References

Armellini, J. , G.T. Hong , and J.W. Tester . 1994 . Precipitation of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate in water from sub- to supercritical conditions: 150°C to 55°C, 100 to 300 bar . Journal of Supercritical Fluids 7 : 147-158 .

Battelle . 1996 . Capabilities in Hydrothermal Processing, Preliminary Proposal . November 25, 1996 . Richland, Washington : Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory .

Bischoff, J.L. , and R.J. Rosenbauer . 1988 . Liquid-vapor relations in the critical region of the system NaCl-H 2O from 381–415°C: a refined determination of the critical point and two-phase boundary of seawater . Geochimica et Cosmochimica 52 : 2121–2126 .

Bischoff, J.L. , and K.S. Pitzer . 1989 . Liquid-vapor relations for the system NaCl-H2O: summary of the P-T-x surface from 300 to 500°C. American Journal of Science 89 : 217–248 .

Borovaya, F.E. , and M.I. Ravich . 1968 . Solubility of sodium carbonate and orthophosphate in aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide at elevated temperatures . Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 13(12) : 1720–1722 .

Broadbent, D. , G.G. Lewis , and E.A.M. Wetton . 1977 . Phase Equilibria in Aqueous Sodium Phosphate Solutions at Elevated Temperatures . Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Trans. 1997, (5) , 464–8 .

Chiavlo, A.A. , P.T. Cummings , H.D. Cochran , J.M. Simonson , R.E. Mesmer . 1995 . Solvation, hydrogenbonding and ion pairing in supercritical aqueous solutions: simulation and experiments . Pp. 65–76 in Innovations in Supercritical Fluids Science and Technology , K.W. Hutchenson , and N.R. Foster , eds. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 608 . Washington D.C. : American Chemical Society .

Chowdhury, D.K. 1996 . The Role of Additive for Salt Removal from Supercritical Water . Master's thesis . Austin, Texas : University of Texas at Austin .

Dell'Orco, P. , B. Foy , E. Wilmanns , L. Le , J. Ely , K. Patterson , and S. Buelow . 1995 . Hydrothermal oxidation of organic compounds by nitrate and nitrite . Pp. 179–196 in Innovations in Supercritical Fluids Science and Technology , K.W. Hutchenson and N.R. Foster , eds. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 608 . Washington D.C. : American Chemical Society .

Ding, Z.Y. , S.N.V.K. Aki , and M.A. Abrahams . 1995 . Pp. 232–245 in Innovations in Supercritical Fluids Science and Technology , K.W. Hutchenson and N.R. Foster , eds. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 608 . Washington D.C. : American Chemical Society .

Foy, B.R. , P.C. Dell'Orco , W.D. Breshears , S.J. Buelow , J. Ely , L.A. Le , R.E. McInroy , R. Oldenborg , J.M. Robinson , M. Sedillo , and E.G. Wilmanns . 1994 . Hydrothermal Kinetics of Organic and Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction for Hanford Tank Waste Simulant . Unclassified Report No. LA-UR-94:3174. Los Alamos, N.M. : Los Alamos National Laboratory .

General Atomics . 1994 . Assessment and Development of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low Grade Fuels, Final Report Phase IIB . DE-FC07-88ID12711 . San Diego, Calif. : General Atomics, Inc.

General Atomics . 1995 . Solid Rocket Motor Disposal Program, Hydrothermal Oxidation System Proof of Prototype Test Report . 629025 N/C . San Diego, Calif. : General Atomics, Inc.

General Atomics . 1996 . Supercritical Water Oxidation Data Acquisition Testing . Final Report, Vol. 1, Phase 1. DOE Testing, Idaho Operations Office. DE-FC07-94ID13303, November 1996 . San Diego, Calif. : General Atomics, Inc.

General Atomics . 1997a . Treatability Study: Supercritical Water Oxidation of VX Hydrolysate . Test Report 229003/A . San Diego, Calif. : General Atomics, Inc. (produced under Subcontract PS-02552 from Stone & Webster Corporation, Army Prime Contract No.DAAA-15-91-D-0005).

General Atomics . 1997b . Confirmatory Testing Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Destroy VX/NaOH Hydrolysate . Test Report. 499002 N/C . San Diego, Calif.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 55
Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization References Armellini, J. , G.T. Hong , and J.W. Tester . 1994 . Precipitation of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate in water from sub- to supercritical conditions: 150°C to 55°C, 100 to 300 bar . Journal of Supercritical Fluids 7 : 147-158 . Battelle . 1996 . Capabilities in Hydrothermal Processing, Preliminary Proposal . November 25, 1996 . Richland, Washington : Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory . Bischoff, J.L. , and R.J. Rosenbauer . 1988 . Liquid-vapor relations in the critical region of the system NaCl-H 2O from 381–415°C: a refined determination of the critical point and two-phase boundary of seawater . Geochimica et Cosmochimica 52 : 2121–2126 . Bischoff, J.L. , and K.S. Pitzer . 1989 . Liquid-vapor relations for the system NaCl-H2O: summary of the P-T-x surface from 300 to 500°C. American Journal of Science 89 : 217–248 . Borovaya, F.E. , and M.I. Ravich . 1968 . Solubility of sodium carbonate and orthophosphate in aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide at elevated temperatures . Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 13(12) : 1720–1722 . Broadbent, D. , G.G. Lewis , and E.A.M. Wetton . 1977 . Phase Equilibria in Aqueous Sodium Phosphate Solutions at Elevated Temperatures . Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Trans. 1997, (5) , 464–8 . Chiavlo, A.A. , P.T. Cummings , H.D. Cochran , J.M. Simonson , R.E. Mesmer . 1995 . Solvation, hydrogenbonding and ion pairing in supercritical aqueous solutions: simulation and experiments . Pp. 65–76 in Innovations in Supercritical Fluids Science and Technology , K.W. Hutchenson , and N.R. Foster , eds. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 608 . Washington D.C. : American Chemical Society . Chowdhury, D.K. 1996 . The Role of Additive for Salt Removal from Supercritical Water . Master's thesis . Austin, Texas : University of Texas at Austin . Dell'Orco, P. , B. Foy , E. Wilmanns , L. Le , J. Ely , K. Patterson , and S. Buelow . 1995 . Hydrothermal oxidation of organic compounds by nitrate and nitrite . Pp. 179–196 in Innovations in Supercritical Fluids Science and Technology , K.W. Hutchenson and N.R. Foster , eds. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 608 . Washington D.C. : American Chemical Society . Ding, Z.Y. , S.N.V.K. Aki , and M.A. Abrahams . 1995 . Pp. 232–245 in Innovations in Supercritical Fluids Science and Technology , K.W. Hutchenson and N.R. Foster , eds. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 608 . Washington D.C. : American Chemical Society . Foy, B.R. , P.C. Dell'Orco , W.D. Breshears , S.J. Buelow , J. Ely , L.A. Le , R.E. McInroy , R. Oldenborg , J.M. Robinson , M. Sedillo , and E.G. Wilmanns . 1994 . Hydrothermal Kinetics of Organic and Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction for Hanford Tank Waste Simulant . Unclassified Report No. LA-UR-94:3174. Los Alamos, N.M. : Los Alamos National Laboratory . General Atomics . 1994 . Assessment and Development of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low Grade Fuels, Final Report Phase IIB . DE-FC07-88ID12711 . San Diego, Calif. : General Atomics, Inc. General Atomics . 1995 . Solid Rocket Motor Disposal Program, Hydrothermal Oxidation System Proof of Prototype Test Report . 629025 N/C . San Diego, Calif. : General Atomics, Inc. General Atomics . 1996 . Supercritical Water Oxidation Data Acquisition Testing . Final Report, Vol. 1, Phase 1. DOE Testing, Idaho Operations Office. DE-FC07-94ID13303, November 1996 . San Diego, Calif. : General Atomics, Inc. General Atomics . 1997a . Treatability Study: Supercritical Water Oxidation of VX Hydrolysate . Test Report 229003/A . San Diego, Calif. : General Atomics, Inc. (produced under Subcontract PS-02552 from Stone & Webster Corporation, Army Prime Contract No.DAAA-15-91-D-0005). General Atomics . 1997b . Confirmatory Testing Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Destroy VX/NaOH Hydrolysate . Test Report. 499002 N/C . San Diego, Calif.

OCR for page 55
Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization : General Atomics, Inc. (produced under Subc ontract PS-029978 from Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, U.S. Army Contract No. DAAM-01-96-D-0010) . General Atomics . 1997c . Supercritical Water Oxidation Studies . Vols. 1 and 2. 349807 N/C . San Diego, Calif. : General Atomics, Inc. Gloyna, E.F. , and L. Li . 1997 . Supercritical Water Oxidation of Methylphosphonic Acid: Destruction Efficiency and Kinetics . Final draft report, revised September 26, 1997 . San Diego, Calif. : Eco Waste Technologies, Inc. Gopalan, S. , and P.E. Savage . 1995 . Phenol oxidation in supercritical water . Pp. 217–231 in Innovations in Supercritical Fluids Science and Technology, K.W . Hutcheson and N.R. Foster , eds. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 608 . Washington D.C. : American Chemical Society . Haroldsen, B.L. , D.Y. Ariizumi , B.E. Mills , B.G. Brown , and D. Greisen . 1996 . Transpiring Wall Supercritical Water Oxidation Reactor Salt Deposition Studies . SAND96-8255 . Albuquerque, N.M. : Sandia National Laboratories . Harradine, D.M. , S.J. Buelow , P.C. Dell'Orco , R.B. Dyer , B.R. Foy , J.M. Robinson , J.A. Sanchez , T. Spontarelli , and J. Wander . 1993 . Oxidation chemistry of energetic materials in supercritical water . Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials 10(2) : 233–246 . Killilea, W.R. 1997 . Personal communication to Dr. Walter May, October 29, 1997 . Killilea, W.R. , Swallow, K.C. , and G.T. Hong . 1992 . The fate of nitrogen in supercritical water oxidation . Journal of Supercritical Fluids 5 : 72–78 . LaJeunesse, C.A. , B.L. Haroldsen , S.F. Rice , and B.G. Brown . 1997 . Hydrothermal Oxidation of Navy Shipboard Excess Hazardous Materials . SAND97-8212 . Albuquerque, N.M. : Sandia National Laboratories . Latanision, R.M. 1995 . Corrosion science, corrosion engineering, and advanced technologies . Corrosion Science 51 : 270–283 . Latanision, R.M. , D.B. Mitton , S.-H. Zhang , J.A. Cline , N. Caputy , T. Arias , and A. Rigos . 1997 . Corrosion and corrosion mechanisms in supercritical water oxidation systems for hazardous waste disposal . Pp. 865–868 in Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids . Sendai, Japan : Tohoku University Department of Chemical Engineering . Li, L. , P. Chen , and E.F. Gloyna . 1991 . Generalized kinetic model for wet oxidation of organic compounds . American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal 37 : 1687–1697 . Li, L. , P. Chen , and E.F. Gloyna . 1993 . Kinetic model for wet oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical and critical water . Pp. 305–313 in Supercritical Fluid Engineering Science: Fundamentals and Applications , E. Kiran and J.F. Brennecke , eds. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 514 . Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society . Manthei, J.H. , R.A. Way , K.P. Cameron , B.I. Gaviola , and D.M. Bona . 1997a . Toxicological Evaluation of VX/Sodium Hydroxide (VX/NaOH) By-Products, Super Critical Water Oxidation (SCWO) Effluent Samples, and VX/Water Neutralized Samples by the Intravenous Route in Mice . Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center . Manthei, J.H. , R.A. Way , D.M. Bona , and B.I. Gaviola . 1997b . Results of Department of Transportation (DOT) Test Procedures in Rats (Oral) and Rabbits (Dermal) with Super Critical Water Oxidation (SCWO), Prior to Evaporator . Alternative Technology Program, Interim Report 97-319-02. February 27, 1997 . Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center . Marshall, W.L. , C.E. Hall , and R.E. Mesmer . 1981 . System dipotassium hydrogen phosphate-water at high temperatures (100–400°C): liquid-liquid immiscibility and concentrated solutions . Journal of Inorganic Nuclear Chemistry 43 : 449–455 . Martynova, O.I. 1976 . Solubility of inorganic compounds in subcritical and supercritical water . Pp.13–138 in High Temperature, High Pressure, Electrochemistry , D. Jones and R.W. Staehle , eds., Houston, Tex. : National Association of Corrosion Engineers . Martynova, O.I. , and O.K. Smirnov . 1964 . Solutions of inorganic compounds in supercritical steam . Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 9(2) : 145–149 . Modell, M . 1989 . Supercritical water oxidation . Pp. 8–153 in Standard Handbook of Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal , H.M. Freeman , ed. New York : McGraw Hill . National Research Council (NRC) . 1993 . Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions . Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies. Board on Army Science and Technology . Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press .

OCR for page 55
Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization NRC . 1994a . Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions . Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Board on Army Science and Technology . Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press . NRC. 1994b . Review of Monitoring Activities within the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program . Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Board on Army Science and Technology . Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press . NRC . 1996a . Review and Evaluation of Alternative Chemical Disposal Technologies . Panel on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Chemical Disposal Technologies. Board on Army Science and Technology . Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press . NRC . 1996b . Review of Systemization of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility . Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Board on Army Science and Technology . Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press . Proesmans, P.I. , L.Luan , and S.J. Buelow . 1997 . Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using ammonium nitrate . Industrial Engineering Chemical Research 36 : 1559–1566 . Resources Conservation Company . 1997 . Test report for the evaporation and crystallization bench scale tests of sample effluent from the VX/NaOH hydrolysate by supercritical water oxidation treatment. June 1997 . Bellevue, Wash. : Resources Conservation Company . Ravich, M.I. , and L.F. Yastrebova . 1959 . The solid phases crystallizing the systems Na3PO4-Na2SO4-H2O at high temperatures (200–350°C) . Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 4 : 69–74 . Schoenmann, L. , M. Young , and K.S. Ahluwalia . 1997 . Use of transpiring-wall platelet reactor in hydrothermal oxidation of organic materials . Presentation to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, October 28, 1997 , National Research Council , Washington, D.C. Shanableh, A. , and E. Gloyna . 1991 . Supercritical water oxidation of wastewaters and sludges . Water Science 23 : 389–398 . Shaw, R.W. , T.B. Brill , A.A. Clifford , C.A. Eckert , and E.U. Franck . 1991 . Supercritical water: a medium for chemistry . Chemical and Engineering News 69 : 26–39 . Sandia National Laboratories . 1996 . Transpiring Wall Supercritical Water Oxidation Reactor Salt Deposition Studies . SAND96-8255 UC-702. September 1996 . Albuquerque, N.M. : Sandia National Laboratories . Solomon, R.L. 1997 . Design and operation of evaporator systems . Presentation to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, October 28, 1997 , National Research Council , Washington, D.C. Southwest Research Institute . 1997 . Preliminary analytical results of distillate and solids from the evaporation and crystallization bench-scale tests of SCWO sample effluent. August, 1997 San Antonio, Tex. : Southwest Research Institute . Stoddard, M.C. 1997 . Sandia National Laboratories: Projects in Supercritical Water Oxidation . Presentation to the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, October 28, 1997 , National Research Council , Washington, D.C. Stone and Webster . 1996 . Supercritical Water Oxidation Data Acquisition Testing, Final Report. Vol. 1, Phase 1 . DE-FC07-94ID 13303. November 1996. Idaho Operations Office . Boston, Mass. : Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation . Stone and Webster . 1997a . Information Package for the NRC Technical Assessment of the SCWO Post-Treatment Units for the Newport VX Chemical Agent Disposal Facility at Newport Chemical Depot, Newport, Indiana. Vol. 1 . Boston, Mass. : Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation . Stone and Webster . 1997b . Evaluation of Confirmatory Testing of Supercritical Water Oxidation for Treating VX/NaOH Hydrolysate . May 30, 1997 . Boston, Mass. : Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation . Stone and Webster . 1997c . Information Compiled for the National Research Council on Pilot-and Full-Scale Testing and Application of SCWO Technology . December 10, 1997 . Boston, Mass. : Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation . Tester, J.W. , H.R. Holgate , F.J. Armellini , P. Webley , W.R. Killilea , G.T. Hong , and H.E. Barner . 1993 . Supercritical water oxidation technology: a review of process development and fundamental research. Pp. 35–76 in Emerging Technologies for Hazardous Waste Management III , D.W. Tedder , and F.G. Pohland , eds. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 518 . Washington, D.C. : American Chemical Society .

OCR for page 55
Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization U.S. Army . 1996a . Material Safety Data Sheet: Lethal Nerve Agent VX . Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : U.S. Army Chemical Biological Defense Command . U.S. Army . 1996b . Newport Chemical Activity Concept Design Package for VX Neutralization Followed by Off-Site Biodegradation . April 14, 1996 . Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : U. S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization . U.S. Army . 1996c . Alternative Technology Program Evaluation Report, September 9, 1996 . Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization . U.S. Army . 1997 . Generation of VX/NaOH Hydrolysate for Post-Treatment Studies Subtests 15–17. Vol. 1 . Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. : U.S. Army Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization . Valyashko, V.M. . 1976 . Phase equilibria in water-salt systems: some problems of solubility at elevated temperature and pressure . Pp. 153–157 in High Temperature, High Pressure Electrochemistry in Aqueous Solutions , D. Jones and R.W. Staehle , eds. Houston, Tex. : National Association of Corrosion Engineers . Wade, D.F. 1997 . Control of Sodium Sulfate Scaling in Supercritical Oxidation Reactors: Temperature and Inhibitor Investigations . Master's thesis . Austin, Tex. : University of Texas at Austin . Weismantel, G. Supercritical water oxidation treats toxic organics in sludge . Environmental Technology 6(5) : 30–34 . Yang, Y-C. 1995 . Chemical reactions for neutralizing chemical warfare agents . Chemistry and Industry 1995(9) : 334–337 .