Page 93

Index

A

Acetonemia, 28

Acidosis, metabolic, 16, 28

Activity increment, 3

Additives, feed, 34.

See also Supplements

Alfalfa

hay, 25

meal, dehydrated, 10, 24-25

vitamin A in, 23

Aluminum, phosphorus and, 13

Amino acids, dietary

coated, 10

requirements of, 10

sulfur-containing, 10, 15

See also Protein

Ammonia

excretion of, 26

in rumen, 9

toxicity, 9-11

urea hydrolyzed to, 9

Ammonium chloride supplements, 28

Ammonium molybdate, 18

Ammonium sulfate supplements, 28

Anaerobic bacteria, 9.

See also Microbes

Anemia, 10

cobalt and, 19

copper and, 17

iron deficiency and, 16

molybdenum and, 17

protein deficiency and, 10

Anorexia

fluorine and, 22

iron toxicosis and, 16

Antibiotics, 34.

See also specific antibiotics

Antioxidants, 23

vitamin E, 24

Arsanilic acids, selenium poisoning and, 22

Artificial rearing, of lambs, 33

Ataxia, neonatal, 17

B

ß-carotene

biological potency of, 23

carotenoid precursors in diet, 23

deficiency of, 1

requirements, 22-23, 45-47, 48, 52

See also Vitamin A

B vitamins, see Vitamin B complex

Bacteria, see Microbes

Barley, 36-37, 53, 54

Biotin, 15

Blood meal, 10

Body temperature, heat increment role, 3

Body weight, see Weight, body

Breeding

feed requirements during, 8

flushing and, 30-32

See also Pregnancy; Reproduction processes

Brewers dried grains, 10

Brome grass, 29

Bypass, of dietary protein, 10

By-products, feedstuffs, 14, 35

C

Calcium

calcium-phosphorus ratio, 13

carbonate, 13, 24

comparative diets for, 37-38

copper absorption and, 17

deficiency, 11

macromineral requirements, 50

manganese and, 19

provided by dry matter feed, 38

vitamin D and, 23

zinc utilization and, 20

See also Limestone

Caloric values, definition of, 2-3

Canarygrass, 29

Carbohydrates

energy in, 2

intake, enterotoxemia and, 27

Carotene, see ß-carotene

Casein, 10

Castration, of rams, see Wethers

Cereal grains, magnesium content of, 14

Cerebrocortical necrosis, see Polioencephalomalacia

Cerebrospinal fluid, elevations in, 22

Chlorine

dietary requirements, 11

macromineral requirements, 50



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Page 93 Index A Acetonemia, 28 Acidosis, metabolic, 16, 28 Activity increment, 3 Additives, feed, 34. See also Supplements Alfalfa hay, 25 meal, dehydrated, 10, 24-25 vitamin A in, 23 Aluminum, phosphorus and, 13 Amino acids, dietary coated, 10 requirements of, 10 sulfur-containing, 10, 15 See also Protein Ammonia excretion of, 26 in rumen, 9 toxicity, 9-11 urea hydrolyzed to, 9 Ammonium chloride supplements, 28 Ammonium molybdate, 18 Ammonium sulfate supplements, 28 Anaerobic bacteria, 9. See also Microbes Anemia, 10 cobalt and, 19 copper and, 17 iron deficiency and, 16 molybdenum and, 17 protein deficiency and, 10 Anorexia fluorine and, 22 iron toxicosis and, 16 Antibiotics, 34. See also specific antibiotics Antioxidants, 23 vitamin E, 24 Arsanilic acids, selenium poisoning and, 22 Artificial rearing, of lambs, 33 Ataxia, neonatal, 17 B ß-carotene biological potency of, 23 carotenoid precursors in diet, 23 deficiency of, 1 requirements, 22-23, 45-47, 48, 52 See also Vitamin A B vitamins, see Vitamin B complex Bacteria, see Microbes Barley, 36-37, 53, 54 Biotin, 15 Blood meal, 10 Body temperature, heat increment role, 3 Body weight, see Weight, body Breeding feed requirements during, 8 flushing and, 30-32 See also Pregnancy; Reproduction processes Brewers dried grains, 10 Brome grass, 29 Bypass, of dietary protein, 10 By-products, feedstuffs, 14, 35 C Calcium calcium-phosphorus ratio, 13 carbonate, 13, 24 comparative diets for, 37-38 copper absorption and, 17 deficiency, 11 macromineral requirements, 50 manganese and, 19 provided by dry matter feed, 38 vitamin D and, 23 zinc utilization and, 20 See also Limestone Caloric values, definition of, 2-3 Canarygrass, 29 Carbohydrates energy in, 2 intake, enterotoxemia and, 27 Carotene, see ß-carotene Casein, 10 Castration, of rams, see Wethers Cereal grains, magnesium content of, 14 Cerebrocortical necrosis, see Polioencephalomalacia Cerebrospinal fluid, elevations in, 22 Chlorine dietary requirements, 11 macromineral requirements, 50

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Page 94 Chlortetracycline, 34 Cholecalciferol, 23 Classes, of feeds, 40-41 Clover, International Feed Number, 41 Cobalt deficiency of, 18 dietary requirements, 19 equation to estimate need for, 19 maximum tolerable level, 50 micromineral requirement, 50 vitamin B12 synthesis and, 25 Coccidiosis, lasalocid for, 34 Colostrum, 33 Competition, daily intake and, 1 Computers, formulating diets with, 39 Conception flushing and, 31 manganese effect on, 19 See also Pregnancy Confinement systems, 3 Copper deficiency, 17 dietary requirements for, 18 maximum tolerable levels of, 50 micromineral requirements, 50 molybdenum interactions with, 17-18 selenium interactions with, 21 sulfur interactions with, 15, 17 toxic levels of, 11, 18 Corn gluten meal, 10 grain, 10 rumen growth and, 32 silage, 35, 58 calcium in, 13 vitamin A in, 23 vitamin E in, 25 Cotton cottonseed meal, 10 International Feed Number, 41 Cotyledons, 31 Creep feeding, 32, 53 feed additives and, 34 iron supplements in, 16 during rumen development, 9 Crude protein, 9 requirements for lambs, 50 See also Protein Cysteine, 15 D Dams early weaning from, 32-33 vitamin D and, 23 See also Ewes; Parturition; Pregnancy Defleecing, 1 Diarrhea, iron toxicosis and, 16 Diets carotenoid precursors in, 23 creep, 53 daily nutrient requirements, 45-47, 48, 50 encouraging rumen growth, 32 ewe, 36-38, 45-47 formulation of, 36-39, 45-47, 48, 54-73, 74-75 gut fill variations, 6 hay-barley, 37-38 high-grain, 12, 15 low-phosphorus, 12 low-sodium, 11 oat hay-barley-soybean meal, 37-38 pelleted, 6, 32 range supplement, 52 supplements, see Supplements totally digestible, 2-3, 41 transition from liquid to solid, 33 use of International Feed Number for calculating, 40 vitamin A fortified, 23 Digestion dietary protein bypass, 10 digestible energy of feeds, 2-3, 41 digestible nutrients of feed, total 2-3, 41 heat increment, 3 level of intake and, 1 microbial nitrogen requirements, 9 microbial protein in, 9 rumen development and, 8-9. See also Rumen water temperature and, 26 Dolomite, 13 Dry matter feeds composition of, 54-73 converted to as-fed basis, 38, 39 macromineral requirements, 50 nutrient concentration in, 48 100 percent, 6-7, 48, 54-73 range supplement, 52 restricted intake, 1 rumen development and, 9 See also specific feeds Dry matter intake, total water intake and, 26 E Edema, 10 Energy activity increment, 3 deficiency, 3-4 definition of, 2-3 digestible energy formula, 41 environment and, 6 feeds, international classes of, 40 gut fill variation, 6 metabolizable, 41 for lactation, 5-6 for pregnancy, 5 net for growth, 3 for lactation, 3 for maintenance, 3. See also Maintenance energy diets for reproduction, 3 value of feedstuffs, 6, 41 oversupply of, 3 recovered, 3 terminology for values of, 2-3 Enterotoxemia, 27 antibiotics for, 34 carbohydrate intake and, 27 vaccination against, 27 Environment, and maintenance energy requirements, 6-7 Enzymes, see specific enzymes Ergocalciferol, 23 Esophageal choke, 35 Estrus, zinc and, 20. See also Conception; Flushing; Ovulation Ewes caloric densities of energy gains in, 4 composition of milk, 51 conditioning for breeding, 30-32 daily nutrient requirements for, 34-35, 45-47 dams, see Dams gestation period, see Pregnancy lactating, salt requirements of, 11. See also Lactation

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Page 95 lambs growth needs of, 8, 45-47, 51 milk production rates, 9 maintenance energy diet for, 34 mature milk production rates, 9 pregnant, see Pregnancy range supplements for, 30, 52 ration alternatives for, 34-35 sodium selenite supplements for, 20 suckling twin lambs, diets for, 36-39 weight changes in, 7 Excretion energy loss through methane, 3 of mineral salts, 26 of oxalates, 26 water and, 26 See also Feces; Urine F Fat energy in, 2 in milk-fed lambs, 5 obesity, 3 vegetable, 24 Feather meal, 10 Feces endogenous loss of calcium in, 12 energy lost in, 3 metabolic protein in, 9 vitamin B12 in, 19 Feed additives, international classes of, 40 Feed bunk space, ration alternatives, 34 Feedlot sheep thiamin deficiency in, 25 urinary calculi in, 28 Feedstuffs additives, 34 alternative rations, 34-35 bunk space, 34 class number, 40, 74-75, 76 composition of, 40-41, 54-73 dry matter, see Dry matter feeds energy values of, 2-3, 6, 41 equivalent weights, 41, 77 excess fiber in, 1 international classes, 40-41 magnesium content of, 14 mineral levels in, see Minerals; specific feedstuffs nutrients provided by, 54-73, 74-75 plant by-products, 14 supplements to, see Supplements vitamins in, see specific vitamins weight unit conversion, 41, 77 See also specific feedstuffs Fencing, 34 Ferric citrate diet, 16 Ferrous sulfate diets, 16 Fiber feeds high in, 1 forage classification, 40 Finishing lambs, see Growing-finishing lambs Fish meal, 10, 24 Fluorides, 22 maximum tolerable level, 50 micromineral requirement, 50 toxicity of, 22 Flushing, 30-32 Food and Drug Administration antibiotics approved by, 34 molybdenum recommendations, 18 selenium recommendations, 21 Forages calcium supplied in, 13 carotene-deficient, 1 copper content in, 18 high molybdenum content in, 17 high silica content in, 28 international classes of, 40 low-sulfur, 15 pasture, 16, 52 poisonous plants, 34 potassium levels in, 15 range supplement, dry matter basis, 52 seasonal differences in, 30 selenium content in, 21, 22 unpalatable, 29, 52 vitamin A in, 23 vitamin E in, 25 See also specific feedstuffs Fungi, 9 G Gestation, late, 1 Glucose, pregnancy demand for, 28 Glutamic-oxalacetic transminase, 24 Glycerol, 28 Goitrogens, 16, 50 Gonadotropins, 30 Grains creep feeding with, 32 high-grain diets, 12, 15 potassium content of, 14-15 selenium content in, 21 vitamin A sources, 23 See also specific grains Grass tetany magnesium alloy bullets for, 14 nursing ewes and, 13 Grasses calcium found in, 13 sulfur content of, 15 unpalatable, 29, 52 See also specific feedstuffs Grazing land maintenance energy diet for sheep on, 30, 52 poisonous plants and, 34 See also Pastures; Range land Growing-finishing lambs calcium supplementation for, 13 cobalt needs of, 19 copper allowance, 18 fluorine tolerance of, 22 iodine needs of, 16 potassium needs of, 14 salt requirements of, 11 urinary calculi in, 28 vitamin A needs of, 22 vitamin D needs of, 24 vitamin E needs of, 24-25, 51 zinc toxicity, 20 Growth energy required for, 4 genotype mature weight and, 4 net energy for, 3 stage-of-maturity terms, 76 See also Growing-finishing lambs Gut fill variation, 6 H Hair production, energy for, 3 Hay alfalfa, vitamin E in, 25 carotene in, 23 haylage, 35, 54-73 nutrients provided by, 36, 45-47, 48 sulfur content in, 15 sun-cured, 24

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Page 96 Hay-barley diet, 37 Haylage, 35, 54-73 Heat increment, 3 High-grain diets, 12, 15 Hormones synthesis of, 15 See also specific hormones Hypoglycemia, 28 I Immune systems, energy and, 4 Infertility, copper and, 17 International Feed Number, 40, 40-41 minerals, 74-75 Iodine calcium and, 13 dietary requirements for, 15-16 maximum tolerable levels of, 50 micromineral requirement, 50 toxicosis, signs of, 16 Iron calcium and, 13 copper absorption and, 17 deficiency, 16 dietary requirements for, 16 elevated levels of phosphorus and, 13 iron-dextran, 16 manganese and, 19 maximum tolerable levels of, 50 micromineral requirement, 50 toxicity, 16 Iron-dextran, 16 K Keritinization, vitamin A and, 23 Ketosis, 28 prior to parturition, 4 L Lactation anemia in lambs and, 16 copper allowance, 17, 18 early weaning, 32-33 energy requirements during, 3, 5, 7-8 magnesium requirements for, 13 milk production, see Milk production phosphorus requirements during, 12 protein needs during, 9 stress of, 32 water intake during, 26 zinc and, 20 Lactic dehydrogenase, 24 Lambs artificial rearing of, 33 birth weight of, 12 castrated, energy requirements of, 5 crude protein requirements of, 9, 45-47, 48, 50 daily nutrient requirements of, 45-47 early weaning of, 32-33 ewe lambs, see Ewes, lambs feedlot, thiamin deficiency and, 25 growing-finishing, see Growing-finishing lambs high-grain diets, and tetany in, 12 magnesium deficiency in, 13 maintenance energy diets for, 32, 49 milk-fed, 5 anemia in, 16 neonatal ataxia in, 17 newborn iodine deficiency in, 15 vitamin D deficiency and, 23 niacin-deficient diet of, 25 nonfunctional rumen in, 8-9 nursing, see Nursing lambs pasturing of, 29 potassium needs of, 14 prenatal mortality of, 31-32 ram, see Rams replacement, 8, 45-47, 48 selenium needs of, 20 vaccination against enterotoxemia, 27 vitamin E for, 24 white muscle disease in, 24 zinc requirements of, 20 Lambing, see Parturition Lasalocid, 34 Legumes, 29 as calcium source, 13 rumen growth and, 32 Limestone, 38 calcium in, 37-38 M Magnesium carbonate, 14 deficiency calcium absorption and, 13 signs of, 13 dietary requirements, 13 fertilization, 14 macromineral requirements, 50 oxide, 14 skeletal, 13 sulfate, 14 Maintenance diets for, see Maintenance energy diets energy requirements, 3, 4, 7 of skeletal system, 11 Maintenance energy diets for artificially reared labms, 33 daily nutrient requirements, 45-47 ewes, 34 suckling twin lambs, 36-39 during flushing, 32 for grazing sheep, 30, 52 for lambs, 49 for nursing lambs, 32 Management systems, 3. See also specific systems Manganese calcium and, 13 deficiency of, 19 dietary requirement for, 19 maximum tolerable levle, 50 micromineral requirement, 50 Meals bypass protein sources, 10 protein rich, 24 See also specific meals Meat meal, 10, 24 Menaquinone, 25 Metabolizable energy determination of, 3 maintenance and, 4 Methane, energy loss through, 3 Methionine, 15 Microbes antibiotics for, 34, 53 deficient in sulfur, 15 enterotoxemia and, 27 microbial nitrogen requirements, 9 protein synthesization by, 9

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Page 97 See also Rumen Milk calcium content of, 12 composition of ewe's, 51 creep feeding and, 32 frozen colostrum and, 33 nursing and, see Nursing lambs phosphorus content of, 12 replacers, see Milk replacers vitamin A in, 22-23 Milk production early weaning and, 33 values, 12, 51 Milk replacers artificially reared lambs and, 33 creep feed supplements to, 9 frozen colostrum and, 33 Minerals composition of supplements, 74-75 dietary requirements for, 11-22 macromineral, 50 micromineral, 50 excretion of salts, 26 International Feed Number for, 74-75 maximum tolerable levels, 50 as supplements, international classes of, 40, 74-75 toxic doses of, see specific minerals vitamin D and, 24 See also specific minerals Molybdenosis, resistance to, 17 Molybdenum copper interactions with, 17-18 dietary requirements for, 16-17 maximum tolerable level, 50 micromineral requirement, 50 sulfur and, 15 toxicity, 17 Muscular dystrophy, nutritional, 24 N Neonatal ataxia, copper and, 17 Neonates, see Lambs, newborn; Nursing lambs Net energy, 3 Niacin, in lamb diets, 25 See also Vitamin B complex Night blindness, 22 Nitrogen dietary nonprotein, 9, 10, 14 microbial requirements, 9 nitrogen-sulfur ratio, 15 Nursing lambs, 8 creep feeding of, 32 diets for, 36-39 early weaning of, 32-33 maintenance diet for, 32, 49 See also Lactation Nutrients daily nutrients requirements, 45-47. See also Maintenance energy diets deficiency of, 3-4 interrelationships among, 1 oxidation of, 26 total digestible, 2-3, 41 See also specific nutrients Nutrition disorders, see specific disorders Nutritional muscular dystrophy, 24 O Oats hay, 36-37 pot-bellied lambs and, 32 Obesity, 4 Oliguria, iron toxicosis and, 16 Orchard grass, 29 Osteomalacia, 11 vitamin D for prevention of, 23 Osteoporosis, copper and, 17 Ovulation increase in, 30-32 phenobarbital and, 31 Oxalates, excretion of, 26 Oxidation, water from, 26 Oxytetracycline, 34, 53 P Pantothenic acid, 25 Parakeratosis, zinc and, 20 Parasite infections calcium-phosphorus status and, 13 energy and, 4 forage and, 29 iron-deficiency anemia and, 16 Parturition early weaning and, 33 net energy toxicity, 4 vitamin A deficiency and, 23 zinc and, 20 See also Pregnancy Pastures cobalt-deficient, 18 forage, see Forages optimal utilization of, 29 pasturing of lambs, 29 poisonous plants on, 34 rotation of, 34 selenium content of, 20-21 sunlight in, 24 See also Grazing land Peanut meal, 10 Peas, forage, 29 Periodontal disease, selenium and, 20 Phenobarbital, ovulation and, 31 Phosphorus calcium ratio, 13 comparative diets for, 37 deficiency of, 12 dietary requirements, 11-13 differences in absorption of, 12 endogenous losses of, 12 macromineral requirements, 50 nonprotein nitrogen supplementation and, 10 Phylloquinone, 25 Plants by-products of, 14, 32 international classes of, 40 poisonous, 34 seleniferous, 22 vitamin K1 source, 25 See also specific plants Poisons, see specific poisons Polioencephalomalacia, 27 Potassium deficiency, 14 dietary requirements for, 14-15, 50 nonprotein nitrogen supplementation and, 1 Pregnancy copper allowance, 18 determination of nutrients needed in, 36 diseases of, 28 energy requirements of, 5, 7-8 flushing and, 30-32 forage available during, 30 iodized salt during, 16 iron requirements during, 16 lambing, see Parturition magnesium requirements for, 14

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Page 98 net energy requirements, 49 phosphorus requirements during, 12 prenatal lamb death, 31-32 toxemia, 26, 28 vitamin A required during, 22 vitamin E required during, 24 water intake during, 26 zinc toxicity in, 20 Progesterone, nutrition and, 31 Propylene glycol, 2 Protein amino acids, see Amino acids, dietary classification of, 10 comparative diets, 37, 38 crude, see Crude protein deficiency, 10 dietary, bypass of, 10 digestible, formula for, 41 digestible versus crude, 9 early weaning diets and, 33 energy in, 2 formaldehyde-treated, 10 hepatic steroid metabolizing enzymes increase from, 30 for lambs, 8-9, 45-47, 48, 50 microbial synthesization by, 9 requirements, 45-47, 48, 50 formulas, 9, 41 substitution of nonprotein nitrogen, 9-10 sulfur-containing, 15 supplements, international classes of, 40 toxicity, 10-11 for wool growth, 5 Protozoa, 9 Pulpy kidney disease, see Enterotoxemia Pyridoxine, 25 R Rams caloric densities of energy gains in, 4 castrated, see Wethers growth of, 5 needs of lambs, 8, 45-47, 48 urinary calculi in, 12-13 Range land arid, 3 classification of, 29 forage, see Forages nutrient needs of sheep on, 29-30 plants oil content, 3 poisonous, 34 supplement, 52 urinary calculi and, 28 Rape, 29 Rations alternatives, 34-35 creep, see Creep feeding formulation of, 36 pelleted, 26 See also Maintenance energy diets Replacement lambs, nutrient requirements of, 8, 45-47, 48 Reproduction processes efficiency of, 31-32 energy deficiency and, 3 fluorine restriction during, 22 flushing and, 30-32 net energy for, 3 zinc and, 20 See also specific processes Riboflavin, 25 Rickets, 11 vitamin D for prevention of, 23 Rock phosphate, fluorine in, 22 Rumen amino acid degradation in, 10 ammonia in, 9-10 decreased size in pregnancy, 28 development of, 32 dietary protein degraded in, 10 effect of water on, 26 in lambs, 8-9 microbial nitrogen requirements, 9 microorganisms in, 9 sulfur metabolism in, 15 synthesis of vitamin B12, 18-19 vitamin B complex and, 25 S Sagebrush, oil content of, 3 Saliva, phosphorus recycling and, 12 Salt acid-forming, 28 cobalt added to, 19 copper sulfate added to, 18 dietary requirements for, 11 excretion of mineral salts, 26 iodized, 16 lick, 11 supplemental, 11, 28 trace-mineralized, 11 Selenium copper interactions with, 21 deficiency of, 20 dietary requirements for, 20-22 maximum tolerable level, 50 micromineral requirement, 50 toxicity, 20, 22 vitamin E and, 24 Silages, 23, 25, 35, 54-73 international classes of, 40 nutrients provided by, 36, 45-47, 48 See also specific feeds Sodium chloride and, see Salt deficiency, 11 dietary requirements, 11 macromineral requirements, 50 selenite, 20 sulfate, 18 Soybean meal, 10, 32, 36 Spermatogenesis, zinc and, 20 Stage-of-maturity terms, 76 Standards, international, 40 Steroid metabolizing enzymes, hepatic, 30 Sudan-sorghum grass, 29, 52 Sulfur deficiency, 15 dietary requirements, 15 macromineral requirements, 50 molybdenum and, 17 nonprotein nitrogen supplementation and, 10 vitamin E and, 25 Sunflower meal, 10 Sunlight, need for, 23-24 Supplements, 50, 51, 52, 53 amino acids, 10 animal protein, 14 calcium, 13 cobalt, 18 copper, 18 feed additives, 34 formulation of, 36 frozen colostrum, 33 international classes of, 40 iron, 16

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Page 99 magnesium carbonate, 13 mineral, composition of, 74-75 nonprotein nitrogen, 9-10 plant protein, 14 pregnant ewes' need for, 28 for range sheep, 30, 52 rock phosphate, 22 salt, 11 selenium, 20-21 sodium sulfate, 18 sulfur amino acid, 10 thiamin, 27 vitamin A, 23 vitamin D, 24 vitamin E, 24 Swayback, 17-18 T Tetany calcium deficiency and, 12 grass, see Grass tetany high-grain diet and, 12 hypomagnesemic, 13-14 Thiamin deficiency, 25, 27 sulfur and, 15 Thyroxine, iodine and, 15 Total digestible nutrients, 2-3 See also Digestion; Nutrients Trace elements added to salt, 11 calcium supplementation and, 13 dietary requirements for, 15-22 maximum tolerable levels, 50 micromineral requirements, 50 Triiodothyronine, iodine and, 15-16 Twin lambs, 12 diets for dams of, 36-39 U Unthriftiness, selenium and, 20-21 Urea source of nonprotein nitrogen, 9 sulfur supplements and, 15 Urinary calculi, 28 excretion of mineral salts and, 26 Urine blockage of flow, see Urinary calculi endogenous urinary protein, 9 energy lost in, 3 total water intake and, 26 Urolithiasis, 14-15 V Vaccination, against enterotoxemia, 27 Vitamin A b-carotene, see b-carotene deficiency, 23 requirements for, 22-23, 45-47, 48 toxicity, 23 Vitamin B complex Vitamin B12 cobalt and, 25 deficiency, 18-19 requirements for, 25 rumen and, 18-19, 25 Vitamin D calcium utilization and, 12 deficiency, 23 requirements for, 23-24 toxicity, 24 Vitamin D2, 23 Vitamin D3, 23 Vitamin E deficiency, 24 requirements for, 24, 45-47, 48, 51 selenium and, 21 Vitamin K1, for blood clotting, 25 Vitamin K2, synthesized in rumen, 25 Vitamins, international classes of, 40 See also specific vitamins Voluntary activity needs, energy for, 3 W Water dry matter consumption and, 26 feeds high in, 1 fluorides in, 22 metabolism of, 11 total water intake, 26 urinary calculi and, 28 water belly, 28 Weaning creep feeding and, 32-33 early, 32-33 lactation weight loss, 8 from milk replacer, 33 Weight, body at birth, 12 change before breeding, see Flushing changes in ewes, 7 early ram, 5 ewe management, 7 of fetus, 31 gain energy densities of, 6 genotypes, 49, 50 pasture feeding and, 29 rapid, 32 rate of gain and energy, 4, 7 loss during lactation, 8 protein and, 10 of placenta, 31 size correlation, 31 Weight equivalents, 77 Weight-unit conversion factor, 77 Wethers, 4 energy requirements of, 5 salt requirements of, 11 urinary calculi in, 12-13 urolith formation in, 14-15 Wheat germ meal, 24 Wheat, International Feed Number, 41 White muscle disease, 20 selenium deficiency, 21 vitamin E and, 24 Wool crude protein in, 9 loss, zinc and, 20 picking, 1, 34 production break, 4 energy for, 3 protein intake and, 5, 10 shedding of, 15 sulfur-containing amino acids in, 10 Z Zinc calcium and, 13 copper absorption and, 17 copper deficiency and, 20 deficiency of, 19-20 dietary requirements for, 20 maximum tolerable level, 50 micromineral requirement, 50 Other Titles in the Series Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits, 2nd Rev. Ed., 1977 0-309-02607-5 Nutrient Requirements of Cats, Rev. Ed., 1978 0-309-02743-8 Nutrient Requirements of Horses, 4th Rev. Ed., 1978 0-309-02760-8 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 5th Rev. Ed., 1978 0-309-02749-7 Nutrient Requirements of Nonhuman Primates, 1978 0-309-02786-1 Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1978 0-309-02767-5 Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 8th Rev. Ed., 1979 0-309-02870-1 Nutrient Requirements of Goats, 1981 0-309-03185-0 Nutrient Requirements of Coldwater Fishes, 1981 0-309-03187-7 Nutrient Requirements of Mink and Foxes, Rev. Ed., 1982 0-309-03325-X Nutrient Requirements of Warmwater Fishes and Shellfishes, Rev. Ed., 1983 0-309-03428-0 Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 6th Rev. Ed., 1984 0-309-03447-7 Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 8th Rev. Ed., 1984 0-309-03486-8 Nutrient Requirements of Dogs, Rev. Ed., 1985 0-309-03496-5