Appendix B
PARTICULATE-MATTER RESEARCH INVENTORY (IN PROGRESS)

Prepared by

Maria Costantini, Health Effects Institute

John Vandenberg, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency



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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Appendix B PARTICULATE-MATTER RESEARCH INVENTORY (IN PROGRESS) Prepared by Maria Costantini, Health Effects Institute John Vandenberg, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio This page in the original is blank.

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio CONTENTS     PARTICULATE-MATTER RESEARCH INVENTORY TABLE   142     INSTITUTIONS THAT HAVE PROVIDED INFORMATION         AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE   159     CALIFORNIA AIR RESOURCES BOARD   161     CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INSTITUTE OF TOXICOLOGY   162     COORDINATING RESEARCH COUNCIL   162     DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY   163     DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY)   163     ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE   164     ENGINE MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION   167     ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY—NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT   167     ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY—NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY   168     ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY—NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY   169     ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY—NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY   172     ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY—NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND QUALITY ASSURANCE   173     EUROPEAN UNION/DG XI   179     HEALTH CANADA   181     HEALTH EFFECTS INSTITUTE   181     LOVELACE RESPIRATORY RESEARCH INSTITUTE   183     MICKEY LELAND NATIONAL URBAN AIR TOXICS RESEARCH CENTER   184     NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE   185     NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ALLERGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES   185     NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES   186     NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH   189     NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT, BILTHOVEN (NL)   191     UNITED KINGDOM DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH   192     UNIVERSITY OF WAGENINGEN (NL)   194     VERBANDES DER AUTOMOBILINDUSTRIE (D)   194

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Particulate-Matter Research Inventory (in progress), March 16, 1998 Summaries of Studies in Each Category Organized by Funding Institution* Funding institution (no. of projects) Epidemiology Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro) Dosimetry Exposure assessment and relationships Aerosol methods and monitoring Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling Emission characterization and source apportionment Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits Acute effects Long-term effects Health effects Mechanisms API (13) Analyze uncertainties and statistical artifacts in PM epidemiologic studies to address issues of conflicting results, confounders, and measurement error (including using results of personal monitoring data); possibly reanalyze existing studies. (2-3)     Characterize the effect of inhaled PM (including role of soluble metals) on ECG changes in dogs (see Lovelace). Evaluate susceptibility to inhaled particles using animals with diseases (supported also by EPRI and AAMA). (2)   Determine degree of correlation among stationary, micro-environmental and personal measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 (and other pollutants) in a group of COPD patients in Boston and Nashville and in elderly individuals in Baltimore. Characterize morphology and size distribution and elemental composition of PM on filters collected in Nashville/Boston. (3)   Refine and validate personal exposure models using mutlipollutant monitoring studies. Evaluate PM chemistry and air quality models (see CRC). (2) Characterize PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from refinery sources after pilot study, from oil and gas production field combustion units, and from gasoline and diesel vehicles (including size distribution) (see CRC). (3)  

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Funding institution (no. of projects) Epidemiology Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro) Dosimetry Exposure assessment and relationships Aerosol methods and monitoring Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling Emission characterization and source apportionment Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits Acute effects Long-term effects Health effects Mechanisms CARB (25) Prospective study to evaluate hospital admissions and ER visits in cities a high PM area in CA in relation to PM10, PM2.5, ultrafine, and PM composition. (1) Evaluate the impact of community air pollution (including PM10 and PM2.5) on lung growth and respiratory health in children. (1) Evaluate the health impact of exposure to smoke (derived from agriculture and silviculture) and the toxicology of air pollutants (ozone, nitric acid, nitrates, and carbon. (3) Effects of exposure to fine and ultrafine ammonium nitrate and carbon particles on cell function and cardio-pulmonary response in young and old rats. (1)   Determine the level of particles and vaporphase organics inside cars. (1)   Determine spatial and temporal variability of California atmosphere (including field and laboratory studies to characterize gaseous precursors, organic, carbonaceous, and nitrate species. (12) Evaluate stationary and mobile source emissions of PM-size distribution and chemistry-including effects of fuels and operating conditions. (6)  

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Funding institution (no. of projects) Epidemiology Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro) Dosimetry Exposure assessment and relationships Aerosol methods and monitoring Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling Emission characterization and source apportionment Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits Acute effects Long-term effects Health effects Mechanisms CIIT (5)     Compare the proliferative and neoplastic response in rats, mice, and hamsters exposed to fine and ultrafine titanium dioxide and correlate responses with lung overload. (1) Compare molecular and cellular end-points in vitro and in vivo (such as altered apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules) after exposure to fibrous and non fibrous particles. (2) Develop models for the deposition and clearance of particles in humans and animals, identify the factors influencing the delivered dose. Determine particle deposition efficiency in the rat nasal passage and the inhalability factor for particles as function of diameter. (2)           CRC (5)             Determine contribution of vehicle emission to ambient carbonaceous PM and analyze PM in Denver. (2) Study mechanisms of production of secondary organic aerosols. Review UAMAERO model. (2) Characterize primary particle emissions from light-duty motor vehicles. (1)  

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Funding institution (no. of projects) Epidemiology Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro) Dosimetry Exposure assessment and relationships Aerosol methods and monitoring Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling Emission characterization and source apportionment Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits Acute effects Long-term effects Health effects Mechanisms DOE (5)           Research on ultrafine instrumentation nad aerosol optical properties. (1) Research on global aerosol models and chemical dynamic processes governing aerosols. (4)       DOE/NREL (2)           Characterization and evolution of secondary aerosols during PM2.5 and PM10 episodes in the SoCAB. (Planned with CRC) (1)     Size distribution of in-use heavy-duty vehicle particulate emissions (1)  

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Funding institution (no. of projects) Epidemiology Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro) Dosimetry Exposure assessment and relationships Aerosol methods and monitoring Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling Emission characterization and source apportionment Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits Acute effects Long-term effects Health effects Mechanisms EPRI (16+?) Investigate possible statistical artifacts in time-series studies and determine influence of measurement error and alternative statistical approaches. Reanalyze Harvard 6-cities mortality data. Study the relationship between ambient monitoring for several PM fractions mortality and morbidity. Conduct a prospective study of mortality and morbidity. Study relationship between health parameters and air pollution in COPD patients. Study relationship between PM/ozone exposure and emergency room visits by asthmatics. (8)   Cardio-pulmonary effects of exposure to model particles in healthy and COPD adults and of heavy occupational exposures in workers. (2) Review literature to identify plausible mechanisms. Investigate homeostasis disruption as possible mechanism. (2) Additional mechanistic studies planned.   Collect outdoor monitoring data for PM and other pollutants. Determine indoor/outdoor and personal exposure for a group of elderly individuals (2)   Develop and test plume and grid models, characterize total aerosol, define secondary organic formation (1)   Integrated risk management framework including regional source characterization, transfer module, cost components, and management options (1)

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Funding institution (no. of projects) Epidemiology Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro) Dosimetry Exposure assessment and relationships Aerosol methods and monitoring Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling Emission characterization and source apportionment Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits Acute effects Long-term effects Health effects Mechanisms EMA (1)                 Particle size distribution from modern diesel engine (1) Planned   EPA/NCEA, NERL, NHEERL, NRMR (55) Develop and apply methods to assess PM2.5, PM10 and copollutant exposures and cardiac, pulmonary, and inflammatory effects in elderly population in Baltimore. Study effects of outdoor and indoor PM on children's lung function in China. Study daily mortality and morbidity associated with PM and copollutants. (6) Collaborate with USC and CARB to assess morbidity and mortality effects of ozone and copollutants (including PM) in Seventh Day Adventist children and in other communities. (3) Evaluate effects of PM and co-exposure (viral infection, allergens) on cardiopulmonary system, and evaluate physicochemical properties and toxicity of PM. (8) In vivo and in vitro research to characterize potential cardiac, pulmonary inflammatory and neurogenic causal mechanisms. Identify key components (metals and organics) of PM in causing health effects. Develop and evaluate models of susceptibility (COPD, CVD, asthma). (10) Apply serial bolus technique to measure dose of course, fine, and ultrafine PM in lung regions of normal and diseased humans. Model air flow dynamics and regional particle deposition. (6) Develop/apply new semi-continuous personal PM monitor. Ambient, indoor, outdoor, personal monitoring and determination of air exchange rates in and around elderly residential facilities (Baltimore epi study), and homes of COPD patients in a second city. Study of PM and PAH source strength and decay rates in occupied homes. (5) Develop PM Federal Reference and Equivalent Methods and advanced methods for particle speciation. Conduct intensive ambient PM monitoring, including size speciation, in three cities. Provide ambient particles for toxicology tests and reanalyze selected filter samples from the Harvard Six City Study. (4) Establish the chemical and physical processes that control the organic and inorganic composition and size of fine particulate matter; incorporate these into the next generation, integrated air quality model (Model-3); evaluate the model's sensitivity against field data prior to application. (4) Characterize primary fine PM emissions and their composition from stationary, fugitive, and mobile sources. Develop emission factors for emission inventory. develop receptor modeling tools and apply these in analysis of field data sets. (6) Evaluate integrated controls for PM and toxic and acid gases. Analyze data on soiling of building materials from PM for cost analyses. Develop criteria document (3)

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Funding institution (no. of projects) Epidemiology Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro) Dosimetry Exposure assessment and relationships Aerosol methods and monitoring Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling Emission characterization and source apportionment Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits Acute effects Long-term effects Health effects Mechanisms EPA/NCERQA (43) Studies of daily mortality and acidic PM in 3 US cities, of respiratory health and ultrafine PM in children with respiratory symptoms, of hospital admission and air pollution. Evaluate confounders in time series studies of PM and mortality. Determine association between asthma indices and exposure to fine particles and formaldehyde and between transition metals and sources of fine particles on mortality. (6)   Compare pulmonary toxicity of PM and ozone in vivo and determine effects of PM on respiratory bronchioles. (2) Pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with exposure to CAP in vivo. Inflammatory mediators production induced by PM in vitro. (4)     Measure and apportion to sources human exposure to air pollutants. Develop methods for measuring components of PM10 and PM2.5, including semi-volatile particulate species. Monitor particle composition,\morphology, and size in ambient air. (18) Atmospheric fate and deposition of soot using an isotopic tracer. Chemistry of secondary aerosol formation. and reactivity of aerosols. Develop and test a model for regional and urban photochemistry of PM. Develop population-based exposure models and source apportionment models. (12)    

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Funding institution (no. of projects) Epidemiology Experimental (clinical, animal, in vitro) Dosimetry Exposure assessment and relationships Aerosol methods and monitoring Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling Emission characterization and source apportionment Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits Acute effects Long-term effects Health effects Mechanisms European Union (8 multicenter studies) Investigate respiratory and cardiovascular deaths, including mortality displacement, in relation to air pollution (APHEA 2). Follow elderly persons with measurements of health indices (ULTRA II). Establish dose-response relationships for cancer risk from exposure to air pollutants. Assess risk of development of allergy, asthma, etc., in children in relation to exposure to air pollution. (4)         Measure personal and microenvironmental exposure to air pollutants and develop predictive exposure models (EXPOLIS). Compare particle counters and assess size and elemental composition of fine particles in cites. Conduct measurements of platinum, palladium, and rhodium in the environment. (3) Determine soluble elements in PM10 within PEACE study framework. (1)      

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio "Contribution of outdoor sources to indoor concentrations and personal exposure to air toxics" Clifford Weisel, EOHSI, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE Experimental/health effects "Ancillary study to Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP): Air quality and asthma symptoms in childhood asthma" Shapiro Gail and Jane Koenig, University of Washington (add-on to a 8-canter study of the long-term effects of asthma treatments on lung growth and physical and psychosocial development) "In vivo MR microscopy of environmental lung disease" Johnson Allan, Duke University Medical Center "Aerosol probes of lung injury in a chronic disease model" Rosenthal Frank, Purdue University Dosimetry "Age and body size factors in inhaled particle deposition" Phalen Robert, University of California at Irvine "Chaotic mixing of aerosol in rhytmically expanding lung" Tsuda Akira, Harvard School of Public Health NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ALLERGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES Epidemiology/Long-term effects National Cooperative Inner-City Asthma Study (1996-2000) (Co-funded by NIEHS and EPA) "National cooperative inner city asthma study" 1-U01-AI-39761-01, Shapiro Gail, University of Washington ($280,001 - FY 96)

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio "Trial of interventions to reduce asthma morbidity" 1-U01-AI-39769-01, O'Connor George, Boston University School of Medicine ($279,876 - FY 96) "Targeting the environment and asthma management" 1-U01-AI-39900-01, Crain Ellen, Albert Einstein College of Medicine ($280,979 - FY 96) "National asthma inner city study-Tucson field center" 1-U01-AI-39785-02, Morgan Wayne, University of Arizona ($259,188 - FY 96) "National cooperative inner city asthma study" 1-U01-AI-39901-02, Kattan Meyer, Mount Sinai School of Medicine ($321,909 - FY 96) "Chicago inner city asthma study" 1-U01-AI-39902-02, Evans, Richard, III, Children's Memorial Hospital ($280,435 - FY 96) "Data Coordinating Center for NCIASII" 1-U01-AI-39776-02, Mitchell Herman, New England Research Institutes, Inc. ($431,228 - FY 96) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES Epidemiology/acute effects "Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Morbidity" I-R29-ES-0724-03, Morris Robert, Tufts University ($94,544 - FY 96) "Air Pollution Health Effects in a U.S. Population Sample" 5-R01-ES-07410-02, Schwartz Joel. Harvard University ($128,569 - FY 96) "Effects of Acid Aerosols and Ozone on Urban Populations" 5-R01-ES-06239-05, Dockery, Douglas, Harvard University ($810,499 - FY 96)

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio "Health Effects of Particulate Acids in Late Adolescence" 1-R01-ES-08391-01, Speizer, Frank, Harvard University ($326,346 - FY 96) "Air Pollution and Hospital Admissions of the Elderly" 1-R01-ES-07937-01A1, Schwartz Joel, Harvard University ($148,910 - FY 96) "Environmental Agents-Asthma Development and Severity" 5-R01-ES-07456-03, Leaderer Brian, John B. Pierce Lab, Inc. ($676,567 - FY 96) (Co-funded by NIAID) "Acid Aerosol-Respiratory Effects in Infants and Mothers" 5-R01-ES-05410-08, Leaderer Brian, John B. Pierce Lab, Inc. ($566,577 - FY 96) Experimental/health effects "Toxic Effects of Particles and Oxidants on Lung Function" 5-R01-ES-02679-17, Utell Mark, University of Rochester ($434,702 - FY 96) "Effects of Environmental Pollutants on Human Lung Function" 5-P30-ES-02147-23 (S-0064), Utell Mark, University of Rochester ($785,069 - FY 96) "Mechanisms of morbidity/mortality due to air particles" 5-P01-ES-8129, John Godleski, Harvard School of Public Health ($1,041,583 - FY 96) "Baltimore Environmental Justice Project" R25-ES-07734, Dr. Sattler, University of Maryland ($165,000 - FY 96) "Community-Based Asthma Intervention in Pregnant Women" R21-ES-08716, Dr. Persky, University of Illinois-Chicago ($356,000 - FY 96) "Lower Price Hill Environmental Leadership Coalition" R21-ES-07717, Dr. Hansel, University of Cincinnati ($154,000 - FY 96)

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio "Case Management and Environmental Control in Asthma" R21-ES-08711, Dr. Fisher, Washington University ($366,000 - FY 96) Experimental/mechanisms "Mechanisms of Air Pollutant-Induced Airway Permeability" 5-R01-ES-03251-12, Bhalla Deepak, Wayne State University ($235,328 - FY 96) "Inhaled Pollutants-Mechanisms of Injury and Adaptation" 5-K04-ES-00256-05, Gordon Terry, New York University Medical Center ($69,174 - FY 96) "Mechanisms of Particle Induced Lung Injury" 5-R01-ES-04872-09, Oberdorster Gunther, University of Rochester ($347,565 - FY 96) "Biological Determinants of Environmental Airway Injury" 5-R01-ES-07498-03, Schwartz David, University of Iowa ($221,179 - FY 96) "Epigenetic Mechanisms of Toxicity of Environmental Metal" 5-R01-ES-0543-09, Chou, lih-Nan, Boston University ($209,286 - FY 96) "Mechanisms of Particulate Chromate Carcinogenesis" 5-R01-ES-05304-07, Patierno Steven, George Washington University ($241,000 - FY 96) "Role of Ozone in Modulating Chromium-Induced Lung Immunotoxicity" 5-R01-ES-06783-03, Schlesinger Richard, New York University Medical Center ($301,000 - FY 96) "Grain Dust, Endotoxin and Air Flow Obstruction" 5-R01-ES-06537-04, Schwartz David, University of Iowa ($256,000 - FY 96) "Cellular and Biochemical Mechanisms of Particle-Induced Lung Disease"

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Z01-ES-25030-10, Bonner JC, Intramural, NIEHS Aerosol methods and monitoring "Mutagens in Ambient Airborne Organic Aerosols-Identity and Sources" 3-P01-ES-07168-03S1, Sarofim Adel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Epidemiology/Long-term effects Mortality Follow-up of Diesel Exposed Miners Cohort and Case Control Study of Lung Cancer and Diesel Exhaust Experimental/Health Effects Cough Sounds and Aerosols as a Predictors of Respiratory Disease Occupational Asthma: High and Low Molecular Weight Asthmagens VAG909 Pulmonary Responses to Occupational Dusts VAG913 Identification of Sub-populations Susceptible to Particle Exposure Experimental/Mechanisms Identification of Sub-populations Susceptible to Particle Exposure VAGN31 Biomarkers of Occupational Disease Risk: Role in Human Carcinogenesis Investigation of Occupational Diseases Caused by Metals Metals: Asthma and Hard Metal Disease

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Toxic Respirable Particle Biological Surface Interactions Molecular Mechanisms of Metal Carcinogenesis Pulmonary Responses to Occupational Dusts Occupational Asthma Disease Models Susceptibility of Workers to Lung Infection After Exposure to Different Occupational Dusts and Fibers Role of Adhesion Molecules in the Pathogenesis of Lung Disease Asphalt Fumes: Inflammatory Effects and Pulmonary Injury South African Biomarker Study Role of dextran powder in latex hypersensitivity VGN 33 Dosimetry Particulate and Tissue Analysis Research and Service VOT387 Exposure assessment and relationships Characterization of Inorganic Dust Exposures VAGN12 Aerosol methods and monitoring Respirable Dust Measurement and Analysis (Instrumentation) VRE015 Development of a Portable XRF Unit for Air Sample Screening VAG830 Evaluation of LIF Technology for Bioaerosol Screening Development of a Portable XRF Unit for Air Sample Screening Improved Application and Monitoring of Dust Control Parameters Monitoring Cristalline Silica Dust Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling Surface Chemistry Characterization of Respirable Particles

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Emission characterization and source apportionment Evaluation of Diesel Exhaust Emission Controls VQCN14 Risk assessment and management, cost-benefits Risk from Emerging Hazards: Asphalt Fumes, Coal Dust, Diesel Exhaust Control of Silica Dust Exposures in Underground Coal Mining IEQ Intervention Study Prevention of Silicosis in Surface Miners NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT, BILTHOVEN (NL) Epidemiology/acute effects Study of cardiovascular effects in elderly people. Epidemiology/long-term effects Study in panels of children and asthmatics. Experimental/mechanisms Studies on the causality of PM health effects using inhaled CAP, fine and ultrafine particles, instilled PM10/PM2.5 in animals with asthma, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension. In vitro studies using PM10 and PM2.5. (4) Dosimetry Dosimetry modeling of PM in healthy and compromised airways. Aerosol methods and monitoring Long-term air quality monitoring programme though the Dutch air monitoring network Specific monitoring campaigns for urban sites and smog episodes.

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Atmospheric chemistry and physics, meteorology, and modeling Modeling of emission inventory to determine levels of PM10, PM2.5, PM carbonaceous, PM secondary. Source apportionment program Risk assessment and management/cost-benefits Integrating exposure and exposure-effect models to predict effects in the (Dutch) general populations and specific risk groups. Development of cost-benefit analysis techniques. Risk reduction predictions based on emission/concentration reduction scenario's. Importance of traffic emissions and reductions measures during wintertime smog episodes. UNITED KINGDOM DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH Epidemiology/acute effects "Effects of Air Pollution on Daily Mortality, Admissions, and General Practitioner Consultations in London" Principal Investigator: Ross Anderson, St. George's Hospital Medical School "The Relationship Between Urban Pollution and Cardiorespiratory Health" Principal Investigator: Raymond Agius, University of Edinburgh "Study of the Aetiological Effect of Vehicle Traffic Pollution in the Prevalence and Natural History of Asthma in Norttingham School children" Principal Investigator: John Britton, Nottingham City Hospital "Effect of Fine Particulate Air Pollution and Acid Aerosols on Respiratory Function and Symptoms in Schoolchildren"

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Principal Investigator: S. Walters, University of Birmingham ''Air Pollution and Cardiovascular disease: An Investigation of the Relationship Between Particulate Air Pollution and Blood Coagulation Factors" Principal Investigator: A. Seaton, University of Aberdeen "The Effects of Relieving Traffic Congestion on Pollutant Exposure and Respiratory Morbidity". Principal Investigator: Michael Burr, University of Wales "The Acute Effects of Particulate Air Pollution in Patients with Respiratory Disease" Principal Investigator: C. Luczynska, McAughey, et al Epidemiology/long-term effects "Chronic Respiratory Health Effects of Cumulative Air Pollution Exposure: A National Birth Cohort Study" Principal Investigator: David Strachan, St. George's Hospital Medical School. "Indoor Air Pollution as a Risk Factor for Chronic Respiratory Symptoms in Adolescents" Principal Investigator: Joanne Clough, Southampton General Hospital "Do Particulates from Opencast Coal Mining Impair Health?" Principal Investigator: T. Pless-Mulloli, D. Howel, J. Tate, University of Newcastle upon Tyne Experimental/health effects "Study of Lung Function and Biochemical and Cellular Consequences of Acute Exposure to Diesel Exhaust in Normal and Asthmatic Subjects" Principal Investigator: A. Frew, T. Sandstrom, S. Holgate, Southampton General Hospital "To Assess the Effect of Challenge with Fine and Ultra-Fine Particles

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio on Airway Diameter and on Subsequent Response to Allergen Challenge in Patients with Asthma" Principal Investigator: J Ayres, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital Risk assessment and management/cost-benefits "Public Awareness of Air Quality and Respiratory Health: Assessing the Impact of Health Advice" Principal Investigators: Suzanne Moffatt, Christine Dunn, University off Newcastle upon Tyne "Towards Assessing and Costing the Health Impacts of Ambient Particulate Air Pollution in the UK" Principal Investigator: J. Hurley Institute of Occupational Medicine UNIVERSITY OF WAGENINGEN (NL) Epidemiology/Short-term "Highway traffic and respiratory health" Epidemiology/Long-term "Long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality" "Development of asthma and other chronic respiratory conditions in young children" VERBANDES DER AUTOMOBILINDUSTRIE (D) Experimental/mechanisms "Comparative Pulmonary Response of Humans and Animals to Dust Exposures" Principal investigator: Fletcher Hahn/ITRI/Albuquerque Emission characterization and source apportionment "Quellen der Partikelimmission in der Atemluft des Menschen (Sources of Particles)"

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Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: I Immediate Priorities and a Long-Range Research Portfolio Principal Investigators: R. Niener, University of Munich, U. Heinrich, ITA, Hanover (supported in cooperation with "Forschungsvereinigung Verbrennungsmotore", Frankfurt/Main.)