JOHN C. BAILAR III, M.D., Ph.D., (Chair), is Chair of the Department of Health Studies at the University of Chicago. He received his M.D. from Yale University and his Ph.D. from American University. His research involves quantitative health risk assessment with emphasis on the erosion of standards for scientific inference, pressures causing this erosion, and the ways the pressures might be reduced and quality preserved. He retired from the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service in 1980, served as a senior scientist at the Environmental Protection Agency from 1980 to 1982 and the Department of Health and Human Service's Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion from 1983 to 1992. In 1989, Dr. Bailar became a professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatisics at McGill University and assumed his present position at the University of Chicago in 1995. He has served on numerous committees, including those of the National Academy of Sciences, American Medical Association, American Statistical Association, and Society for Risk Analysis. In 1993, Dr. Bailar was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine. A well-known lecturer on science and public policy, Dr. Bailer is the author of over 200 scientific publications.
CAROLE A. BISOGNI, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Associate Director for Academic Affairs in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University, where she also holds joint appointments in the Institute for Food Science and the Institute for Comparative and Environmental Toxicology. She received her Ph.D. in Foods, Nutrition, and Microbiology from Cornell University. Her research interests include consumer food choices, risk commu-
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G Biographical Sketches JOHN C. BAILAR III, M.D., Ph.D., (Chair), is Chair of the Department of Health Studies at the University of Chicago. He received his M.D. from Yale University and his Ph.D. from American University. His research involves quantitative health risk assessment with emphasis on the erosion of standards for scientific inference, pressures causing this erosion, and the ways the pressures might be reduced and quality preserved. He retired from the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service in 1980, served as a senior scientist at the Environmental Protection Agency from 1980 to 1982 and the Department of Health and Human Service's Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion from 1983 to 1992. In 1989, Dr. Bailar became a professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatisics at McGill University and assumed his present position at the University of Chicago in 1995. He has served on numerous committees, including those of the National Academy of Sciences, American Medical Association, American Statistical Association, and Society for Risk Analysis. In 1993, Dr. Bailar was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine. A well-known lecturer on science and public policy, Dr. Bailer is the author of over 200 scientific publications. CAROLE A. BISOGNI, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Associate Director for Academic Affairs in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell University, where she also holds joint appointments in the Institute for Food Science and the Institute for Comparative and Environmental Toxicology. She received her Ph.D. in Foods, Nutrition, and Microbiology from Cornell University. Her research interests include consumer food choices, risk commu-
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nication, and public perceptions about food safety. She has published in scientific journals, written about food safety for the public, and worked with community nutritionists and other professionals in developing educational programs for adults and youths in different settings. DAVID L. CALL, Ph.D., is former Dean of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University, having held that position for 17 years before retiring in 1995. Throughout his career, Dr. Call's research has focused on analyses of government food and nutrition programs, identification and analysis of factors causing changes in nutrition and food consumption, and international economic and development issues. He has served on numerous national advisory panels, including the National Advisory Committee to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration; the Office of Technology Assessment Food Advisory Panel; and the White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health. Dr. Call is a former member of the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board and the 1978 National Academy of Sciences Committee for a Study on Food Safety and Food Safety Policy, and he is a former chair of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Technological Options to Improve the Nutritional Attributes of Animal Products. Having served as a member of the national-level Board of Trustees for the Food Safety Council from 1979 through 1982, he has addressed food safety issues for many years. He has served at the state and local levels on numerous commissions dealing with social and economic aspects of food and nutrition priorities. Dr. Call received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. in agricultural economics from Cornell University and has published widely on food systems and consumer issues. He is currently a Director of The Seneca Foods Corporation and of Cayuga Aquacultures and is a Trustee of The Mutual of New York Insurance Company. MARSHA N. COHEN, J.D., is Professor of Law at Hastings College of the Law, University of California, where she has been since 1976. She received her undergraduate degree from Smith College and a J.D. from Harvard Law School. Professor Cohen teaches courses in administrative law and torts. She represents the interest of consumers on the Institute of Medicine's Food Forum and was a member of its Committee on State Food Labeling. Presently, she is a consultant to the Food Advisory Committee of the Food and Drug Administration and has consulted extensively on food safety issues for Consumers Union. Professor Cohen was a member of the Keystone National Policy Dialogue on Food, Nutrition, and Health. She is the co-author of a text on pharmacy law. MICHAEL P. DOYLE, Ph.D., is Regents Professor of Food Microbiology, Director of the Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, and Head of the Department of Food Science and Technology at the University of Georgia. He is an active researcher in the area of foodborne bacterial pathogens and works closely with the food industry on issues related to the microbiological safety of foods. Dr. Doyle's research focuses on the study of the mechanisms of
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pathogenicity, the development of methods for pathogen detection, and the identification of means to control or eliminate pathogens from foods. He received his Ph.D. in food microbiology from the University of Wisconsin. He was with Ralston Purina Company from 1977 to 1980 and on the faculty at the University of Wisconsin from 1980 until 1991. He is a currently a member of the Institute of Medicine's Food Forum and is a past member of the Food and Nutrition Board and Board on Agriculture's Panel on Animal Health and Veterinary Medicine. In addition, Dr. Doyle serves on the Board of Trustees and Executive Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute-North America, the Scientific Advisory Council of The Refrigeration Research and Education Foundation, and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods, and he is a consultant to several food companies on food safety-related issues. He has published more than 200 scientific articles as well as being editor of two authoritative books: Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens and Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. DELIA A. HAMMOCK, M.S., RD., has been Associate Director of the Good Housekeeping Institute for the past 10 years. She serves as the Institute spokesperson on nutrition issues, frequently addressing professional and trade associations at state and national conventions and appearing on public media. She has a dual role in the Institute: (1) she functions as the in-house expert on nutrition and writes monthly features on diet, nutrition, and food issues for Good Housekeeping magazine and (2) she reviews all food advertisements and products for acceptability under Good Housekeeping's Consumer Warranty. She is a registered dietitian and holds an M.S. in nutrition from Boston University. Before her position at the magazine, she was a food and nutrition communications specialist, with clients including the New York Heart Association, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, and several national magazines. From 1981 to 1986 she was an adjunct instructor in the Department of Nutrition at New York University. From 1978 to 1984 she served as pediatric nutrition specialist at New York University Medical Center and was a clinical nutritionist at New York Hospital from 1975 to 1977. Since 1990, Ms. Hammock has provided numerous public presentations on the consumer's view of food safety issues. LONNIE KING, D.V.M., is currently Dean of the College of Veterinary Medicine at Michigan State University. He was Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture from 1992 to 1996. Prior to this, he served as the agency's Associate Administrator and Deputy Administrator for Veterinary Services. Dr. King was in private practice before his government career. His other experiences include work as a field veterinary medical officer, station epidemiologist, and staff assignments involving Emergency Programs and Animal Health Information. He has also directed the American Veterinary Medical Association's Office of Governmental Relations and is boarded in the American College of Veterinary Preventive Medicine. He received his B.S. and D.V.M. from the Ohio State University and
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holds an M.S. in epidemiology from the University of Minnesota and an M.S. in public administration from American University. GILBERT A. LEVEILLE, Ph.D., recently retired from his position as Vice President, Research and Technical Services, with Nabisco, Inc., where he was responsible for fundamental science, analytical services, and extrusion research. He continues to have a consulting relationship with Nabisco and consults with other companies, including Monsanto, McNeil Consumer Products, Cultor, and Safety Associates. He received his Ph.D. from Rutgers University. Previously, Dr. Leveille was Professor and Chairman of the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University and was Director of Nutrition and Health Sciences at General Foods Corporation. He is a past president of the Institute of Food Technologists and of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition and is a member of numerous other professional organizations. Dr. Leveille currently serves on the FDA Science Advisory Board and on the Board of Directors of the Riley Memorial Foundation. He lectures widely and has published more than 300 scientific papers and several books. RICHARD A. MERRILL, LL.B., is Daniel Caplin Professor of Law at the University of Virginia School of Law, where he has been since 1969, and is of Counsel to the Washington, D.C., law firm of Covington & Burling. Professor Merrill earned his A.B. at Columbia College and his LL.B. at Columbia University School of Law. He also received a B.A. and an M.A. from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. From 1975 to 1977, he was Chief Counsel of the Food and Drug Administration. Professor Merrill teaches courses in food and drug law, administrative law, and environmental law. He has served as a member of several committees of the National Academy of Sciences and was elected to membership in its Institute of Medicine in 1978. He has been a consultant on food safety issues to the former Office of Technology Assessment of the Congress and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Professor Merrill is a member of the American Law Institute and a fellow of the Virginia Law Foundation. He is General Counsel to the Chemical Industry Institute of Technology and is on the Board of the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute, an affiliate of the International Life Sciences Institute. He is the author of law school texts as well as numerous articles on food and drug law and administrative law. SANFORD A. MILLER, Ph.D., is Dean of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences and Professor in the Departments of Biochemistry and Medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He is the former Director of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition at the Food and Drug Administration. Previously, he was a Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Miller has served on many national and international government and professional society advisory committees, including the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biol-
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ogy Expert Committee on GRAS Substances, the National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council of NIH, the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board and Food Forum, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Advisory Panel on Food Safety (Chair), and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Application of Risk Analysis to Food Standard Issues (Chair). Dr. Miller also serves as a consultant to Nabisco Foods; Source Foods; and Patton, Boggs, and Blow and as an advisor to Nestle and the International Advisory Council of the Monell Chemical Senses Center. He has written more than 200 scientific publications. Dr. Miller received his M.S. and Ph.D. in physiology and biochemistry from Rutgers University. HARLEY W. MOON, Ph.D., D.V.M., is F.K. Ramsey Chair of Veterinary Medicine at Iowa State University. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1991. Dr. Moon is most widely recognized for his contributions to the basic understanding of intestinal diseases of humans and animals. His expertise includes the development of vaccines for preventing E. coli infection in farm animals, livestock disease eradication, infectious diseases affecting humans and animals, and prevention of edema disease in swine with genetically modified vaccines. Dr. Moon has served on numerous advisory committees, including the World Health Organization's Expert Panel on Enteropathogenic E. coli and Working Group on Immunology and Vaccine Development for Bacterial Enteric Infections, the Department of Agriculture's Task Force on Scrapie and Bovine Spongioform Encephalopathy, Pioneer Hi-Bred International's Institutional Biosafety Committee, and Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Task Force on Antibiotics in Animal Feeds. He presently serves as a consultant to Agricultural Technology Partners, L.P., and owns and manages a farm in Iowa. His scientific publications number in excess of 200, with numerous book chapters on aspects of infectious disease. Before his current position, Dr. Moon was director of the Plum Island and National Animal Disease Centers, ARS/USDA, and professor in the Department of Veterinary Pathology at Ohio State University. He received his B.S., D.V.M., and Ph.D. at the University of Minnesota. MICHAEL T. OSTERHOLM, Ph.D., is State Epidemiologist and Chief, Acute Disease Epidemiology Section, Minnesota Department of Health. He is also an adjunct professor in the Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota. Dr. Osterholm is considered a leader in the area of infectious disease epidemiology. He has led numerous investigations of infectious disease outbreaks, including foodborne diseases, and is the author of more than 160 papers and 12 book chapters regarding infectious disease epidemiology. Dr. Osterholm is past president of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. He is a current member of the National Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Criteria for Food. He participates in the NAS IOM Forum on Emerging Infectious Diseases and recently served on the CDC Board of Scientific Counselors. He chairs the Committee on Public Health and serves
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on the Public and Scientific Affairs Board, the Task Force on Biological Weapons, and the Task Force on Antibiotic Resistance of the American Society for Microbiology and chairs the Emerging Infections Committee of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Dr. Osterholm is a frequent consultant to NIH, FDA, and CDC and currently serves as a principal investigator to the CDC Emerging Infections Program. THOMAS D. TRAUTMAN, Ph.D., is Principal Scientist, Toxicology and Regulatory Affairs, for General Mills, where he has been for 20 years. He received his Ph.D. in Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology from the University of California at Davis. Dr. Trautman has been actively involved in food industry efforts to address numerous food safety and regulatory issues, including the safety of food and color additives, pesticide residues, food allergy, packaging and other indirect additives, and various aspects of current and emerging risk assessment methodologies. He is a Diplomat of the American Board of Toxicology and is Chair of the Food Safety Section of the Society of Toxicology. Dr. Trautman is a former member of the National Academy of Sciences Board on Agriculture, is a member and former Chair of the Toxicology and Safety Evaluation Division of the Institute of Food Technologists, and was the founding Chair of the Residue Committee of the International Life Sciences Institute.