mental approaches" by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (civil works) on June 25, 1990, the Corps embraced environmental restoration as a primary project purpose. The document states:

Maintaining and restoring the health of the environment is an important goal of the President. Investments to achieve this goal are responsible investments—if they are made with due care, thought and foresight. New approaches in the regulatory program, in new construction, in operation and maintenance, and in support of the other agencies are being adopted by the Army Corps of Engineers to align the Civil works program with the President's goal.

Civil Works funds are to be used for justified (based on consideration of both monetary and nonmonetary effects), cost shared proposals which restore to historic levels environmental values in situations where (1) a Civil Works project has contributed to degradation, or (2) where restoration can be cost effectively accomplished through modification of an existing Civil Works project.

Assistant Secretary of the Army for Civil Works, Nancy Dorn, reiterated this position in 1992 in a letter to Max Peterson of the International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies. She wrote: "Early in 1990, we announced an environmental initiative for the Corps water resources development program which included the establishment of fish and wildlife restoration as a priority project output. We have provided strong budgetary support for this initiative" (emphasis added).

Integrating Ecology into Water Resources Planning

Many of the Corps' customers view the accommodation of new ecological knowledge as a dramatic shift in program emphasis. Some fear that the emerging focus on ecological processes in water resources management will detract from the Corps' traditional missions in flood damage reduction and navigation. It is more accurate to view the incorporation of ecological knowledge into the Corps' portfolio as broadening, rather than abandoning, its traditional programs. The Corps project of the future (and some Corps projects today) will incorporate environmental protection and restoration as primary objectives of water resources planning, and frequently as a means of achieving other water management objectives.

The Corps' involvement in watershed-scale, environmentally oriented water resources management processes is generally motivated by a blend of federal interests, such as the need to maintain navigation or reduce flood damages while conserving endangered species or restoring fishery resources. These projects often cross agency jurisdictions and require interagency participation. Many involve the alteration of structures built to perform a narrower range of tasks. These structures, including dams, levees, and drainage canals, are currently undergoing operating criteria reformulation or structural modifications to support environmental objectives,



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