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1 - l COLOR WELL _ ~ 1 == V o Ct e, Cat 0 ~ 1 ~ V 1:. U} ~ ~O . Vat OV V] C 50 r ~ O ~Z Z O ~ ~ ~ ~ e' ~no . ~

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COLOR WELL Arctic Ocean Interbas~n Exchange _ North Atlantic ~ Subpolar l Gyre System # ~no 2 ~180 -Subtropical Gyres -- Equatona1 and Tropical Circulations Inter-Gyre and/or Interbasin Exchanges Polar & Subpolar Current Systems PLATE 2 The global distribution of upper-ocean flow, which is primarily wind-driven. (From Schmitz, 1996; reprinted with permission of the Woods Holes Oceanographic Institution.) c - ~ ~uI4x,> Too TIC 1 ~k PLATE 3 Schematic of the global thermohaline circulation. (From Schmitz. graphic Institution.) ~ _ - ~ ) -~ VO2T=L MIXING _ _ a_ _ ~ F~=E~ - SAMW Subantarctic Mode Water AAIW Antarctic Intermediate Water RSOW Red Sea Overflow Water NPDW North Pacific Deep Water AABW Antarctic Bottom Water NPDW North Pacific Deep Water AAC Antarctic Circumpolar Current CDW Circumpolar Deep Water NADW North Atlantic Deep Water UPPER IW 26.8 < use < 27.25 IODW Indian Ocean Deep Water 1996; reprinted with permission of the Woods Hole Oceano

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3 COLOR WELL , ~ ~ . . . ' ~ ~ 100m . ._ . . _ . . _ ~. . _ - . . _ - . . . . . _ . . - N; ~- N ~ _ S . . . . . (D . : ~ :: m : : - - - ~ _ - ~. : ~ .. . . _ , . . US ; . _ : . C 6 ~ ....... F`1 995 rot - ~1 991 =. ~1 ~ ~ ~ ~ :~^ ~,.h,,, , . I; ~ .,. A., ~ ~ .: . , ~ . . - :. . . , .~.,...~.,". ~. . ~, ~ ~ ~r Qori~ Kalis Glacier, .. - .. - - ~ -I 2 "'. am':: 14 ' ' a . . . : 6 -16 . -18 -20 22 . . . . . .. -: . : Annual Average 6180-Huascaran Core 2 ~ ... . . .. ~ I it it it l~tI~lillllil,leltI~ 199S : 1975 : 19~ : | :: Year . ~I . -16' 8 -17 o o -18 air 60 -1g -21 1935 1915~1900 '_: _~ i" _ -. _ ion Year Averanes S"0 - Huascaran Core 2 1 1 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Time (yr BP) PLATE 4 Climate change in the Peruvian Andes. Upper part, a map of the changes in extent of the tropical glacier Qori Kalis from 1963 to 1995, with photographs of the change over 8 years. The left-hand graph relates the shrinkage of Qori Kalis to the rising temperatures indicated by the ice-core data below it. Lower part, oxygen-isotope values from a Huascaran ice core. Bottom panel, century averages; top panel, annual averages since 1900. (After Thompson et al., 1995; reprinted with permission of the American Association for the Advance- ment of Science.) (Figure courtesy of Lonnie G. Thompson, Byrd Polar Research Center.)

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COLOR WELL it; I. ~ ;~ ~ (. ~e ~ .e ~ of _~ ~Off ~ ~ *-- e ~ e e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~e5-rang 3~_e o ~ ~ e o ~ ~ ~L. ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~Q 0 ~ e * o ~, . O `% ~ ~ O O ~ -T ~O ~~,~o e ~ ~ 0 0 o~Z ~. ~60 .,.; _ ~0 - . . ,, 206 ,S- 0 ~ e ~ ~ e Trends % ~ to `. 20 ~ 50 O 100 ~ ~ 200 al ~e ~ Coo 0, 0 O e ~ O . . ~ a 0 .. . . . . . _ . . 4 ~e ~ O ~ O ~ ._. 0 MEL e ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ 0 - ~.O.O~.O_ .O~, ~40N 0 he ~ ~ . . ~ ~ o. . . 0 - 4~=h . 20N ;' 0 ~;c ' A- .~0 ..0~p%e- ~0 _ o ~ ~ ~_ ~ Ones ~ 0 . 0~` ~ . ~ ~ v 011. 0.00 0 ~0,* . _0~;, ~ 40S PLATE 5 Precipitation trends over land, 1900-1995. The trend is expressed in percent per century relative to the mean precipitation from 1961-1990. The magnitude of the trend at each location is reflected in the size of the circle. Green circles represent increases in precipitation, and brown circles represent decreases. (From IPCC, 1998; reprinted with permission of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.) A_ Cal C) o ~ cog _I en P4 cog by cog o ' i' ;~S~, 1:_ _ ~ -: i, :, in, ~ -., ~ if: Shatopphe}e. : Ozone 1 Confidence Level VERY VERY VERY HIGH LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW PLATE 6 Estimates of the globally and annually averaged anthropogenic radiative forcing (in W m-2) attributable to changes in concentra- tions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from pre-industrial times to the present day, and to natural changes in solar output from 1850 to the present day. Error bars are shown for all forcings. The indirect effect of sulfate aerosols through their interaction with clouds is so uncertain that no central estimate of radiative forcing is provided. (From IPCC, 1996a; reprinted with permission of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.)