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APPENDIX B
Figures and Tables from AAAS Report XXIII: Research and Development FY 1999



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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget APPENDIX B Figures and Tables from AAAS Report XXIII: Research and Development FY 1999

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Figure 3 Trends in R&D, FYs 1994–99 Change in Constant Dollars

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Table I-13. Trends in R&D, FY 1994–1999 Change in Constant Dollars   FY 1994 FY 1998 FY 1999 % Chg. in Constant $   Actual Estimate Budget FY 94–98 FY 94–99 Dept. of Defense 35,510 37,430 37,010 -3.6% -6.5% DOD 6.1–6.3 8,283 7,800 7,181 -13.8% -22.2% NASA 9,406 9,816 9,504 -4.5% -9.4% Dept. of Energy 6,771 6,288 7,142 -15.0% -5.4% Nat'l Institutes of Health 10,474 13,097 14,163 14.4% 21.3% NSF 2,243 2,568 2,857 4.8% 14.3% Agriculture 1,528 1,553 1,549 -7.0% -9.1% Interior 708 609 629 -21.3% -20.2% Transportation 641 676 775 -3.5% 8.5% EPA 588 672 657 4.6% 0.1% Commerce 1,022 1,081 1,083 -3.2% -4.9% All Other* 2,185 2,248 2,365 -5.8% -2.9% Total R&D 71,074 76,038 77,735 -2.1% -1.9% Defense R&D 38,299 40,409 40,289 -3.5% -5.6% Nondefense R&D 32,775 35,629 37,446 -0.5% 2.5% Basic Research 13,693 15,710 16,917 5.0% 10.8% ''FS&T''1 43,002 45,557 47,057 -3.1% -1.8% Source: AAAS Report XX, OMB R&D data, and revised agency R&D estimates. Adjusted for inflation according to OMB's GDP deflators. * -Includes non-NIH programs in Health and Human Services. 1 An alternative measure for the federal investment in science and technology proposed by the National Academy of Sciences. This measure includes all federal R&D except for advanced development, testing and evaluation work in DOD and DOE. The DOD 6.1–6.3 categories represent the DOD contribution to the FS&T budget. DOE FS&T includes nearly all DOE R&D; the changes to DOE FS&T are -16.0% (FY 94–98) and -4.7% (FY 94–99) Complete historical data (86–99) tables are available on the World Wide Web at: http://www.aaas.org/spp/dspp/rd/rdwwwpg.htm in the "Guide" section.

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Table I-14. AAAS Analysis of the Projected Effects of the President's FY 1999 Budget on Federal R&D, FY 1998–2003 (budget authority in millions of dollars)   FY 1998 FY 1999 FY 2000 FY 2001 FY 2002 FY 2003 % Chg. FY '98–'03   Estimate Budget Projected Projected Projected Projected current $ constant $ Defense (military) 37,430 37,010 34,795 33,844 34,396 35,230 -5.9% -15.3% Health and Human Services 13,809 14,888 15,723 16,660 17,965 20,080 45.4% 30.8% Nat'l Institutes of Health 13,097 14,163 14,989 15,918 17,225 19,322 47.5% 32.7% NASA 9,816 9,504 9,397 9,389 9,493 9,513 -3.1% -12.8% Energy 6,288 7,142 7,061 7,117 7,219 7,236 15.1% 3.5% Defense 2,979 3,279 3,295 3,229 3,306 3,357 12.7% 1.4% Nondefense 3,310 3,864 3,766 3,888 3,913 3,879 17.2% 5.4% Nat'l Science Foundation 2,568 2,857 2,946 3,038 3,131 3,229 25.8% 13.1% Agriculture 1,553 1,549 1,561 1,552 1,555 1,556 0.1% -9.9% Commerce 1,081 1,083 1,096 1,096 1,105 1,077 -0.4% -10.4% Interior 609 629 632 624 623 623 2.5% -7.8% Transportation 676 775 816 774 727 700 3.6% -6.8% Environ. Protection Agency 672 657 667 724 754 776 15.4% 3.8% All Other 1,536 1,640 1,631 1,646 1,658 1,675 9.1% -1.9% Total R&D 76,038 77,735 76,326 76,463 78,627 81,696 7.4% -3.4% Defense R&D 40,409 40,289 38,091 37,073 37,702 38,587 -4.5% -14.1% Nondefense R&D 35,629 37,446 38,235 39,390 40,925 43,108 21.0% 8.8% "FS&T" 45,557 47,057 47,930 49,052 50,778 53,128 16.6% 4.9%   Source: AAAS analyses of defense and nondefense R&D. The analyses, containing agency details and methodology, are available on the World Wide Web at: http://www.aaas.org/spp/dspp/rd/rdwwwpg.htm

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Table II-1. R&D in the FY 1999 Budget by Agency (budget authority in millions of dollars)   FY 1997 FY 1998 FY 1999 Change FY 98–99   Actual Estimate Budget Amount Percent Total R&D (Conduct and Facilities) Defense (military) 37,238 37,430 37,010 -420 -1.1% Science & Tech. (6.1–6.3) 7,493 7,800 7,181 -619 -7.9% All Other DOD R&D 29,745 29,630 29,829 199 0.7% Health and Human Services 12,912 13,809 14,888 1,079 7.8% Nat'l Institutes of Health 12,217 13,097 14,163 1,066 8.1% NASA 9,352 9,816 9,504 -312 -3.2% Energy 6,217 6,288 7,142 854 13.6% Nat'l Science Foundation 2,424 2,568 2,857 290 11.3% Agriculture 1,556 1,553 1,549 -4 -0.3% Commerce 964 1,081 1,083 2 0.2% Interior 591 609 629 21 3.4% Transportation 612 676 775 99 14.6% Environ. Protection Agency 595 672 657 -15 -2.3% Veterans Affairs 588 608 670 62 10.2% Education 185 209 265 56 26.8% Agency for Int'l Develop. 169 150 154 4 2.7% Smithsonian 142 146 155 9 6.2% Tennessee Valley Auth. 52 37 35 -2 -5.4% Labor 35 71 33 -38 -53.5% Nuclear Reg. Comm. 62 61 53 -8 -13.1% Corps of Engineers 44 42 40 -2 -4.8% Housing and Urban Dev. 34 37 50 13 35.1% Justice 48 65 60 -5 -7.7% Social Security 8 18 30 12 66.7% Postal Service 68 56 59 3 5.4% Int'l Security Assist. 21 21 21 0 0.0% Treasury 13 13 13 0 0.0% Arms Ctrl. & Disarm. 1 1 1 0 0.0% Marine Mammal Com. 1 1 1 0 0.0% Total R&D 73,934 76,038 77,735 1,697 2.2% Defense R&D 40,047 40,409 40,289 -120 -0.3% Nondefense R&D 33,886 35,629 37,446 1,817 5.1% "FS&T"1 43,340 45,557 47,057 1,500 3.3%

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Table II-1. R&D in the FY 1999 Budget by Agency (budget authority in millions of dollars)   FY 1997 FY 1998 FY 1999 Change FY 98–99   Actual Estimate Budget Amount Percent Conduct of R&D Defense (military) 37,116 37,295 36,891 -404 -1.1% Science & Tech. (6.1–6.3) 7,493 7,800 7,181 -619 -7.9% All Other DOD Conduct 29,623 29,495 29,710 215 0.7% Health and Human Services 12,687 13,577 14,639 1,062 7.8% Nat'l Institutes of Health 11,994 12,867 13,915 1,048 8.1% NASA 9,038 9,529 9,184 -345 -3.6% Energy 5,443 5,485 6,195 710 12.9% Nat'l Science Foundation 2,248 2,357 2,655 298 12.6% Agriculture 1,384 1,431 1,470 39 2.7% Commerce 918 929 984 55 5.9% Interior 582 601 622 21 3.5% Transportation 591 656 757 101 15.4% Environ. Protection Agency 570 641 636 -5 -0.9% Veterans Affairs 267 276 304 28 10.1% Education 185 206 255 49 23.8% Agency for Int'l Develop. 169 150 154 4 2.7% Smithsonian 137 141 149 8 5.7% Tennessee Valley Auth. 52 37 35 -2 -5.4% Labor 35 71 33 -38 -53.5% Nuclear Reg. Comm. 62 61 53 -8 -13.1% Corps of Engineers 44 42 40 -2 -4.8% Housing and Urban Dev. 34 37 50 13 35.1% Justice 48 65 60 -5 -7.7% Social Security 8 18 30 12 66.7% Postal Service 68 56 59 3 5.4% Int'l Security Assist. 21 21 21 0 0.0% Treasury 13 13 13 0 0.0% Arms Ctrl. & Disarm. 1 1 1 0 0.0% Marine Mammal Com. 1 1 1 0 0.0% Total Conduct of R&D 71,723 73,697 75,290 1,593 2.2% Defense 39,591 39,871 39,699 -172 -0.4% Nondefense 32,132 33,826 35,591 1,765 5.2%

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Table II-1. R&D in the FY 1999 Budget by Agency (budget authority in millions of dollars)   FY 1997 FY 1998 FY 1999 Change FY 98–99   Actual Estimate Budget Amount Percent R&D Facilities and Capital Equipment (no R&D facilities for agencies not shown) Defense (military) 122 135 119 -16 -11.9% Health and Human Services 225 232 249 17 7.3% Nat'l Institutes of Health 223 230 248 18 7.8% NASA 313 287 320 33 11.4% Energy 775 803 948 144 18.0% Nat'l Science Foundation 177 211 202 -8 -4.0% Agriculture 172 123 80 -43 -35.2% Commerce 46 152 100 -52 -34.4% Interior 9 7 7 0 0.0% Transportation 21 20 18 -2 -10.0% Environ. Protection Agency 25 31 21 -10 -32.3% Veterans Affairs 321 332 366 34 10.2% Education 0 3 10 7 233.3% Smithsonian 5 5 6 1 20.0% Total R&D Facils. 2,210 2,341 2,445 104 4.5% Defense 456 538 590 52 9.7% Nondefense 1,755 1,803 1,855 52 2.9% Source: AAAS, based on OMB data for R&D for FY 1999, agency budget justifications, and information from agency budget offices. Note: The projected inflation rate between FY 1998 and FY 1999 is 2.0 percent. 1 An alternative measure for the federal investment in science and technology proposed by the National Academy of Sciences. This measure includes all federal R&D except for advanced development, testing and evaluation work in DOD and DOE. See Chapter 6.

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Table II-2. R&D in the Department of Defense (budget authority in millions of dollars)   FY 1997 FY 1998 FY 1999 Change FY 98–99   Actual Estimate Budget Amount Percent Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) Basic Research ("6.1") 1,032 1,042 1,111 69 6.7% Applied Research ("6.2") 2,822 2,996 3,020 24 0.8% Total Research 3,854 4,038 4,131 93 2.3% Adv. Tech. Development ("6.3") 3,639 3,762 3,050 -712 -18.9% Total Science & Technology1 7,493 7,800 7,181 -619 -7.9% Demons. and Valid. ("6.4") 5,864 6,397 6,516 120 1.9% Engineering and Manufacturing Development ("6.5") 8,536 8,199 7,987 -213 -2.6% Management Support ("6.6") 3,465 3,199 2,771 -428 -13.4% Operational Sys. Dev. ("6.7") 11,145 11,064 11,624 560 5.1% BA Adjustment -99 -59 0 60 -100.7% Total RDT&E 36,404 36,600 36,079 -521 -1.4% Other Appropriations2 834 830 931 101 12.2% Total DOD R&D 37,238 37,430 37,010 -420 -1.1% Total Conduct of R&D 37,116 37,295 36,891 -404 -1.1% Total R&D Facilities & Equip. 122 135 119 -16 -11.9% Source: OMB data for R&D for FY 1999, Budget of the United States Government FY 1999, and DOD "RDT&E Programs" (R-1). 1 This represents DOD's contribution to the "FS&T" budget (see Chapter 6). 2 R&D support in military personnel, military construction, and other appropriations. Character of work ("6.x" categories) are expressed in total obligational authority (TOA). BA Adjustment converts TOA into budget authority. DOD Military Budget (in BILLIONS of dollars budget authority)   FY 1997 FY 1998 FY 1999 Change FY 98–99   Actual Estimate Budget Amount Percent RDT&E (see above) 36.4 36.6 36.1 -0.5 -1.4% Military Personnel 70.3 69.7 70.8 1.1 1.6% Operations and Maintenance 92.3 94.4 94.8 0.4 0.4% Procurement 42.9 44.8 48.7 3.9 8.7% Military Construction 5.7 5.1 4.3 -0.8 -15.5% Family Housing 4.1 3.8 3.5 -0.3 -8.7% Revolving and Management Funds 7.7 2.0 0.6 -1.5 -71.1% Allowances and Offsets -1.5 -1.5 -1.5 0.0 -2.2% Total DOD Budget 258.0 254.9 257.3 2.4 0.9% DOD military budget only (excludes civilian activities of the Corps of Engineers).

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Table II-11. R&D in the Department of Energy (budget authority in millions of dollars)   FY 1997 FY 1998 FY 1999 Change FY 98–99   Actual Estimate Budget Amount Percent Summary of DOE R&D (see notes at end of table): 1. Energy Supply1 583.8 550.4 709.0 158.6 28.8% 2. Science1 2,220.8 2,228.2 2,445.2 217.1 9.7% 3. Fossil Energy 286.6 276.1 295.0 18.9 6.9% 4. Energy Conservation 319.1 355.8 454.6 98.8 27.8% 5. Atomic Energy Defense 2,809.2 2,978.6 3,278.6 300.0 10.1% 6. Clean Coal Technology2 -2.1 -101.0 -40.0 — — Total DOE R&D 6,217.4 6,288.1 7,142.4 854.3 13.6% 1. Energy Supply1 (does not include non-R&D components) Solar and Renewable Energy 237.1 266.9 356.8 89.9 33.7% Nuclear Energy 130.3 61.4 130.7 69.3 112.9% Fusion Energy Sciences 216.4 222.1 221.5 -0.6 -0.3% Total Energy Supply R&D1 583.8 550.4 709.0 158.6 28.8% 2. Science1 (does not include non-R&D components) High-Energy Physics 657.1 673.0 686.0 13.1 1.9% Nuclear Physics 310.0 319.8 332.6 12.8 4.0% Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences 368.5 391.0 417.2 26.2 6.7% Chemical Sciences 194.5 200.7 209.6 8.9 4.4% Engineering & Geosciences 40.9 41.2 44.4 3.2 7.8% Energy Biosciences 27.3 27.4 32.5 5.1 18.5% Equipment & Construction4 11.5 7.0 132.4 125.4 1791.4% Adjustment -9.7 -4.8 0.0 4.8 -100.0% Total BES 633.0 662.5 836.1 173.6 26.2% Computational and Technology Research Math., Info. and Compu. Sci. 114.8 127.2 141.3 14.1 11.1% Laboratory Technology Res. 23.7 15.8 16.3 0.5 3.4% Advanced Energy Projects 11.4 7.6 3.0 -4.6 -60.4% Adjustment -2.6 -1.7 0.0 1.7 -100.0% Total CTR 147.3 148.9 160.6 11.8 7.9%

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Table II-11. R&D in the Department of Energy (budget authority in millions of dollars)   FY 1997 FY 1998 FY 1999 Change FY 98–99   Actual Estimate Budget Amount Percent Biological and Environmental Research Life Sciences 143.5 165.2 162.0 -3.2 -1.9% Environmental Processes 109.1 108.4 119.2 10.8 10.0% Environmental Remediation 34.9 66.3 67.4 1.1 1.7% Medical Apps./ Measurement 56.6 66.0 43.9 -22.1 -33.4% Construction 36.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 — Adjustment -6.7 -4.4 0.0 4.4 -100.0% Total BER 373.5 401.5 392.6 -8.9 -2.2% Energy Research Analyses 1.5 1.3 1.0 -0.3 -24.7% Univ. & Science Education 0.0 0.0 15.0 15.0 — Small Bus. Innov. Research 79.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 — Multiprogram Lab Support 19.2 21.2 21.3 0.1 0.4% Total Science1 2,220.8 2,228.2 2,445.2 217.1 9.7% 3. Fossil Energy R&D (does not include non-R&D components) Coal 100.9 107.4 130.0 22.6 21.1% Petroleum 45.2 48.6 50.2 1.6 3.3% Gas 117.3 111.2 109.6 -1.7 -1.5% Cooperative R&D 5.4 5.8 5.8 0.0 -0.1% Other R&D programs 7.0 7.5 7.6 0.1 1.4% Adjustments and deduct non-R& 10.8 -4.4 -8.2 -3.8 84.7% Total Fossil Energy R&D 286.6 276.1 295.0 18.9 6.9% 4. Energy Conservation (does not include non-R&D components) Building Technologies 80.1 78.8 126.4 47.7 60.5% Industrial Technologies 115.4 136.2 166.6 30.4 22.3% Transportation Technologies 172.5 193.3 246.1 52.8 27.3% Adjustments and deduct non-R& -48.9 -52.4 -84.5 -32.1 61.2% Total Energy Conservation 319.1 355.8 454.6 98.8 27.8% 5. Atomic Energy Defense Activities (does not include non-R&D components) Weapons Activities Stockpile Stewardship ASCI* 151.6 223.5 329.1 105.6 47.2%

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Table II-11 R&D in the Department of Energy (budget authority in millions of dollars)   FY 1997 FY 1998 FY 1999 Change FY 98–99   Actual Estimate Budget Amount Percent Other Programs and Initiatives 220.0 231.7 300.8 69.2 29.9% Core Res. and Adv. Tech. 557.1 593.7 645.9 52.2 8.8% Testing Capab. & Readiness 166.0 180.4 183.9 3.5 1.9% Core Steward. Equip. & Const 129.6 150.6 161.7 11.1 7.3% Inertial Confinement Fusion 234.6 215.7 213.8 -1.9 -0.9% National Ignition Facility 131.9 197.8 284.2 86.4 43.7% Tech. Partnerships and Edu. 69.4 64.8 69.0 4.2 6.4% Adjustment -3.4 -0.5 0.0 0.5 -100.0% Total Stockpile Stewardship 1,656.8 1,857.8 2,188.4 330.6 17.8% Other Weapons Activities R&D 33.4 31.9 73.6 41.7 130.5% Total Weapons Activities R& 1,690.2 1,889.7 2,262.0 372.3 19.7% Naval Reactors 681.9 670.5 665.5 -5.0 -0.7% Nonproliferation & Verification 211.9 210.0 210.0 0.0 0.0% Nuclear Safeguards & Security 24.0 23.6 23.6 0.0 0.0% Environmental Management 197.5 180.3 113.0 -67.3 -37.3% Intelligence 3.7 4.5 4.5 0.0 0.0% Total Atomic Defense R&D 2,809.2 2,978.6 3,278.6 300.0 10.1% 6. Clean Coal Technology2 -2.1 -101.0 -40.0 — — Total DOE R&D 6,217.4 6,288.1 7,142.4 854.3 13.6% Conduct of R&D 5,442.7 5,484.7 6,194.8 710.1 12.9% R&D Facilities 774.7 803.4 947.6 144.3 18.0% DOE "FS&T"3 5,369.5 5,437.2 6,293.0 855.8 15.7% Source: Agency budget justification and agency supporting documents. * -Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative. 1 DOE has changed its appropriation account structure. Programs in the General Science and Research account and selected programs in Energy Supply have been shifted to a new "Science" account. The table shows DOE programs under the new account structure. 2 Negative because of rescissions and deferrals of previously appropriated funds. 3 DOE contribution to the "FS&T" budget. Please see Chapter 6. 4 Includes $128 million in FY 1999 for the National Spallation Neutron Source.

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Observations on the President's Fiscal Year 1999 Federal Science and Technology Budget Table II-11. Department of Energy R&D Department of Energy Budget (budget authority in millions of dollars)   FY 1997 FY 1998 FY 1999 Change FY 98–99   Actual Estimate Budget Amount Percent Weapons Activities 3,911 4,147 4,500 353 8.5% Defense Environmental Restoration 4,398 4,296 4,260 -37 -0.9% Defense Facilities Closure Projects 862 996 1,006 10 1.0% EM Privatization 330 200 517 317 158.4% Nuclear Waste and Other Defense 1,829 1,829 1,857 28 1.6% Total DOE Defense 11,331 11,468 12,140 672 5.9% Science 2,267 2,236 2,482 247 11.0% Energy Supply 944 1,024 1,129 105 10.3% Fossil Energy 359 362 383 21 5.8% Energy Conservation 534 591 774 182 30.9% Other Energy Programs 165 40 290 250 622.1% Nondefense Environmental Mngm 572 494 462 -32 -6.5% Power Marketing Administrations 223 230 235 4 1.9% Departmental Administration & IG 154 115 139 24 20.7% Total DOE Budget 16,547 16,561 18,035 1,474 8.9% Source: Department of Energy budget justification. DOE appropriations only (does not include offsets and mandatory). Includes R&D and non-R&D components.