Antibiotic susceptibility:

Opposite of resistance; applies to bacteria that are killed or inhibited by an antibiotic. Susceptibility to a particular antibiotic does not mean that the bacteria are susceptible to all antibiotics.

Antibody:

Any body or substance, soluble or cellular, that is evoked by the stimulus provided by the introduction of an antigen and that reacts specifically with the antigen in some demonstrable way.

Antifungal:

Antagonistic to fungi.

Antigen:

Chemical structure on or in a cell that is recognized by the immune system. The immune system produces antibodies that react with antigens.

Antimicrobials:

Class of substances that can destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria. See antibiotics.

Antiretroviral:

Agent that is destructive to retroviruses.

Antiviral:

Opposing a virus, weakening or abolishing its action.

Asymptomatic:

Producing no symptoms.

Avoparcin:

Glycopeptide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces candidus; an antibacterial.


Bacteremia:

Pathologic state characterized by the presence of bacteria in the blood.

Bacteria:

Microscopic, single-celled organisms some of whose biochemical and structural features differ from those of animal and plant cells.

Bactericidal:

Term for agents that kill bacteria.

Beta-lactam antibiotics:

Most widely used class of antibiotics: comprised of penicillins, cephalosporins including ceftriaxone and ceftazidime, carbapenems, monobactams, and imipenem. ß-Lactam antibiotics act by inhibiting the synthesis of peptidoglycan, the major component of a bacterial cell wall.

Biosynthesis:

Formation of a chemical compound by enzymes, either in the organism (in vivo) or in fragments or extracts of cells (in vitro).

Breakpoint:

Concentration of antibiotic determined using antibiotic susceptibility tests that marks the division either between the resistant and intermediate response or between the intermediate and susceptible response.

Broad-spectrum antibiotic:

Antibiotic effective against a large number of bacterial species; generally describes antibiotics effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.


Campylobacter:

Bacterial genus with a characteristic corkscrew-like motion, found in the oral cavity, intestinal tract, and reproductive organs of humans and animals. Some species may be pathogenic, causing enteritis and systemic disease in humans.

Cell culture:

Propagation of cells in a laboratory environment.

Chromosome:

As used in this report, the circular DNA that contains the genes for functioning of a bacterium.



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