Betts, R.A., P.M. Cox, S.E. Lea, and F.I. Woodward, 1997. Contrasting physiological and structural vegetation feedbacks in the climate change simulations. Nature 387, 796-799.
Bindoff, N.L., and J.A. Church, 1992. Warming of the water column in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Nature 357, 59-62.
Bindoff, N.L., and T.J. McDougall, 1994. Diagnosing climate change and ocean ventilation using hydrographic data. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 24, 1137-1152.
Bindoff, N.L., and T.J. McDougall, in press. Decadal changes along an Indian Ocean section at 32°S and their interpretation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
Bingham, F.M., 1992. Formation and spreading of subtropical model water in the North Pacific. J. Geophys. Res. 97, 11177-11189.
Biondi, F., C.B. Lange, M.K. Hughes, and W.H. Berger, 1997. Interdecadal signals during the last millennium (AD 1117-1992) in the varve record of Santa Barbara basin, California. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 193-196.
Bitz, C.C., 1997. A Model Study of Natural Variability in the Arctic Climate, Ph.D. thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 200 pp.
Bitz, C.M., D.S. Battisti, R.E. Moritz, and J.A. Beasley, 1996. Low-frequency variability in the Arctic atmosphere, sea ice, and upper-ocean climate system. J. Climate 9, 394-408.
Bjorgo, E., O.M. Johannessen, and M.W. Miles, 1997. Analysis of merged SMMR-SSMI time series of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice parameters 1978-1995. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 413-416.
Blunier, T., J. Chapellaz, J. Schwander, J. Barnola, T. Desperts, B. Stauffer, and D. Raynaud, 1993. Atmospheric methane record from a Greenland ice core over the last 1000 years. Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2219-2222.
Blunier, T., J. Schwander, B. Stauffer, T. Stocker, A. Dällenbach, A. Indermühle, J. Taschumi, J. Chappellaz, D. Raynaud, and J.-M Barnola, 1997. Timing of temperature variations during the last deglaciation in Antarctica and the atmospheric CO2 increase with respect to the Younger Dryas event. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 2683-2686.
Blunier, T., J. Chappellaz, J. Schwander, A. Dällenbach, B. Stauffer, T.F. Stocker, D. Raynaud, J. Jouzel, H.B. Clausen, C.U. Hammer, and S.J. Johnsen, 1998. Asynchrony of Antarctic and Greenland climate change during the last glacial period. Nature 394, 739-743.
Bonan, G., D. Pollard, and S.L. Thompson, 1992. Effects of boreal forest vegetation on global climate. Nature 359, 716-718.
Bond, G.C., and R. Lotti, 1995. Iceberg discharges into the North Atlantic on millennial time scales during the last glaciation. Science 267, 1005-1010.
Bond, G.C., W. Showers, M. Cheseby, R. Lotti, P. Almasi, P. deMenocal, P. Priore, H. Cullen, I. Hajdas, and G. Bonani, 1997. A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates. Science 278, 1257-1266.
Booth, C.R., and S. Madronich, 1994. Radiation amplification factors: Improved formulation accounts for large increases in ultraviolet radiation associated with Antarctic ozone depletion. In Ultraviolet Radiation in Antarctica: Measurements and Biological Research, C.S. Weiler and P.A. Penhale (eds.), AGU Antarctic Research Series, v. 62, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp. 39-42.
Bradley, R.S., 1988. The explosive volcanic eruption signal in Northern Hemisphere continental temperature records. Clim. Change 12, 221-243.
Bradley, R.S., and P.D. Jones, 1992. Climate Since A.D. 1500. Routledge, New York, 679 pp.
Bradley, R.S., and P.D. Jones, 1993. "Little Ice Age" summer temperature variations: Their nature and relevance to recent global warming trends. Holocene 3, 367-376.
Brecher, H.H., and L.G. Thompson, 1993. Measurement of the retreat of Qori Kalis in the tropical Andes of Peru by terrestrial photogrammetry. Photogram. Eng. Remote Sensing 59, 1017-1022.
Briffa, K.R., T.S. Bartholin, D. Eckstein, P.D. Jones, W. Karlen, F.H. Schweingruber, and P. Zetterburg, 1990. A 1400-year tree-ring record of summer temperatures in Fennoscandia. Nature 346, 434-439.
Briffa, K.R., P.D. Jones, F.H. Schweingruber, S.G. Shiyatov, and E.R. Cook, 1995. Unusual twentieth-century warmth in a 1000-year temperature record from Siberia. Nature 376, 156-159.
Broccoli, A.J., and S. Manabe, 1990. Can existing climate models be used to study anthropogenic changes in tropical cyclone climate? Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 1917-1920.
Broccoli, A.J., N.-C. Lau, and M.J. Nath, in press. The cold ocean-warm land pattern: Model simulation and relevance to climate change detection. J. Climate.
Broecker, W., 1991. The great ocean conveyor. Oceanography 4, 79-89.
Broecker, W., 1994. Massive iceberg discharges as triggers for global climate change. Nature 372, 421-424.
Broecker, W., and G.H. Denton, 1989. The role of ocean-atmosphere reorganizations in glacial-cycles. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53, 2465-2501.
Brown, R.D., and B.E. Goodison, 1996. Interannual variability in reconstructed Canadian snow cover 1915-1992. J. Climate 9, 1299-1318.
Bruun, P., 1962. Sea-level rise as a cause of shore erosion. J. Waterways Harbors Div., Proc. Soc. Civil Eng. 88, 117-130.
Bryden, H.L., D. Roemmich, and J. Church, 1991. Oceanic heat transport across 24 degrees N in the Pacific. Deep-Sea Res. 37, 297-324.
Bryden, H.L., M.J. Griffiths, A.M. Lavin, R.C. Millard, G. Parrilla, and W.M. Smethie, 1996. Decadal changes in water mass characteristics at 24ºN in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. J. Climate 9, 3162-3186.
Budyko, M.I., 1969. The effect of solar radiation variations on the climate of the Earth. Tellus 21, 611-619.
Bush, A.B.G., and S.G.H. Philander, 1998. The role of ocean-atmosphere interactions in tropical cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum. Science 279, 1341-1344.
Businger, J.A., and S.P. Oncley, 1990. Flux measurement with conditional sampling. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech. 7, 349-352.
Campbell, I.D., and J.H. McAndrews, 1993. Forest disequilibrium caused by rapid Little Ice Age cooling. Nature 366, 336-338.
Cane, M.A., and S.E. Zebiak, 1987. Predictability of El Niño events using a physical model. In Atmospheric and Oceanic Variability, H. Cattle (ed.), Royal Meteorological Society Press, London, pp. 153-182.
Cane, M.A., S.E. Zebiak, and S.C. Dolan, 1986. Experimental forecasts of El Niño. Nature 321, 827-832.
Cane, M.A., A.C. Clement, A. Kaplan, Y. Kushnir, D. Pozdnyakov, R. Seager, S. Zebiak, and R. Murtugudde, 1997. Twentieth-century sea surface temperature trends. Science 275, 957-960.
Carmack, E.C., R.W. Macdonald, R.G. Perkin, F.A. McLaughlin, and R.J. Pearson, 1995. Evidence for warming of Atlantic water in the southern Canadian basin of the Arctic Ocean: Results from the Larsen-93 expedition. Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1061-1064.
Carmack, E.C., K. Aagaard, J.H. Swift, R.W. Macdonald, F.A. McLaughlin, E.P. Jones, R.G. Perkin, J.N. Smith, K. Ellis, and L. Kilius, in press. Changes in temperature and contaminant distributions within the Arctic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res.
Cavalieri, D.J., P. Gloersen, C.L. Parkinson, J.C. Comiso, and H.J. Zwally, 1997. Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes. Science 278, 1104-1106.
Cayan, D.R., 1996. Interannual climate variability and snowpack in the western United States. J. Climate. 9, 928-948.
Cayan, D.R., and D.H. Peterson, 1989. The influence of the North Pacific atmospheric circulation and streamflow in the West. In Aspects of Climate Variability in the Western Americas, D.H. Peterson (ed.), Geophys. Monogr. 55, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp. 375-397.
Cessi, P., and G.R. Ierley, 1995. Symmetry-breaking multiple equilibria in quasigeostrophic, wind-driven flows. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 1196-1205.
Chahine, M.T., 1992. The hydrological cycle and its influence on climate. Nature 359, 373-380.
Chameides, W.L., P.S. Kasibhatla, J. Yienger, and H. Levy III, 1994. Growth of continental-scale metro-agro-plexes, regional ozone production, and world food production. Science 264, 74-77.