He is a fellow of the Institute of Electncal and Electronics Engineers and the 1983 recipient of its Founders Medals He is a fellow and past-president of the Amencan Society for Engineering Education. JAMES BRIAN QUINN is William and Josephine Buchanan Professor of Management at the Amos Tuck School of Business Administration, Dartrnou~ College. Professor

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CONTRIBUTORS 619 Quinn is an authority in the fields of strategic planning, the management of technological change', and entrepreneurial innovation. He joined the Tuck School faculty in 1957 as assistant professor and assistant dean, having taught marketing for three years previously at the University of Connecticut. From 1951 to 1954 he was a new-product analyst in the research division of the Allen B. Dumont Laboratories, Inc. Professor Quinn has been the recipient of fellowships from the Alfred P. Sloan Foun- dation, the Ford Foundation, and the Fulbright Exchange Program. He has been a member of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development for the National Academy of Sciences and the Agency for International Development, and of the Technical Advisory Board of the U.S. Department of Commerce. He was chairman of the Academic Committee for the President's Domestic Policy Review on Innovation and Productivity, coordinated by the Department of Commerce. He has served on National Research Council teams on science and technology planning, technology transfer, and education for science and technology in Colombia, Peru, Nepal, and the People's Republic of China. Professor Quinn is a consultant to leading U.S. and foreign companies, the United States and foreign governments, and a number of small enterprises. He has published extensively on both corporate and national policy issues involving strategic planning, research and development management, and the management of entrepreneurial concerns. He holds a B.S. degree from Yale University, an M.B.A. from Harvard University, and a Ph.D. from Columbia University. JOHN S. REED became chairman and chief executive officer of Citicorp and its principal subsidiary, Citibank, N.A., on September 1, 1984. Before assuming the chair- manship, Mr. Reed had served as a vice-chairman with responsibilities for directing the worldwide consumer business and coordination of Citico~p's personnel planning and technological development. Mr. Reed is a trustee of the Russell Sage Foundation, a director of Philip Morris Inc., a director of Monsanto Company, and a trustee of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (New York). Other boards on which he serves include those of He Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences (Palo Alto, California), the New York Blood Center, and United Technologies Corpo ration. Mr. Reed received his B.A. degree from Washington and Jefferson College and his B.S. degree from MIT under a joint degree program in 1961. He returned to the Sloan School of MIT to earn his M.S. in 1965. CHARLES B. REEDER is chief economist for E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. in Wilmington, Delaware. He joined the Du Pant Company in 1955 as an associate economist and was appointed chief economist in 1970. Dr. Reeder is a member of several professional societies and was president of the National Association of Business Economists in 1966. He serves on the boards of the Bank of Delaware, the Delaware Council on Economic Education, the First Federal Savings Bank (of Delaware), and the Sigma mutual funds. He currently is chairman of He Delaware Econo~riic and Financial Advisory Council. He was the 1982 winner of the Annual Silbert Economic Forecasting Award sponsored by He Sterling National Bank & Trust Company of New York for accuracy in economic forecasting.

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620 CONTRIBUTORS He received his Ph.D. in economics from the Ohio State University in 1951, his master's degree in business administration from the Harvard Business School in 1947, and his bachelor's degree in business administration from the Ohio State University in 1945. STEPHEN S. ROACH is senior economist and a vice-president of Morgan Stanley & Company, Inc., and is responsible for the firm's forecasting and analysis of U.S. economic activity. Before joining Morgan Stanley in 1982 he was vice-president of economic analysis for the Morgan Guaranty Trust Company. Prior to that he served for six years on the research staff of the Federal Reserve Board in Washington, D.C., where he supervised the production of official staff forecasts of the U. S. economy. He has also been a research fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C. Dr. Roach holds a Ph.D. degree from New York University and a bachelor's degree from the University of Wisconsin. NATHAN ROSENBERG is chairman of the Department of Economics and professor of economics at Stanford University. Before assuming his current position, Dr. Rosenberg served as the Chapman of the Stanford Program on Values, Technology and Society and as director of the Stanford Program on Public Policy. Dr. Rosenberg is the author of numerous articles and several books focusing mostly on the history of technological change in industry. Before moving to Stanford in 1974, Dr. Rosenberg served on the faculty of the Uni- versity of Wisconsin, Harvard University, Purdue University, and the University of Pennsylvania. He was a Fulbnght Scholar at Queen's College, Oxford University' between 1952 and 1954 and a Visiting Rockefeller Professor at the University of the Philippines in 1970-1971. He served as editor of the Journal of Economic History between 1972 and 1974, and in 1981 Dr. Rosenberg became a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His most recent book, Inside the Black Box, was published by Cam- bridge University Press in 1982. Dr. Rosenberg earned his B.A. degree from Rutgers University and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Wisconsin. VERNON W. RU11AN is professor in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics and in the Department of Economics at the University of Minnesota. He has held academic appointments at Purdue University, and at the University of Minnesota where he served as professor and head of the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics from 1965 to 1970 and as director of the Economic Development Center from 1970 to 1973. Dr. Ruttan has also had substantial nonacademic experience. In 1961 and 1962 he served on the staff of the President's Council of Economic Advisers. Between 1963 and 1965 he was agricultural economist with the Rockefeller Foundation at the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines. He was president of the American Agricultural Economics Association in 1971-1972, and from 1973 to 1978 he was president of the Agricultural Development Council. His book (with Yujiro Hayami) Agricultural Development: An International Perspec-

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CONTRIBUTORS 621 tine (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971 and 1985) has become a standard reference in the field of agricultural development. He is also the author of Agricultural Research Policy, published by the University of Minnesota Press in 1982. He received his B.A. degree from Yale University in 1948 and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Chicago in 1952 and 1954, respectively. ROBERT A. SWANSON is a founder of Genentech, Inc., and served as the president from the tune he and Dr. Herbert Boyer founded the company in 1976 until 1985 when he became chief executive officer. He continues as a director. Before founding Genentech, Mr. Swanson was a parmer with Kleiner & Perkins venture capital partnership. From 1970 to 1974, he was an investment officer with Citicorp Venture Capital Ltd. Mr. Swanson has a B.S. degree in chemistry from He Massachusetts Institute of Technology ~ and an M.S. degree from He Alfred P. Sloan School of Management at MIT. JAMES D. WATSON is director of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Dr. Watson, a molecular biologist, shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology in 1962 with two British biophysicists, Dr. Maurice H. F. WiLkins and Dr. Francis H. C. Crick. Drs. Watson, Wilkins, and Crick were honored for their contribution to the understanding of the basic life process through their discovery of the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid, the substance of heredity. As a National Research Fellow, Dr. Watson did research in 1950-1951 in Copenhagen and 1951-1952 as a National Foundation of Infantile Paralysis Fellow in the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, England. From 1953 to 1955 he was a senior research fellow in biology at He California Institute of Technology. He joined the Harvard faculty in 1955 and became associate professor of biology in 1958 and professor in 1961. Beginning in 1965 he served on the Board of Trustees for the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in Cold Spnog Harbor, Long Island, New York, becoming director of the laboratory in 1968 while continuing as a professor at Harvard. In June 1976 he resigned from Harvard in order to serve full time as director. JOHN A. YOUNG is president and chief executive officer of Hewlett-Packard Com- pany. He has served as Hewlett-Packard's chief executive officer since May 1978 and as chairman of the Executive Committee of the company's Board of Directors since March 1983. He had served as the company's chief operating officer and president since Sew tember 1977. Mr. Young joined Hewlett-Packard's marketing planning staff in 1958 after receiving an M.B.A. from Stanford University. He subsequently served as a regional sales manager, a member of the corporate finance staff, and ma~enag manager of the folksier Microwave Division. In 1963 he was appointed Microwave Division general manager. In 1968 Mr. Young was named vice-president of the company and assumed respon- sibility for the newly formed Electronic Products Group, which included He instruments, components, and measuring systems produced by Hewlett-Packard. He was appointed executive vice-president and elected to the company's Board of Directors in September 1974. At the sane tune, he was named to the Executive Committee, established to coordinate all phases of the company's operations. As executive vice-president, Mr. Young was responsible for Hewlett-Packard's Instrument, Computer Systems and Com- ponent Groups.

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622 CONTRIBUTORS Mr. Young is a director of the Wells Fargo Bank, Wells Fargo & Company, and SRI Intemational. He is cochairman of the Western Technical Manpower Council, a member of the Business Council' the Business Roundtable, and the Executive Committee of Machinery and Allied Products Institute. He also serves on the Board of Governors for the San Francisco Symphony Association and is a member of the Board of Directors of the Bay Area Council. His professional affiliations include membership in the American Electronics Association. On June 2S, 1983. Mr. Young was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to be chairman of the President's Commission on Industrial Competitiveness. ED ZSCHAU came to Congress from Silicon Valley in California' where he had founded an electronics company, System Industries, in 1968. He served as president of System Industries for 13 years, until he resigned to run for Congress in 1982. Today, the company has annual sales of more than $100 million and employs about 800 people. Prior to founding System Industries, Dr. Zschau was an assistant professor at the Stanford Graduate School of Business and the Harvard Business School for five years. He received an A.B. in philosophy (cum laude) from Princeton University in 1961 and attended Stanford University where he received an M.B.A. in 1963, an M.S. in statistics in 1964, and a Ph.D. in business administration in 1967. [)r. Zschau's interest in politics grew from his industry leadership activities. In 1978, as a private citizen, he chaired the Capital Formation Task Force of the American Elec- tronics Association, which proposed and lobbied for a significant reduction of capital gains tax rates that year. Since then he has served as a spokesman on the issues of high technology, innovation, small business, and economic growth. Funds for the National Academy of Engineering Symposium Series on Technology and Social Priorities, which supported the Symposium on Economics and Technology, were provided by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation of New York. and the Academy Industry Program. Center for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) sponsorship of the Symposium on Eco- nomics and Technology was supported by the Koret Conference Senes, which is operated by CEPR with funds provided by the Koret Foundation. The Symposium on Economics and Technology was also supported by the Industrial Affiliates Program of the Stanford University Departments of Chemistry and Chemical . . . . :ng~neenng. The views expressed in this volume are those of the authors and are not presented as the views of the Mellon Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation, the Academy Industry Program, the Koret Foundation, or the Industrial Affiliates Program.