Click for next page ( 488


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 487
Index A ACTION, 79, 80, 96, 315, 319 Adkins Employability Skills Series Program, 126 Agriculture Department, 74, 79, 97 Alternative Youth Employment Strategies, 11, 120-123, 135 Albuquerque, 120 Miami, 120 New York City, 120 American Preparatory Institute Program, 126 Angrisani, Albert, 330 Apprenticeship Training, Bureau of, 116 Assistant Secretary for Policy Evaluation and Research, Office of, 81, 97, 287, 301, 302, 317 B Barnicle, Tim, 329 Benefit-cost analyses, 16, 31 See also Job Corps; Supported Work Black employment, 34-68, 367-409 See also Employment and unemployment; specific programs Borus, Michael, 335 Brandeis University Center for Employment and Income Studies (CEIS), 6, 81, 97, 99, 165, 178, 265-270, 304, 317, 320, 324, 330, 332, 334 487 Brandwein, Seymour, 301, 309 Briggs, Vernon, 326 Budgets and appropriations, see Funding and expendi- tures; specific programs Butler, Erik, 323, 327, C Califano, Joseph, 298 Career Exploration Program, OIC/A, 12, 127-131, 135 Career Intern Program, 84, 88 Carp, Bert, 298 Carter administration, 1, 69-72, 281, 289-299, 328-329 Census Bureau, 254 Center for Employment and Income Studies (CEIS), see Brandeis University Center for Employment and Income Studies Center for Studies in Social Policy, 130 Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII, 57 Community-based organizations (CBOs), 72, 85, 87-88, 295 Community Services Administra- tion, 79, 80, 96, 314, 315, 319 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA), 69 expenditures, 75 public service employment 70-71, 73, 297 service delivery system 294-296, 323-324

OCR for page 487
488 Department of, see specific departments Discrimination legislation prohibiting, 57 overview, 55-56 social context of, 64-65, 348-366 YEDPA integration, 71-72, 292 Computer-assisted education, 126 Conference of Mayors, U.S., 82, 317 Consolidated Youth Employment Demonstration Project, 92, 311 Continuous Longitudinal Manpower Disemployment and Survey (CLMS), 6, 31-32, 97, 175-178, 254-264, 274 Corporate Career Demonstration Projects, 91 Corporation for Public/Private Ventures, 6, 81, 164, 314, 315, 318 Corporation for Youth Enterprises, 6, 81, 314, 315, 318 Cranston, Alan, 289 Criminal activity, YEDPA programs effect on, see Job Corps D Darr, Jim, 328 Data bases, 321 CLMS, 6, 31-32, 97, 175-178, 254-264, 274 JTLS, 31-32 NLS, 6, 97, 175-176, 178, 254-258, 264-274 SAS, 97, 175, 180-181, 193-219, 320-321 Davis-Bacon Act, 85, 90 Delivery systems, see Service delivery Demography childbearing and marital patterns, 59 youth cohort size, 2, 58-60, 67 Demonstration projects, 91 needs assessment, 92 political background, 71, 291-293, 312 purpose and funding, 69, 77-83 See also Youth Incentive Entitlement Pilot Projects; . . SpeCl: 1C programs displacement, 54-55, 57, 72, 150-151, 155-157, 159, 294 Dropouts, see Out-of-school youths; specific employment programs E Earnings and wages discrimination in, 56 minimum wage laws, 54-55 prevailing wage issue, 29 4 reservation wage, 14, 62 subminimum wage, 294 youth/adult earnings ratio, 51-52 See also specific programs Economic changes, 53-54 Edelman, Peter, 327 Edes, Nik, 289, 291 Education, see School enrollment Educational attainment, YEDPA programs effect on, see specific programs Educational Testing Service, 6, 82, 97, 180, 320-321 Employment and Training Administration, 70, 73, 99, 281, 299 Employment and unemployment demand for labor, 53-58, 62-63 early unemployment, effects, 64 earnings figures, 51-52 employment-to-population rates, 2, 38-39, 65-67 entry into labor force, 49-51 family background effects, 63-64 frictional wage-search unemployment, 373-374

OCR for page 487
489 Hispanic youth, 410-461 inactivity rates, 46-49 in-school and out-of-school youth employment, 40-43 job turnover figures, 49-51 labor force participation rates, 43-46 overview, 1-2, 52, 67-68, 369-376 racial differences, statistical analysis of 1980 Census data, 367-409 seasonal and cyclical unemployment, 370-373 social background effects, 64-65, 348-366 structural unemployment, 374-376 supply of labor, 58-63 unemployment rates, 34-38, 65 youth cohort size effects, 2, 58-60, 67 Employment programs economic and racial isolation of, 88-89 effectiveness estimates derived from national data bases, 97, 175-181, 254-280 evaluation procedures, 3-4, 99-107, 220-230 improvement of evaluation methods, 231-243 improvement of quality and interpretability of evaluation reports, 243-246 in-school programs design, 26-27 jobs creation achievement, 21 JTPA framework, 28-30 local implementation, 6-7, 83-84 matching of needs and services, 91-92 planning and assembling of, 84-86 quality monitoring, 92-93 school dropouts' needs, 23-26 school systems' relationship, 22-24, 33, 84-85 staffing and organizing activities, 90-91 social context, 348-366 target groups, 105-106 targeting, recruiting, and enrolling participants, 7-8, 86-89 types and goals, 103-105 young women's participation, 27-28, 462-485 See also specific programs Employment Service, U.S., 82, 88 Energy Department, 79, 80, 97, 316, 319 Entitlement program, see Youth Incentive Entitlement Pilot Projects Equal Pay Act of 1962, 57 Esch, Marvin, 291 Executive Order 11246, 57 Expenditures, see Funding expenditures; specific programs F Family influences, 63-64 Federal agencies interagency agreements, 6, 79, 80, 96-97, 315-316, 318-319 intraagency projects, 6, 81-82, 97, 316-317, 319 program recruitment efforts, 88 Female employment, see Employment and unemployment; specific programs Financial assistance, 26 Funding and expenditures CETA expenditures, 75 YEDPA annual appropriation, 1, 69-70, 281 YEDPA discretionary and demonstration projects, 77-83 YEDPA expenditures, 73-77 See also specific programs

OCR for page 487
490 G Gililand, Richard, 330 Glynn, Tom, 327 Green, Ernest, 289 Gutman, Robert, 333 H Hahn, Andrew, 308-309, 318, 321, 330, 334 Hausman, Leonard, 308 Hawkins, Augustus, 291 Health, Education, and Welfare Department tHEW), 79, 80, 96-97, 298, 316, 319 Health status of program participants, 112 Higgins, Kitty, 327 Hispanic employment, 68 immigrant labor, 58-59 See also Employment and unemployment; specific programs Housing and Urban Development Department (HUD), 79, 80, 96 Humphrey, Hubert, 289, 290 I Immigrant labor, 58-59 Income maintenance program effects, 55 In-school youths, see School enrollment Interagency agreements, 6, 79, 80, 96-97, 315-316, 318-319 Interior Department, 74, 79, 97 Intermediary organizations, 6, 81, 83, 96, 314, 315, 318 Intraagency projects, 6, 81-82, 97, 316-317, 319 J Jackson, Henry, 289, 290 Javits, Jacob, 289, 290 Job Corps, 69, 73, 102, 281, 296, 299, 335 benefit-cost analyses, 110, 114 criminal activity, effect on, 10, 110, 112, 114 expenditures, 77, 283, 284 participation figures, 78 research design and results, 9-10, 16, 19, 110-116, 118 target group, program approach, and administra- tion, 74, 108, 109, 111, 282 Job Corps Educational Improvement Effort (EIE), 120-122, 126-127 University of Florida, 126 University of Kentucky, 126 Job Factory, 16, 161-163, 165-166 Cambridge, Mass., 165 Job Factory Voucher Program, 161-163, 166-167 Job placement programs, 15-16, 105, 161-174 Job Track, 161-163, 167 San Francisco, 167 Job Track II, 167 Job Training Longitudinal Survey Data Base (JTLS), 31-32 Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), 28-30, 329, 333 Job turnover figures, 49-51 Jobs for America's Graduates, 16, 19, 168-170, 172, 174 Northeastern University study, 168, 172 Temple University study, 168, 173 Jobs for Delaware Graduates, 16, 131, 168-172, 174 Johnson, Richard, 289, 290, 300 K Kennedy, Edward, 289 Knowledge development, see Youth knowledge development plan

OCR for page 487
491 L Labor Department, 1 intraagency projects, 6, 81, 97, 316-317 policy analysis capability, 287, 342-344 service delivery, 294-295 YEDPA mandate, 72, 281 demand factors, 53-58, 62-63 entry figures, 49-51 immigrants, 58-59 supply factors, 58-63 what constitutes, 43-44 women, 58-59 youth cohort size, 2, 58-60, 67 youth participation figures, 43-46 Labor market preparation programs, 11-12, 105, 119-136 Lerman, Robert, 301, 308 M Male employment, see Employment and unemployment; specific programs Management and Budget, Office of, 302, 309 Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, 6, 81, 83, 96, 314, 315, 324 Marshall, Ray, 289, 299 Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., 111, 179-180, 258, 274-277 Military service, 57-58 Minimum wage laws, 54-55 Mixed Income Demonstration, 89 Mondale, Walter, 298 Monitoring of programs and services, 92-93 N National Association of Counties, 82, 317 National Council for Negro Women, 82, 317 National Council of La Raza, 82, 317 National Council on Employment Policy, 82, 317 National Governors' Association, 82, 317 National Institute of Education, 79 National Longitudinal Survey (NLS), 6, 97, 175-176, 178, 254-258, 264-274 National Opinion Research Center, 254 National Puerto Rican Forum (NPRF), 12, 82, 131, 317 Chicago, 131 Hartford, Conn., 131 Jersey City/Hoboken, N.J., 131 New York City (Bronx), 131 San Juan, P.R., 131 National Urban League, 82, 295, 317, 321 Needs assessment, 91-92 Neighborhood Youth Corps, 335 Nelson, Gaylord, 289, 290 New Youth Initiatives in Apprenticeship, 10-11, 108-110, 116-118 Nichols, Donald, 325 Nonwhite employment, see Employment and unemployment; specific programs o Occupational skills training programs, 9-11, 25-26, 105, 108-118 Office of, see specific offices Ohio State University Center for Human Resource Research, 254 Olympus Research Centers, 167 Opportunities Industrialization Centers of America, Inc., 12, 130, 295 Out-of-school youths employment problems, 22-23, 61

OCR for page 487
492 employment programs for, 9-13, 15-16 employment rates, 2, 40-43 program needs of, 23-26 See also specific programs Packer, Arnold, 309, 325 Palmer, John, 325 Perkins, Carl, 291 Pines, Marion, 323 Policy Evaluation and Research, Office of, 81, 97, 287, 301, 302, 316 Policy Research Group, 178, 265, 271-274 Poulard, Othello, 326 Pregnancy and childbearing, 8, 27-28 Job Corps data, 115-116 Prevailing wages, 294 Private employers, 85, 86 Private industry councils, 28, 29 Program for Better Jobs and Income, 298 Project BEST, 131, 168-170, 172-173 Project Redirection, 12, 92, 127-129, 133-135 Boston, 133 New York City (Harlem), 133 Phoenix, 133 Riverside, Calif., 133 Project STEADY, 11, 88, 92, 120-122, 124-126, 135 Public Service Employment Program, 7, 73 Public Versus Private Sector Jobs Demonstration Project, 12, 85, 102, 137-139, 145-146, 159 R Race differentials, see Employment and unemployment; specific programs Randolph, Jennings, 289, 290 Reagan administration, 329, 330 Recruiting procedures, 7-8, 86-89 Recruitment Training Program (RTP) Career Exploration Program, 11, 82, 120-124, 135, 317 Remediation and Training Institute, 329 Research programs benefit-cost analyses, 16, 31, 110, 114, 144 comparison and control group methodology, 17-18, 30, 274-277 follow-up periods, 3, 19, 31. See also specific programs measures of implementation, 18-19, 30, 96-98 recommendations for, 30-32, 231-253 reports used, 83, 99-100, 220-230 sample undercoverage and attrition, 20-21, 205-209 as separate from service delivery, 32-33, 288, 340-342 subjective measurements used as proxy variables, 19-20, 31, 180-181, 195-198, 20C-202, 208-216 See also Youth knowledge development plan; specific programs Reservation wage, 14, 62 Rosen, Howard, 301, 309 S Sample undercoverage and attrition, 20-21, 205-209 Sarasin, Ronald, 291 School enrollment dropout problem, 22-26 education, effects on employment, 25, 61 employment during, 2, 40-43

OCR for page 487
493 employment programs for in-school youths, 10-16, 26-27 rate changes, 40, 60-61 School systems employment programs' interaction, 22-23, 33, 84-85 program recruitment practices, 87 School-to-Work Transition program, 127-129, 131-132 Schrank, Robert, 326 Seilor, Joe, 304 Semple, Nat, 291, 293, 332, 334 SEA-JOBS for Progress, 82, 295, 317, 321 Service delivery CETA system, 294-296, 323-324 as separate from research objectives, 32-33, 288, 340-342 system assessment, 22 Service delivery areas, 28, 29 Service Mix Alternatives Demonstration, 102 70001 program, 15, 16, 19, 161-165, 173-174 Sex differentials, see Employment and unemployment; specific programs Social contexts, 64-65, 348-366 Special Project for Indochinese Youth, 123 Spring, Bill, 289, 291, 293, 298, 327, 332 SRI International, 176, 177, 258, 262-264 Staffing of programs, 90, 312-313 Stafford, Robert, 289 Standardized Assessment System (SAS), 97, 175, 18o-l8l, 193-219, 320-321 Statistical analyses Hispanic youth in labor market, 410-461 women's participation in employment and training programs, 462-485 youth joblessness and race, 367-409 See also Data bases Subminimum wage, 294 Summer Career Exploration Projects, 102 Summer Youth Employment Program (SYEP), 69, 73, 137, 281, 296, 299, 324 expenditures, 77, 79, 283 participation figures, 78, 284 reports disposition, 101, 102 research design and results, 14, 146, 148-151, 158, 160 restructure recommendation, 27 target group, program approach, and administra- tion, 74, 147, 282 Supported Work, 16, 102, 137, 179 benefit-cost analyses, 144 research design and results, 12-13, 139, 142-144, 158-160 target group, program approach, and administra' Lion, 138, 141-142 Supported Work Youth Variation, 144 T Taggart, Robert, 299-304, 308-314, 321, 322, 324, 326-329, 331, 335, 339, 344 Target groups, 105-106. See also specific programs Targeting and recruiting, 7-8, 86-89 Temporary jobs programs, 12-15, 105, 137-160 Training programs, see Employment programs U Unemployment, see Employment and unemployment Unions, 72, 85 Urban Institute, 176, 177, 258, 264

OCR for page 487
494 V Ventures in Community Improvement (VICI), 12, 91, 102, 137-141, 159, 160 Vera Institute, 120 Vice President's Task Force on Youth Employment, 93, 96, 298, 307, 327-328 W Wages, see Earnings and wages; specific programs Westat, Inc., 176, 254, 258, 261-262 White employment, see Employment and unemployment; specific programs Williams, Harrison, 289, 290 Women participation in employment and training programs, 27-28, 462-485 pregnancy and childbearing, 8, 27-28, 115-116 See also Employment and unemployment; specific programs Women's Bureau, 82, 317 y Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC), 69, 71, 73, 281, 299 expenditures, 77, 79, 283 participation figures, 78, 284 target group, program approach, and administra- tion, 74, 282 Youth Career Development Project for School-to-Work Transition, 102 Youth Community Conservation and Improvement Projects (YCCIP), 69, 71, 73, 281, 299 expenditures, 77, 78, 283 participation figures, 78, 284 reports disposition, 101 target group, program approach, and administra- tion, 74, 282 Youth Employment and Demonstra tion Projects Act of 1977 (YEDPA) discretionary and demonstra tion project expenditures, 77-83 expenditures and participa tion, 73~77 funding, 1, 69-70, 281 implementation difficulties, 4-5, 98 legislative background, 70-72, 289-299 local implementation, 6-7, 83-93 mandate, 1, 69, 281 national implementation, 5-7, 72-83 objectives and evaluation, 21-23 See also specific program_ and issues Youth Employment and Training Program {YETP), 69, 71, 73, 281, 299 expenditures, 77, 78, 283 participation figures, 78, 284 reports disposition, 101 target group, program approach, and administra- tion, 74, 282 Youth Incentive Entitlement Pilot Projects (YIEPP), 69, 71, 73, 83, 91, 137, 281, 299 Baltimore, 152-155, 157 Cincinnati, 152, 153, 155, 157 Cleveland, 152, 153, 155, 157 Denver, 1S2, 153, 155 design, 310, 311 Detroit, 154 evaluation of, 334 expenditures, 77, 78, 283 Louisville, 152, 153, 155 Mississippi, 152, 153, 157 participation figures, 78, 284

OCR for page 487
495 Phoenix, 152, 153, 155 political background, 71, 291, 292, 294, 300 reports disposition, 101, 102 research design and results, 14-15, 148, 152-160 target group, program approach, and administra- tion, 74, 147, 151-152, 282 Youth knowledge development plan, 93-98, 281-347 analytical model, 281-289, 336-345 demise of, 329-331 design, 93-96, 304-311 evaluation of, 21-22 implementation, 96-98 influence on policy and practice, 331-336 organization and management, 299-303, 311-329 policy system, 324-329 Youth Programs, Office of (OYP), 73 disbanding of, 330 staffing problems, 312-313 YEDPA management, 5-6, 93, 281, 283, 299-303 Youthwork, 6, 81, 314, 315, 318

OCR for page 487