A published summary of the workshop (Lippmann et al. 1996) identified the following areas of research to be most useful with respect to health risk assessment for particulate matter:

  • Study accumulation-mode aerosol with the objective of disentangling the roles of its chemical constituents, as well as their interactive effects, with each other and with coexisting gaseous criteria pollutants.

  • Study the health effects of coarse-mode PM10 and the ultrafine particles in nuclei-mode aerosol.

  • Study sensitive human subpopulations—infants, the elderly, and people with pre-existing cardiopulmonary diseases.

  • Further develop and validate animal models for sensitive human groups. Validated animal models are needed for target (sensitive) human populations to investigate:

    • the roles of specific constituents of particulate-matter mixtures

    • the roles of exposure concentrations and durations of responses

    • the risk factors that predispose individuals to be responsive to particulate-matter exposures

    • physiological, biochemical, molecular, and pathological correlates of mortality, tissue and organ damage, and chronic disease development


As part of each periodic review of NAAQS under the Clean Air Act, EPA prepares a so-called ''criteria" document intended to describe the state of relevant scientific knowledge and important uncertainties in the existing evidence. In a separate document, EPA also identifies research needed to improve the scientific bases for future reviews of the NAAQS. Therefore, in 1996, when EPA prepared the revised criteria

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