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Tables



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Page 43 Tables

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Page 45 TABLE 1 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Sheep Body Weight Weight Change/Day Dry Matter per Animala Nutrients per Animal Energyb Crude protein Ca (g) P (g) Vitamin A Activity (IU) Vitamin E Activity (IU)               TDN DE (Mcal) ME (Mcal) (kg) (lb) (g) (lb) (kg) (lb) (% body weight) (kg) (lb) (g) (lb) Ewesc Maintenance 50 110 10 0.02 1.0 2.2 2.0 0.55 1.2 2.4 2.0 95 0.21 2.0 1.8 2,350 15 60 132 10 0.02 1.1 2.4 1.8 0.61 1.3 2.7 2.2 104 0.23 2.3 2.1 2,820 16 70 154 10 0.02 1.2 2.6 1.7 0.66 1.5 2.9 2.4 113 0.25 2.5 2.4 3,290 18 80 176 10 0.02 1.3 2.9 1.6 0.72 1.6 3.2 2.6 122 0.27 2.7 2.8 3,760 20 90 198 10 0.02 1.4 3.1 1.5 0.78 1.7 3.4 2.8 131 0.29 2.9 3.1 4,230 21 Flushing—2 Weeks prebreeding and first 3 weeks of breeding 50 110 100 0.22 1.6 3.5 3.2 0.94 2.1 4.1 3.4 150 0.33 5.3 2.6 2,350 24 60 132 100 0.22 1.7 3.7 2.8 1.00 2.2 4.4 3.6 157 0.34 5.5 2.9 2,820 26 70 154 100 0.22 1.8 4.0 2.6 1.06 2.3 4.7 3.8 164 0.36 5.7 3.2 3,290 27 80 176 100 0.22 1.9 4.2 2.4 1.12 2.5 4.9 4.0 171 0.38 5.9 3.6 3,760 28 90 198 100 0.22 2.0 4.4 2.2 1.18 2.6 5.1 4.2 177 0.39 6.1 3.9 4,230 30 Nonlactating—First 15 weeks gestation 50 110 30 0.07 1.2 2.6 2.4 0.67 1.5 3.0 2.4 112 0.25 2.9 2.1 2,350 18 60 132 30 0.07 1.3 2.9 2.2 0.72 1.6 3.2 2.6 121 0.27 3.2 2.5 2,820 20 70 154 30 0.07 1.4 3.1 2.0 0.77 1.7 3.4 2.8 130 0.29 3.5 2.9 3,290 21 80 176 30 0.07 1.5 3.3 1.9 0.82 1.8 3.6 3.0 139 0.31 3.8 3.3 3,760 22 90 198 30 0.07 1.6 3.5 1.8 0.87 1.9 3.8 3.2 148 0.33 4.1 3.6 4,230 24 Last 4 week gestation (130-150% lambing rate expected) or last 4-6 weeks lactation suckling singlesd 50 110 180 (45) 0.40 (0.10) 1.6 3.5 3.2 0.94 2.1 4.1 3.4 175 0.38 5.9 4.8 4,250 24 60 132 180 (45) 0.40 (0.10) 1.7 3.7 2.8 1.00 2.2 4.4 3.6 184 0.40 6.0 5.2 5,100 26 70 154 180 (45) 0.40 (0.10) 1.8 4.0 2.6 1.06 2.3 4.7 3.8 193 0.42 6.2 5.6 5,950 27 80 176 180 (45) 0.40 (0.10) 1.9 4.2 2.4 1.12 2.4 4.9 4.0 202 0.44 6.3 6.1 6,800 28 90 198 180 (45) 0.40 (0.10) 2.0 4.4 2.2 1.18 2.5 5.1 4.2 212 0.47 6.4 6.5 7,650 30 Last 4 weeks gestation (180-225% lambing rate expected) 50 110 225 0.50 1.7 3.7 3.4 1.10 2.4 4.8 4.0 196 0.43 6.2 3.4 4,250 26 60 132 225 0.50 1.8 4.0 3.0 1.17 2.6 5.1 4.2 205 0.45 6.9 4.0 5,100 27 70 154 225 0.50 1.9 4.2 2.7 1.24 2.8 5.4 4.4 214 0.47 7.6 4.5 5,950 28 80 176 225 0.50 2.0 4.4 2.5 1.30 2.9 5.7 4.7 223 0.49 8.3 5.1 6,800 30 90 198 225 0.50 2.1 4.6 2.3 1.37 3.0 6.0 5.0 232 0.51 8.9 5.7 7,650 32 First 6-8 weeks lactation suckling singles or last 4-6 weeks lactation suckling twinsd 50 110 - 25 (90) - 0.06 (0.20) 2.1 4.6 4.2 1.36 3.0 6.0 4.9 304 0.67 8.9 6.1 4,250 32 60 132 - 25 (90) - 0.06 (0.20) 2.3 5.1 3.8 1.50 3.3 6.6 5.4 319 0.70 9.1 6.6 5,100 34 70 154 - 25 (90) - 0.06 (0.20) 2.5 5.5 3.6 1.63 3.6 7.2 5.9 334 0.73 9.3 7.0 5,950 38 80 176 - 25 (90) - 0.06 (0.20) 2.6 5.7 3.2 1.69 3.7 7.4 6.1 344 0.76 9.5 7.4 6,800 39 90 198 - 25 (90) - 0.06 (0.20) 2.7 5.9 3.0 1.75 3.8 7.6 6.3 353 0.78 9.6 7.8 7,650 40 (table continued on next page)

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Page 46 TABLE 1 Daily Nutrient Requirements of Sheep—Continued Body Weight Weight Change/Day Dry Matter per Animala Nutrients per Animal Energyb Crude protein Ca (g) P (g) Vitamin A Activity (IU) Vitamin E Activity(IU                 TDN DE (Mcal) ME (Mcal) (kg) (lb) (g) (lb) (kg) (lb) (% body weight) (kg) (lb) (g) (lb) First 6-8 weeks lactation suckling twins 50 110 -60 -0.13 2.4 5.3 4.8 1.56 3.4 6.9 5.6 389 0.86 10.5 7.3 5,000 36 60 132 -60 -0.13 2.6 5.7 4.3 1.69 3.7 7.4 6.1 405 0.89 10.7 7.7 6,000 39 70 154 -60 -0.13 2.8 6.2 4.0 1.82 4.0 8.0 6.6 420 0.92 11.0 8.1 7,000 42 80 176 -60 -0.13 3.0 6.6 3.8 1.95 4.3 8.6 7.0 435 0.96 11.2 8.6 8,000 45 90 198 -60 -0.13 3.2 7.0 3.6 2.08 4.6 9.2 7.5 450 0.99 11.4 9.0 9,000 48                                   Ewe lambs Nonlactating—First 15 weeks gestation 40 88 160 0.35 1.4 3.1 3.5 0.83 1.8 3.6 3.0 156 0.34 5.5 3.0 1,880 21 50 110 135 0.30 1.5 3.3 3.0 0.88 1.9 3.9 3.2 159 0.35 5.2 3.1 2,350 22 60 132 135 0.30 1.6 3.5 2.7 0.94 2.0 4.1 3.4 161 0.35 5.5 3.4 2,820 24 70 154 125 0.28 1.7 3.7 2.4 1.00 2.2 4.4 3.6 164 0.36 5.5 3.7 3,290 26                                   Last 4 weeks gestation (100-120% lambing rate expected) 40 88 180 0.40 1.5 3.3 3.8 0.94 2.1 4.1 3.4 187 0.41 6.4 3.1 3,400 22 50 110 160 0.35 1.6 3.5 3.2 1.00 2.2 4.4 3.6 189 0.42 6.3 3.4 4,250 24 60 132 160 0.35 1.7 3.7 2.8 1.07 2.4 4.7 3.9 192 0.42 6.6 3.8 5,100 26 70 154 150 0.33 1.8 4.0 2.6 1.14 2.5 5.0 4.1 194 0.43 6.8 4.2 5,950 27                                   Last 4 weeks gestation (130-175% lambing rate expected) 40 88 225 0.50 1.5 3.3 3.8 0.99 2.2 4.4 3.6 202 0.44 7.4 3.5 3,400 22 50 110 225 0.50 1.6 3.5 3.2 1.06 2.3 4.7 3.8 204 0.45 7.8 3.9 4,250 24 60 132 225 0.50 1.7 3.7 2.8 1.12 2.5 4.9 4.0 207 0.46 8.1 4.3 5,100 26 70 154 215 0.47 1.8 4.0 2.6 1.14 2.5 5.0 4.1 210 0.46 8.2 4.7 5,950 27                                   First 6-8 weeks lactation suckling singles (wean by 8 weeks) 40 88 -50 -0.11 1.7 3.7 4.2 1.12 2.5 4.9 4.0 257 0.56 6.0 4.3 3,400 26 50 110 -50 -0.11 2.1 4.6 4.2 1.39 3.1 6.1 5.0 282 0.62 6.5 4.7 4,250 32 60 132 -50 -0.11 2.3 5.1 3.8 1.52 3.4 6.7 5.5 295 0.65 6.8 5.1 5,100 34 70 154 -50 -0.11 2.5 5.5 3.6 1.65 3.6 7.3 6.0 301 0.68 7.1 5.6 5,450 38                                   First 6-8 weeks lactation suckling twins (wean by 8 weeks) 40 88 -100 -0.22 2.1 4.6 5.2 1.45 3.2 6.4 5.2 306 0.67 8.4 5.6 4,000 32 50 110 -100 -0.22 2.3 5.1 4.6 1.59 3.5 7.0 5.7 321 0.71 8.7 6.0 5,000 34 60 132 -100 -0.22 2.5 5.5 4.2 1.72 3.8 7.6 6.2 336 0.74 9.0 6.4 6,000 38 70 154 -100 -0.22 2.7 6.0 3.9 1.85 4.1 8.1 6.6 351 0.77 9.3 6.9 7,000 40 (table continued on next page)

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Page 47 Replacement ewe lambse 30 66 227 0.50 1.2 2.6 4.0 0.78 1.7 3.4 2.8 185 0.41 6.4 2.6 1,410 18 40 88 182 0.40 1.4 3.1 3.5 0.91 2.0 4.0 3.3 176 0.39 5.9 2.6 1,880 21 50 110 120 0.26 1.5 3.3 3.0 0.88 1.9 3.9 3.2 136 0.30 4.8 2.4 2,350 22 60 132 100 0.22 1.5 3.3 2.5 0.88 1.9 3.9 3.2 134 0.30 4.5 2.5 2,820 22 70 154 100 0.22 1.5 3.3 2.1 0.88 1.9 3.9 3.2 132 0.29 4.6 2.8 3,290 22                                   Replacement ram lambse 40 88 330 0.73 1.8 4.0 4.5 1.1 2.5 5.0 4.1 243 0.54 7.8 3.7 1,880 24 60 132 320 0.70 2.4 5.3 4.0 1.5 3.4 6.7 5.5 263 0.58 8.4 4.2 2,820 26 80 176 290 0.64 2.8 6.2 3.5 1.8 3.9 7.8 6.4 268 0.59 8.5 4.6 3,760 28 100 220 250 0.55 3.0 6.6 3.0 1.9 4.2 8.4 6.9 264 0.58 8.2 4.8 4,700 30                                   Lambs finishing—4 to 7 months oldf 30 66 295 0.65 1.3 2.9 4.3 0.94 2.1 4.1 3.4 191 0.42 6.6 3.2 1,410 20 40 88 275 0.60 1.6 3.5 4.0 1.22 2.7 5.4 4.4 185 0.41 6.6 3.3 1,880 24 50 110 205 0.45 1.6 3.5 3.2 1.23 2.7 5.4 4.4 160 0.35 5.6 3.0 2,350 24                                   Early weaned lambs—Moderate growth potentialf 10 22 200 0.44 0.5 1.1 5.0 0.40 0.9 1.8 1.4 127 0.38 4.0 1.9 470 10 20 44 250 0.55 1.0 2.2 5.0 0.80 1.8 3.5 2.9 167 0.37 5.4 2.5 940 20 30 66 300 0.66 1.3 2.9 4.3 1.00 2.2 4.4 3.6 191 0.42 6.7 3.2 1,410 20 40 88 345 0.76 1.5 3.3 3.8 1.16 2.6 5.1 4.2 202 0.44 7.7 3.9 1,880 22 50 110 300 0.66 1.5 3.3 3.0 1.16 2.6 5.1 4.2 181 0.40 7.0 3.8 2,350 22                                   Early weaned lambs—Rapid growth potentialf 10 22 250 0.55 0.6 1.3 6.0 0.48 1.1 2.1 1.7 157 0.35 4.9 2.2 470 12 20 44 300 0.66 1.2 2.6 6.0 0.92 2.0 4.0 3.3 205 0.45 6.5 2.9 940 24 30 66 325 0.72 1.4 3.1 4.7 1.10 2.4 4.8 4.0 216 0.48 7.2 3.4 1,410 21 40 88 400 0.88 1.5 3.3 3.8 1.14 2.5 5.0 4.1 234 0.51 8.6 4.3 1,880 22 50 110 425 0.94 1.7 3.7 3.4 1.29 2.8 5.7 4.7 240 0.53 9.4 4.8 2,350 25 60 132 350 0.77 1.7 3.7 2.8 1.29 2.8 5.7 4.7 240 0.53 8.2 4.5 2,820 25 aTo convert dry matter to an as-fed basis, divide dry matter values by the percentage of dry matter in the particular feed. bOne kilogram TDN (total digestile nutrients) = 4.4 Mcal DE (digestible energy); ME (metabolizable energy) = 82% of DE. Because of rounding errors, values in Table 1 and Table 2 may differ. cValues are applicable for ewes in moderate condition. Fat ewes should be fed according to the next lower weight category and thin ewes at the next higher weight category. Once desired or moderate weight condition is attained, use that weight category through all production stages. dValues in parentheses are for ewes suckling lambs the last 4-6 weeks of lactation. eLambs intended for breeding; thus, maximum weight gains and finish are of secondary importance. fMaximum weight gains expected.

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Page 48 TABLE 2 Nutrient Concentration in Diets for Sheep (expressed on 100 Percent Dry Matter Basisa) Body Weight Weight Change/Day Energyb Example Diet Proportions Crude Protein (%) Calcium (%) Phosphorus (%) Vitamin A Activity (IU/kg) Vitamin E Activity (IU/kg) (kg) (lb) (g) (lb) TDNc (%) DE (Mcal/kg) ME (Mcal/kg) Concentrate % Forage % Ewesd Maintenance 70 154 10 0.02 55 2.4 2.0 0 100 9.4 0.20 0.20 2,742 15 Flushing—2 weeks prebreeding and first 3 weeks of breeding 70 154 100 0.22 59 2.6 2.1 15 85 9.1 0.32 0.18 1,828 15 Nonlactating—First 15 weeks gestation 70 154 30 0.07 55 2.4 2.0 0 100 9.3 0.25 0.20 2,350 15 Last 4 weeks gestation (130-150% lambing rate expected) or last 4-6 weeks lactation suckling singlese 70 154 180 (0.45) 0.40 (0.10) 59 2.6 2.1 15 85 10.7 0.35 0.23 3,306 15 Last 4 weeks gestation (180-225% lambing rate expected) 70 154 225 0.50 65 2.9 2.3 35 65 11.3 0.40 0.24 3,132 15 First 6-8 weeks lactation suckling singles or last 4-6 weeks lactation suckling twinse 70 154 -25(90) -0.06 (0.20) 65 2.9 2.4 35 65 13.4 0.32 0.26 2,380 15 First 6-8 weeks lactation suckling twins 70 154 -60 -0.13 65 2.9 2.4 35 65 15.0 0.39 0.29 2,500 15 Ewe Lambs Nonlactating—First 15 weeks gestation 55 121 135 0.30 59 2.6 2.1 15 85 10.6 0.35 0.22 1,668 15 Last 4 weeks gestation (100-120% lambing rate expected) 55 121 160 0.35 63 2.8 2.3 30 70 11.8 0.39 0.22 2,833 15 Last 4 weeks gestation (130-175% lambing rate expected) 55 121 225 0.50 66 2.9 2.4 40 60 12.8 0.48 0.25 2,833 15 First 6-8 weeks lactation suckling singles (wean by 8 weeks) 55 121 -50 0.22 66 2.9 2.4 40 60 13.1 0.30 0.22 2,125 15 First 6-8 weeks lactation suckling twins (wean by 8 weeks) 55 121 -100 -0.22 69 3.0 2.5 50 50 13.7 0.37 0.26 2,292 15 Replacement Ewe Lambsf 30 66 227 0.50 65 2.9 2.4 35 65 12.8 0.53 0.22 1,175 15 40 88 182 0.40 65 2.9 2.4 35 65 10.2 0.42 0.18 1,343 15 50-70 110-154 115 0.25 59 2.6 2.1 15 85 9.1 0.31 0.17 1,567 15 Replacement Ram Lambsf 40 88 330 0.73 63 2.8 2.3 30 70 13.5 0.43 0.21 1,175 15 60 132 320 0.70 63 2.8 2.3 30 70 11.0 0.35 0.18 1,659 15 80-100 176-220 270 0.60 63 2.8 2.3 30 70 9.6 0.30 0.16 1,979 15 Lambs Finishing—4 to 7 months oldg 30 66 295 0.65 72 3.2 2.5 60 40 14.7 0.51 0.24 1,085 15 40 88 275 0.60 76 3.3 2.7 75 25 11.6 0.42 0.21 1,175 15 50 110 205 0.45 77 3.4 2.8 80 20 10.0 0.35 0.19 1,469 15 Early Weaned Lambs—Moderate and rapid growth potentialg 10 22 250 0.55 80 3.5 2.9 90 10 26.2 0.82 0.38 940 20 20 44 300 0.66 78 3.4 2.8 85 15 16.9 0.54 0.24 940 20 30 66 325 0.72 78 3.3 2.7 85 15 15.1 0.51 0.24 1,085 15 40-60 88-132 400 0.88 78 3.3 2.7 85 15 14.5 0.55 0.28 1,253 15 aValues in Table 2 are calculated from daily requirements in Table 1 divided by DM intake. The exception, vitamin E daily requirements/head, are calculated from vitamin E/kg diet × DM intake. bOne kilogram TDN = 4.4 Mcal DE (digestible energy); ME (metabolizable energy) = 82% of DE. Because of rounding errors, values in Table 1 and Table 2 may differ. cTDN calculated on following basis: hay DM, 55% TDN and on as-fed basis 50% TDN; grain DM, 83% TDN and on as-fed basis 75% TDN. dValues are for ewes in moderate condition. Fat ewes should be fed according to the next lower weight category and thin ewes at the next higher weight category. Once desired or moderate weight condition is attained, use that weight category through all production stages. eValues in parentheses are for ewes suckling lambs the last 4-6 weeks of lactation. fLambs intended for breeding; thus, maximum weight gains and finish are of secondary importance. gMaximum weight gains expected.

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Page 49 TABLE 3 Net Energy Requirements for Lambs of Small, Medium, and Large Mature Weight Genotypesa (kcal/d) Body Weight (kg)b: 10 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 NEm Requirementsc: 315 530 626 718 806 891 973 1053 Daily Gain (g)b NEg Requirements Small mature weight lambsd 100 178 300 354 406 456 504 551 596 150 267 450 532 610 684 756 826 894 200 357 600 708 812 912 1,008 1,102 1,192 250 446 750 886 1,016 1,140 1,261 1,377 1,490 300 535 900 1,064 1,219 1,368 1,513 1,652 1,788 Medium mature weight lambse 100 155 261 309 354 397 439 480 519 150 233 392 463 531 596 658 719 778 200 310 522 618 708 794 878 960 1,038 250 388 653 771 884 993 1,097 1,199 1,297 300 466 784 926 1,062 1,191 1,316 1,438 1,557 350 543 914 1,080 1,238 1,390 1,536 1,678 1,816 400 621 1,044 1,234 1,415 1,589 1,756 1,918 2,076 Large mature weight lambsf 100 132 221 262 300 337 372 407 439 150 197 332 392 450 505 558 610 660 200 263 442 524 600 674 744 813 880 250 329 553 654 750 842 930 1,016 1,099 300 394 663 785 900 1,010 1,116 1,220 1,320 350 461 775 916 1,050 1,179 1,303 1,423 1,540 400 526 885 1,046 1,200 1,347 1,489 1,626 1,760 450 592 996 1,177 1,350 1,515 1,675 1,830 1,980 aApproximate mature ram weights of 95 kg, 115 kg, and 135 kg, respectively. bWeights and gains include fill. cNEm = 56 kcal · W0.75 · d-1. dNEg = 317 kcal · W0.75 · LWG, kg · d-1. eNEg = 276 kcal · W0.75 · LWG, kg · d-1. fNEg = 234 kcal · W0.75 · LWG, kg · d-1. TABLE 4 NEpreg (NEy) Requirements of Ewes Carrying Different Numbers of Fetuses at Various Stages of Gestation Number of Fetuses Being Carried Stage of Gestation (days)a 100 %b 120 %b 140 %b NEpreg Required (kcal/day) 1 70 100 145 100 260 100 2 125 178 265 183 440 169 3 170 243 345 238 570 219 aFor gravid uterus (plus contents) and mammary gland development only. bAs a percentage of a single fetus's requirement.

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Page 50 TABLE 5 Crude Protein Requirements for Lambs of Small, Medium, and Large Mature Weight Genotypesa (g/d) Body Weight (kg)b: 10 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Daily Gain (g)b Small mature weight lambs 100 84 112 122 127 131 136 135 134 150 103 121 137 140 144 147 145 143 200 123 145 152 154 156 158 154 151 250 142 162 167 168 168 169 164 159 300 162 178 182 181 180 180 174 168 Medium mature weight lambs 100 85 114 125 130 135 140 139 139 150 106 132 141 145 149 153 151 149 200 127 150 158 160 163 166 163 160 250 147 167 174 175 177 179 175 171 300 168 185 191 191 191 191 186 181 350 188 203 207 206 205 204 198 192 400 209 221 224 221 219 217 210 202 Large mature weight lambs 100 94 128 134 139 145 144 150 156 150 115 147 152 156 160 159 164 169 200 136 166 170 173 176 174 178 182 250 157 186 188 190 192 189 192 195 300 179 205 206 207 208 204 206 208 350 200 224 224 224 224 219 220 221 400 221 243 242 241 240 234 234 234 450 242 262 260 256 256 249 248 248 aApproximate mature ram weights of 95 kg, 115 kg, and 135 kg, respectively. bWeights and gains include fill. TABLE 6 Macromineral Requirements of Sheep (percentage of diet dry matter)a Nutrient Requirement Sodium 0.09-0.18 Chlorine – Calcium 0.20-0.82 Phosphorus 0.16-0.38 Magnesium 0.12-0.18 Potassium 0.50-0.80 Sulfur 0.14-0.26 aValues are estimates based on experimental data. TABLE 7 Micromineral Requirements of Sheep and Maximum Tolerable Levels (ppm, mg/kg of diet dry matter)a Nutrient Requirement Maximum Tolerable Levelb Iodine 0.10-0.80c 50 Iron 30-50 500 Copper 7-11d 25e Molybdenum 0.5 10e Cobalt 0.1-0.2 10 Manganese 20-40 1,000 Zinc 20-33 750 Selenium 0.1-0.2 2 Fluorine – 60-150 aValues are estimates based on experimental data. bNRC (1980). cHigh level for pregnancy and lactation in diets not containing goitrogens; should be increased if diets contain goitrogens. dRequirement when dietary Mo concentrations are ‹1 mg/kg DM. See text for requirements under other circumstances. eLower levels may be toxic under some circumstances. See text.

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Page 51 TABLE 8 Composition of Ewe's Milk (2.5 weeks postpartum)a Dry matter 18.2% Fat (5-10%) 7.1 g/100 g milk Protein (true) 4.5 × 5.49 = 24.7% DM basis Lactose 4.8 × 5.49 = 26.4% DM basis Ash 0.85 g/100 g milk Fiber 0.0 g/100 g milk Caloric value (GE) 110 kcal/100 g × 5.49 = 6.04 Mcal/kg milk DM basis Principal salts (g/100 g) Na 0.040 K 0.150 Ca 0.200 Mg 0.016 P 0.150 Cl 0.075 Citrate 0.170 Trace minerals (mg/liter) Fe 0.60-0.70 Cu 0.05-0.15 Mn 0.06 Al 1.70 Zn 2.00-3.00 Vitamins (mg/liter, except where noted) A 1,450 IU/liter E (a-tocopherol) 15 Thiamin 1.0 Riboflavin 4.0 Niacin 5.0 B6 0.7 Pantothenic acid 4.0 Biotin 0.05-0.09 Folacin 0.05 B12 0.006-0.010 Ascorbic acid 40-50 aCourtesy of Dr. Robert Jenness, Biochemistry Department, University of Minnesota. TABLE 9 Vitamin E Requirements of Growing-Finishing Lambs and Suggested Levels of Feed Fortification to Provide 100 Percent of Requirements Body Weight a-Tocopheryl Acetate Feed Intake per Lamb Amount of Vitamin E Added to Concentrate Amount of Vitamin E Added to Protein Supplementb (kg) (lb) (mg/lamb/day)a (mg/kg diet) (kg) (lb) (mg/kg) (mg/lb) (mg/ton) (mg/kg) (mg/lb) (mg/ton) 10 22 5.0 20 0.23 0.50 20 9.1 18,200 133 60 120,000 20 44 10.0 20 0.45 1.00 20 9.1 18,200 133 60 120,000 30 66 15.0 15 0.96 2.10 15 6.8 13,600 100 45 90,000 40 88 20.0 15 1.30 2.86 15 6.8 13,600 100 45 90,000 50 110 25.0 15 1.60 3.50 15 6.8 13,600 100 45 90,000 aRounded values based on approximate diet intake containing recommended vitamin E levels. bAssumes the concentrate diet contains 15 percent protein supplement.

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Page 52 TABLE 10 Relative Ranking of Pasture Forages for Sheep Species Carrying Capacity Lamb Performance Lamb Production/Acre Sheep and Pasture Management Required Alfalfa High High High Medium Ladino clover Low High Medium Medium Bird's-foot trefoil Low High High Medium Blue grass Low Low Low Low Brome grass Medium Medium Medium Low Fescue High Low Low Low Orchard grass High Medium Medium Low Canarygrass High Low Medium Low Timothy Low Low Low Low Oats Medium Medium Medium Low Barley Medium Medium Medium Low Sudan High Low Medium High Rape High High High Low Turnips High Low Medium Low TABLE 11 Range Supplements for Sheep (DM basis)a   Relative Protein Level (%) Feedsb High Medium-High Medium-Low Low Barley, grain or corn, dent yellow, grain, grade 2 US, min 54 lb/bu 5 40 75 65 Beet, sugar, molasses, or sugar cane molasses, 48% invert sugar, min 79.5° Brix 5 5 5 5 Cottonseed with some hulls, solvent extracted, ground, min 41% protein, max 14% fiber, min 0.5% fat (cottonseed meal) 66 36 – 16 Soybean, seeds, solvent extracted, ground, max 7% fiber, 44% protein (soybean meal) 10 10 10 10 Urea, technical, 282% protein equivalent – – 5 – Alfalfa, aerial parts, dehydrated, ground, min 17% protein or alfalfa, hay, sun-cured, early bloom 10 5 – – Vitamin A (IU/kg) – 4,000 8,000 8,000 Calcium phosphate, monobasic, commercial 1 1 2 1 Sodium phosphate, monobasic, technical 2 2 2 2 Salt or trace mineralized salt 1 1 1 1 Total 100 100 100 100 Compositionc Protein (N × 6.25) (%) 33.8 24.3 26.2 17.7 Digestible energy (Mcal/kg) 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.1 Phosphorus (%) 2.0 1.5 0.9 1.2 Carotene (mg/kg) 22.0 10.0 – – Vitamin A (IU/kg) – 4,000.0 8,000.0 8,000.0 Rate of feedingd (kg/day) 0.1-0.2 0.1-0.2 0.1-0.2e 0.1-0.2e aFeeds mixed and fed in meal or pellet form. bSee Table 16. cMolasses and alfalfa hay, sun-cured, early bloom not included. dCalculated on as-fed basis for mixing and feeding. eIn emergency situations, up to 0.5 kg may be fed.

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Page 53 TABLE 12 Suggested Creep Diets   Amount (as-fed basis, %) Ingredient Diet A Diet B Diet C Simple Diets (grind for lambs under 6 weeks of age; feed whole thereafter; hand- or self-feed)a Barley, grain 38.5 – – Corn, dent yellow, grain, ground, grade 2 US, min 54 lb/bu 40.0 60.0 88.5 Oats, grain – 28.5 – Wheat, bran, dry milled 10.0 – – Linseed meal, soybean meal, or sunflower meal 10.0 10.0 10.0 Limestone, ground, min 33% calcium 1.0 1.0 1.0 Trace mineralized salt with selenium 0.5 0.5 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Alfalfa hay, sun-cured, early bloom should be fed free choice in conjunction with any of the above diets. Commercially Mixed Diets (hand- or self-fed as meal, but usually as pellets)b Alfalfa, sun-cured, early bloom or dehydrated alfalfa – 10.0 20.0 Barley, grain 20.0 – – Corn, dent yellow, grain, grade 2 US, min 54 lb/bu 54.5 34.5 44.5 Oats, grain – 30.0 10.0 Linseed, soybean, or sunflower meal 10.0 10.0 10.0 Bran, wheat 10.0 10.0 10.0 Beet or cane molasses 4.0 4.0 4.0 Limestone, ground, min 33% calcium 1.0 1.0 1.0 Trace mineralized salt with selenium 0.5 0.5 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Chlortetracycline or oxytetracycline 15.0-25.0 mg/kg 15.0-25.0 mg/kg 15.0-25.0 mg/kg Vitamin A, IU/kg 500.0 500.0 500.0 Vitamin D, IU/kg 50.0 50.0 50.0 Vitamin E, IU/kg 20.0 20.0 20.0 aLimestone will separate from whole grain, so a combination of protein supplement with 10% limestone may be top dressed on the whole grain. Equal parts of trace mineralized salt and limestone is an additional way to maintain adequate calcium intake and prevent urinary calculi. bThe addition of 0.25 to 0.50% ammonium chloride will minimize urinary calculi. Corn may be substituted for all the barley and oats. Weight gains are depressed when barley or oats exceed 40% of the ration.

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Page 76 TABLE 15 Stage-of-Maturity Terms Used in Table 13 Preferred Term Definition Comparable Terms For Plants That Bloom Germinated Stage in which the embryo in a seed resumes growth after a dormant period Sprouted Early vegetative Stage at which the plant is vegetative and before the stems elongate Fresh new growth, before heading out, before inflorescence emergence, immature prebud stage, very immature, young Late vegetative Stage at which stems are beginning to elongate to just before blooming; first bud to first flowers Before bloom, bud stage, budding plants, heading to in bloom, heads just showing, jointing and boot (grasses), prebloom, preflowering, stems elongated Early bloom Stage between initiation of bloom and stage in which 1/10 of the plants are in bloom; some grass heads are in anthesis Early anthesis, first flower, headed out, in head, up to 1/10 bloom Midbloom Stage in which 1/10 to 2/3 of the plants are in bloom; most grass heads are in anthesis Bloom, flowering, flowering plants, half bloom, in bloom, mid anthesis Full bloom Stage in which 2/3 or more of the plants are in bloom 3/4 to full bloom, late anthesis Late bloom Stage in which blossoms begin to dry and fall and seeds begin to form 15 days after silking, before milk, in bloom to early pod, late to past anthesis Milk stage Stage in which seeds are well formed but soft and immature After anthesis, early seed, fruiting, in tassel, late bloom to early seed, past bloom, pod stage, post anthesis, post bloom, seed developing, seed forming, soft, soft immature Dough stage Stage in which the seeds are of dough-like consistency Dough stage, nearly mature, seeds dough, seeds well developed, soft dent Mature Stage in which plants are normally harvested for seed Dent, dough to glazing, fruiting, fruiting plants, in seed, kernels ripe, ripe seed Post ripe Stage that follows maturity; seeds are ripe and plants have been cast and weathering has taken place (applies mostly to range plants) Late, seed, over ripe, very mature Stem cured Stage in which plants are cured on the stem; seeds have been cast and weathering has taken place (applies mostly to range plants) Dormant, mature and weathered, seeds cast Regrowth early vegetative Stage in which regrowth occurs without flowering activity; vegetative crop aftermath; regrowth in stubble (applies primarily to fall regrowth in temperate climates); early dry season regrowth Vegetative recovery growth Regrowth late vegetative Stage in which stems begin to elongate to just before blooming; first bud to first flowers; regrowth in stubble with stem elongation (applies primarily to fall regrowth in temperate climates) Recovery growth, stems elongating, jointing and boot (grasses) For Plants That Do Not Blooma 1 to 14 days' growth A specified length of time after plants have started to grow 2 weeks' growth 15 to 28 days' growth A specified length of time after plants have started to grow 4 weeks' growth 29 to 42 days' growth A specified length of time after plants have started to grow 6 weeks' growth 43 to 56 days' growth A specified length of time after plants have started to grow 8 weeks' growth 57 to 70 days' growth A specified length of time after plants have started to grow 10 weeks' growth aThese classes are for species that remain vegetative for long periods and apply primarily to the tropics. When the name of a feed is developed, the age classes form part of the name (e.g., Pangolagrass, 15 to 28 days' growth). Do not use terms which apply to plants that bloom and those which do not bloom in same name. For plants growing longer than 70 days, the interval is increased by increments of 14 days.

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Page 77 TABLE 16 Weight-Unit Conversion Factors Units Given Units Wanted For Conversion Multiply by lb g 453.6 lb kg 0.4536 oz g 28.35 kg lb 2.2046 kg mg 1,000,000. kg g 1,000. g mg 1,000. g µg 1,000,000. mg µg 1,000. mg/g mg/lb 453.6 mg/kg mg/lb 0.4536 µg/kg µg/lb 0.4536 Mcal kcal 1,000. kcal/kg kcal/lb 0.4536 kcal/lb kcal/kg 2.2046 ppm µg/g 1. ppm mg/kg 1. ppm mg/lb 0.4536 mg/kg % 0.0001 ppm % 0.0001 mg/g % 0.1 g/kg % 0.1 TABLE 17 Weight Equivalents 1 lb = 453.6 g = 0.4536 kg = 16 oz 1 oz = 28.35 g 1 kg = 1,000 g = 2.2046 lb 1 g = 1,000 mg 1 mg = 1,000 µg = 0.001 g 1 µg = 0.001 mg = 0.000001 g 1 µg per g or 1 mg per kg is the same as ppm

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