Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 105
Appendixes A Glossary and Organizational Framework for the Current Food Safety System
OCR for page 106
A.1 Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations AMS —Agricultural Marketing Service APHIS —Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service ARS —Agricultural Research Service BATF —Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms CDC —Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CFSAN —Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition CSREES —Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service CUSTOMS —US Customs Service CVM —Center for Veterinary Medicine DHHS —US Department of Health and Human Services DOC —US Department of Commerce DOD —US Department of Defence EPA —US Environmental Protection Agency ERS —Economic Research Service FDA —Food and Drug Administration FS —Under Secretary for Food Safety FSIS —Food Safety and Inspection Service FTC —Federal Trade Commission GIPSA —Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration MRP —Under Secretary for Marketing and Regulatory Programs NASS —National Agricultural Statistics Service NCTR —National Center for Toxicological Research NIH —National Institutes of Health NMFS —National Marine Fisheries Service NOAA —National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration OECA —Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assistance OPP —Office of Pesticide Programs OPPTS —Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances ORA —Office of Regulatory Affairs ORACBA —Office of Risk Assessment and Cost-Benefit Analysis ORD —Office of Research and Development REE —Under Secretary for Research, Education and Economics TREASURY —US Department of Treasury USDA —US Department of Agriculture
OCR for page 107
A.2 Major Components of the Current Food Safety System
OCR for page 108
A.3 Federal Food Safety Responsibilities for Selected Food Products and Food Contaminants Food Safety Activities Selected Food Products Food Contaminants Fruits & Vegetables Dairy Products Eggs & Egg Products Meat & Poultry Seafood Grain, Rice, & Related Commodities Imported Foods Animal Drugs & Feeds Pesticide Residues Monitoring/Surveillance CDCa; CFSAN & FDA CDCa; CFSAN/CVM/FDA CDCa; CFSAN/FDA; AMSb/USDA CDCa; CFSAN/FDA;USDA: FSIS, ERSC CDCa; CFSAN/FDA;NMFS/ NOAAd CDCa; CFSAN & FDA CDCa; CFSAN & ORA/FDAe; FSIS/USDAf CDCa; CVM/FDA; FSIS/USDA; APHIS CDCa; FSIS/USDA; CFSAN/FDA Risk Assessmentg CFSAN/FDA; ARSh/USDA CFSAN; CVM/FDA ARSh/USDA ARSh, FSIS/USDA; ORACBA; CFSAN/FDA USDA: ARSh; CSREES, FSIS, ERS, ORACBA; CFSAN/FDA CFSAN/FDAi, NMFS NOAA; ARSh/USDA ARSh/USDA; CFSAN FDA Same as domestic food products. CVM/FDA; ARSh/USDA; APHIS/ OPPT/EPAj; USDAk; AMS, ARSh, ERS, NASS Researchl CFSAN; NCTR/FDA, USDA: ARS, CSREESm CFSAN; CVM/FDA, CSREESm & ARS/USDA CFSAN/FDA, ARS/USDA CSREESm USDA: CFSAN/CSREESm CVM & CFSAN/FDA;NMFS/NOAA; CSREESm & ARS/USDA ARS, CSREESm/USDA; CFSAN/FDA Same as domestic food productsn CFSAN & CVM/FDA; & ARS & CSREESm/USDA ORD/EPAj; CSREESm & ARS/USDA; CFSAN/FDA
OCR for page 109
Inspections/Enforcement CFSAN & ORA/FDA CFSAN, ORA, & CVM/FDA FSISo/USDA; FDA: CVM, CFSAN, & ORA FSIS/USDA; CFSANp & CVM/FDA ORA & CFSAN/FDA; NMFS/NOAAq GIPSAr/USDA; ORA & CFSAN/FDA FSISs/USDA; CFSAN & ORA/FDAs; OR CVM/FDA; FSISt/USDA APHISu USDAv: FSIS, AMS;FDAv: CFSAN, CVM, & ORA; OECA/EPA Education CFSAN/FDA; CSREESm, ARSw/USDA CFSAN/FDA; CSREESm ARSw/USDA CFSAN FDA; FSIS & CSREESm, ARSw/USDA USDA: FSIS, CSREESm, ARSw/ERSx, ORACBAx; CFSAN/FDA CFSAN/FDA; CSREESm, ARSw/USDA; NMFS/NOAAy CSREESm, ARSw/USDA; CFSAN/FDA CSREESm, ARSw/USDA; CFSAN/FDA CSREESm, ARSw/USDA; CVM/FDA CFSAN/FDA; FSIS & CSREESm; ARSw/USDA SOURCES: Appendix C; Emilie Cole, NMFS, personal communication, July 1993; EPA, personal communication to committee, May 1998; FDA, personal communication to committee, May 1998; Francer et al., 1998; GAO, 1998; Karen Hulabek, FDA, personal communication, July 1998; Edward Knipling, USDA, personal communication, July 1998; July Nelson, EPA, personal communication, July 1998; Morris Potter, CDC, personal communication, July 1998; USDA, personal communication to committee, May 1998 a CDC assists state and Federal agencies in investigating outbreaks of foodborne illness, monitors information on foodborne illness, and conducts research and education related to these illnesses. b AMS operates the shell egg surveillance program to visually detect physical damage or conditions which, in turn, might subject eggs to hazardous organisms. c ERS utilizes data collected by FoodNet to analyze the costs associated with foodborne illness and the benefits of improving food safety. d Most product monitoring is not to determine individual lot compliance, but rather to provide scientific oversight and system surveillance of the DOC inspection program. e FDA uses several sources of information to monitor imported food shipments: FDA 's Import Alert Retrieval System database contains a list of products that FDA automatically detains because the exporter or the specific food products have shown a history of violations in previous shipments. FDA 's Low-Acid Canned Food database contains information on foreign processors of low-acid and acidified canned foods registered with FDA. FDA 's Operational and Administrative System for Import Support (OASIS) contains information on products that are not automatically released into domestic commerce. f FSIS maintains a centralized computer system, Automated Import Information System (AIIS), which contains information on the exporting country, plant, and eligibility of product. g Risk assessment responsibilities include implementation of science-based tools for minimizing the occurrence of foodborne hazards such as setting standards for pesticide residues. In FY 1997, FDA, USDA, and EPA established an interagency risk assessment consortium at the Joint Institute of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the University of Maryland. h ARS provides data for all food product and contaminant areas to support risk assessment by FSIS, ERS, ORACBA, FDA, and EPA. I FDA has the authority to set tolerances in seafood and all other foods except meat and poultry for natural and synthetic contaminants, except for pesticides, which are set by EPA. j The public responsibilities of EPA's pesticide program include other activities unrelated to food safety such as: protection of workers, communities from pesticide drift, families from residues from house and garden applications and children from unintentional ingestion of pesticides
OCR for page 110
This page in the original is blank.
OCR for page 111
k AMS, ARS, ERS, and NASS are involved in data collection to support the pesticide risk assessment process. AMS manages the Pesticide Data Program (data collection) to support the pesticide risk assessment activity by other agencies. l NIH also does research on food safety problems, however, it is not listed as food safety research. NIH research is targeted as human health issues regardless of the mechanism. m USDA formula funds provided by CSREES to the Land Grant Universities broadly support research and education activities across all food product areas. n For imported foods, ARS develops methodology to detect contaminants and residues as necessary in support of agencies with surveillance and inspection responsibilities. o FSIS is responsible for inspecting all egg products used by manufacturers, food service, and retail markets. FDA is responsible for inspecting shell eggs, egg substitutes, imitation eggs, and similar products). p CFSAN has responsibility for inspection/enforcement of game meats. q NMFS runs a voluntary inspection service. r GIPSA has responsibility for monitoring the accuracy of aflatoxin testing services. s The FSIS in USDA is responsible for imported meat, poultry, and some egg products. The FDA is responsible for all other imported foods. t FSIS is responsible for the inspection of meat and poultry products in Federally-inspected establishments and reports violative residues of drugs in meat and poultry to FDA for regulatory follow-up. FSIS has authority to condemn carcasses having violative drug residues. FDA conducts follow-up inspections of producers or others involved in the production or marketing of food animals or poultry which have tissue residue violations. The goal of CVM's Tissue Residue Program is to eliminate violative drug residues in edible tissue of food animals. Because of resource constraints, FDA cannot investigate all of the initial tissue residue violations reported by FSIS. u APHIS carries out U.S. border quarantine activities to detect and eliminate animal health problems and exotic organisms that might harm U.S. agriculture, many of which also pose potential food safety threats. v USDA's FSIS is responsible for monitoring pesticide residues in meat, poultry, and certain egg products. USDA's AMS, through contracts, has carried out a residue testing program directed primarily at raw agricultural products. AMS also manages the Pesticide Recordkeeping Program (data collection) for Federally restricted-use pesticides. FSIS and AMS report their pesticide residue data independently. FDA's CFSAN is responsible for enforcing pesticide tolerances in all imported foods and domestically produced foods shipped in interstate commerce. FDA's CVM directs the portion of the Agency's pesticide monitoring program concerned with domestic and imported animal feeds for pesticide residues. This is via CVM's Feed Contaminants Compliance Program. w ARS provides information resources via the National Agricultural Library to the public, industry, universities, and other government agencies. ARS technical employees participate in educational and technology transfer workshops attended by other scientists from industry, university, and government. x ERS and the ORACBA provide technical assistance to identify education needs and to analyze the effectiveness of food safety education programs. y Seafood HACCP training
OCR for page 112
A.4 Federal Food Safety Responsibilities by Agency Food Safety/Activities MRP/USDA REE/USDA ORACBA/USDA FSIS/USDA FDA/HHS CDC/HHS NIH/HHS EPA NMFS/NOAA/DOC Monitoring/Surveillance APHIS AMS: egg and egg products FoodNet systema Conducts pesticide residue, pathogen, & BSE monitoring meat & poultry; eggs & egg products CFSAN: FoodNet systema; PulseNet CVM: NASMPb Lab surveillance; passive surveillance of outbreaksc; FoodNet system a Seafoodd Risk Assessment APHIS AMS: pesticidesd ARSe CSREES: meat & poultry ERS: meat, poultry, pesticidesd NASS: pesticidesd Eggs, meat, & poultry CFSAN; CVM: dairy products; animal drugs & feeds OPPTS: pesticide residues in food; pesticide registration Seafoodf a FoodNet-Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, jointly developed by FSIS, CDC, & FDA to collect more precise information on the incidence of foodborne disease. b NASMP-National Antimicrobial Susceptibility Monitoring Program, a collaborative effort among FDA, CDC, & USDA. c CDC assists state & Federal agencies in investigating outbreaks of foodborne illness, monitors information on foodborne illness, & conducts research & education related to these illnesses. d AMS, ERS and NASS are involved in data collection to support the pesticide risk assessment process. e ARS provides data for all food product areas to support risk assessment by FSIS, ERS, ORACBA, FDA, & EPA f Most product monitoring is not to determine individual lot compliance, but rather to provide scientific oversight & system surveillance of the DOC inspection program.
OCR for page 113
Research ARS; CSREESg CFSAN: all food products & contaminants except meat & poultry CVM: animal drugs & feeds, dairy products, seafood NCTR: fruits & vegetables epidemiology studies: case-control conducts research on foodborne disease processes and intervention strategiesh ORD: provide science support for pesticide public health issues seafood Inspections/ Enforcement GIPSA: grain, rice, & related commoditiesi APHISj AMS: Pesticide Recordkeeping Programk Inspection of meat, poultry, & egg productsl for sale or distribution in interstate commerce; reviews foreign plants exporting these products ORA/CFSAN:. In-plant imported foods (except meat, & poultry products) m, for sale or distribution in interstate commerce; pesticide residues in/on food CVM: dairy products; egg & egg products; meat & poultry; animal drugs & feeds; pesticide residues OECA: enforcement of: pesticide regulations including misuse of pesticides. Voluntary seafood inspection g USDA formula funds provided by CSREES to the L & Grant Universities broadly support research & education activities across all food product areas. h NIH does research on food safety problems; however, it is not listed as food safety research. NIH research is targeted at human health issues regardless of the mechanism. i GIPSA has responsibility for monitoring the accuracy of aflatoxin testing services. j APHIS carries out U.S. border quarantine activities to detect & eliminate animal health problems & exotic organisms that might harm U.S. agriculture, many of which also pose potential food safety threats. k AMS manages the Pesticide Recordkeeping Program for Federally restricted-use pesticides. l FSIS is responsible for inspecting all egg products used by manufacturers, food service, & retail markets. FDA is responsible for inspecting shell eggs substitutes, imitation eggs, & similar products. m CFSAN has responsibility for inspection/enforcement of game meats.
OCR for page 114
Education ARSn CSREESo, p ERSq Provides technical assistance to education programsq Collaborative education activitiesp other services: Meat & Poultry Hotline; electronic communicationso CFSAN: collaborative education activitiesp food labeling, training and technical assistance documents; all food products and contaminants excepts animal drugs & feeds CVM: animal and drug feeds Seafood HACCP training, scientific training/laboratory training n ARS provides information resources via the National Agricultural Library to the public, industry, universities, & other government agencies. ARS technical employees participate in educational & technology transfer workshops attended by other scientists from industry, university, & government. o FSIS & ARS food safety education activities are conducted by USDA employees, while CSREES supports food safety education activities undertaken by eligible institutions in the land-grant system. p Collaborative educational activities include: Food Safety Education Partnership (which launched ''Fight Bac" campaign), a joint effort among USDA, HHS, EPA, the Dept of Education & the private sector; (2) The Food Safety Training & Education Alliance, recently established by FDA, USDA, private sector stakeholders, & consumer advocacy groups. q ERS & the ORACBA provide technical assistance to identify education needs & to analyze the effectiveness of food safety education programs.
Representative terms from entire chapter: