FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE

Committee on Women in Science and Engineering

Division of Policy and Global Affairs

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, DC



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FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE Committee on Women in Science and Engineering Division of Policy and Global Affairs National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, DC

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FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of the Interior, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, and Xerox Corporation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. This report is available on the Internet at http://www.nap.edu . Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved.

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FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE COMMITTEE ON WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING (through 1998) HOWARD GEORGI, Co-chair, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA LILIAN SHIAO-YEN WU, Co-chair, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corporation Yorktown Heights, NY HAROLD AMOS, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA DEBORAH JACKSON, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA WILLIE PEARSON, JR., Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC SUSAN SOLOMON, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO LOIS STEELE, Indian Health Service, Tucson, AZ JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel Advisory Committee Liaison (through 2000) STEPHEN J. LUKASIK, Independent Consultant, Los Angeles, CA Staff LINDA D. SKIDMORE Director (to November 1997) JONG-ON HAHM, Director (April 1998- Present) AMALIYA JURTA, Sr. Project Assistant (July 2000- Present)

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FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING PERSONNEL ADVISORY COMMITTEE (through 2000) M.R.C. GREENWOOD, Chair, University of California, Santa Cruz JOHN D. WILEY, University of Wisconsin, Madison KENNETH ARROW, Stanford University, California RONALD G. EHRENBERG, Cornell University CARLOS GUTIERREZ, California State University, Los Angeles NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratories DONALD JOHNSON, Grain Processing Corporation MARTHA A. KREBS, Institute for Defense Analysis STEPHEN J. LUKASIK, Independent Consultant, Los Angeles, California CLAUDIA I. MITCHELL-KERNAN, University of California, Los Angeles MICHAEL T. NETTLES, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor DEBRA W. STEWART, North Carolina State University TADATAKA YAMADA, SmithKline Beecham Corporation A. THOMAS YOUNG, Lockheed Martin Corporation (Retired), North Potomac, MD ROBERT C. RICHARDSON, ex-officio, Cornell University Staff CHARLOTTE V. KUH, Executive Director MARILYN J. BAKER, Associate Executive Director

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FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE CONTENTS     Sections     I.   Background and Acknowledgements   1 II.   Highlights   3 III.   Tables and Figures         Demographic Data   10     Education   15     Employment   22     Areas for Further Inquiry   32     Appendices     A.   Survey of Female Engineering Faculty   33 B.   Participating Engineering Institutions   42

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FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES DEMOGRAPHICS Tables 1-1   Age of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     1-2   Race/Ethnicity of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     1-3   Citizenship of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     1-4   Marital Status and Number of Dependents of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     1-5   Highest Levels of Education of Parents of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     1-6   Employment Sector of Parents of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     Figures 1-1   Engineering vs. Non-Engineering Degree Distribution by Age     1-2   Employment of Spouse of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     1-3   Highest Education Level of Parents of Female Engineering Faculty     EDUCATION Tables 2-1   Level of Highest Degree for Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     2-2   Field of Highest Degree of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     2-3   Year of Highest Degree of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     2-4   Race/Ethnicity of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Year of Highest Degree     2-5   Top-Producing Baccalaureate Institutions of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     2-6   Carnegie Classification of Baccalaureate Institutions of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     2-7   U.S. Top-Producing Doctoral Institutions of Female Engineering Faculty     2-8   Carnegie Classification of Ph.D. Institutions of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     2-9   Level of Satisfaction of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions with Mentoring Experienced During Their Careers    

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FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE Figures 2-1   Highest Degree of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     2-2   Broad Field of Highest Degree by Degree Level for Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     2-3   Year of Highest Degree by Race/Ethnicity of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     2-4   Point in Time When Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions Decided to Become Engineers     2-5   Primary Influences on the Decisions of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions to Become Engineers     2-6   Types of Mentoring Experienced by Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions When They Were Postsecondary Students     2-7   Point in Time When Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions Decided to Pursue Academic Careers     EMPLOYMENT Tables 3-1   Academic Rank of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     3-2   Tenure Status of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     3-3   Perceptions About Tenure Criteria and Policies Held by Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions (for Those Tenured and on Tenure Track)     3-4   Primary Work Activity of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     3-5   Range of Annual Salaries of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     3-6   Range of Annual Salaries of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Race/Ethnicity     3-7   Level of Satisfaction with Current Employment of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     3-8   Level of Satisfaction with Current Employment of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Age     3-9   Previous Employment Sector of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Field of Highest Degree     3-10   Reasons Given by Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions for Leaving Previous Employer     3-11   Career Impact of Aspects of the Work Environment and Life Cycle of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions     3-12   Factors Facilitating the Academic Careers of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions    

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FEMALE ENGINEERING FACULTY AT U.S. INSTITUTIONS: A DATA PROFILE Figures 3-1   Tenure Status of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions, by Race/Ethnicity     3-2   Academic Productivity of Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions in 1994 and 1995     AREAS FOR FURTHER INQUIRY Table 4-1   Suggestions from Female Engineering Faculty at U.S. Institutions of Areas for Additional Inquiry