APPENDIX B
Socioeconomic and Demographic Indicators



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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families APPENDIX B Socioeconomic and Demographic Indicators

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families TABLE B-1A Social and Economic Risk Factors for First- and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin, for First and Second Generations Combined, and for Third- and Later-Generation Children by Race and Ethnicity: 1990   Number of children (thousands) Children in official poverty (percent) Children in relative poverty (percent) Children in middle-class comfort (percent) All First and Second Generations 8,373 22 33 31 All Third and Later Generations 52,685 17 24 39 Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity: White, Non-Hispanic 40,201 11 17 42 Black, Non-Hispanic 8,031 40 51 25 Asian, Non-Hispanic 329 10 14 38 American Indian 562 38 51 24 Hispanic 3,489 31 42 31 First and Second Generations by Country of Origin: Laos 113 51 65 16 Cambodia 64 46 62 19 Dominican Republic 179 42 55 24 USSR 62 36 42 23 Mexico 2,618 35 52 22 Thailand 69 33 42 29 Vietnam 226 31 42 29 Guatemala 101 30 46 24 Honduras 52 29 46 26 El Salvador 203 27 44 26 Nicaragua 74 27 43 28 Haiti 105 26 39 30 Jordan 19 25 35 31 Belize 16 23 31 35 Iraq 20 21 30 39 Ecuador 64 20 31 36

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Children very well-off financially (percent) Children in one-parent families (percent) Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent) Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent) Children with 5 or more siblings (percent) Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent) 19 17 39 42 8 26 22 26 15 16 4 1 26 18 12 12 4 0 9 62 26 29 10 0 37 25 7 9 6 1 7 40 28 29 10 4 11 42 30 35 8 9 2 15 54 73 35 60 4 26 57 76 18 60 5 48 49 55 5 41 26 10 20 18 5 46 4 19 74 74 14 38 16 13 34 56 17 42 13 19 39 54 11 45 7 28 56 61 5 43 8 31 42 44 5 34 5 31 61 65 6 46 8 27 34 40 8 43 10 36 38 43 8 34 14 7 25 31 13 10 12 29 29 29 6 4 17 5 32 42 10 16 14 24 34 35 3 29

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families   Number of children (thousands) Children in official poverty (percent) Children in relative poverty (percent) Children in middle-class comfort (percent) Venezuela 22 20 25 37 Israel 60 19 25 31 Trinidad and Tobago 52 18 28 37 Colombia 117 17 27 37 Pakistan 39 16 23 36 Costa Rica 23 16 26 38 Panama 40 16 25 37 Brazil 31 16 24 39 Romania 26 15 22 32 Spain 27 15 21 39 Lebanon 36 15 23 34 Jamaica 132 15 25 37 Guyana 46 15 22 41 Nigeria 34 15 27 35 China 131 14 24 30 Indonesia 17 14 19 37 Iran 76 14 19 32 Cuba 211 14 22 38 Peru 61 13 25 37 Korea 231 12 19 38 Syria 15 12 21 33 Taiwan 97 11 15 33 Argentina 35 11 19 38 Yugoslavia 44 10 16 42 Hong Kong 56 10 16 33 Chile 21 10 18 37 Australia 18 10 16 32 Austria 21 9 14 41 France 41 9 13 34 Hungary 25 9 14 35 Egypt 29 9 15 36 Germany 258 8 14 40

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Children very well-off financially (percent) Children in one-parent families (percent) Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent) Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent) Children with 5 or more siblings (percent) Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent) 25 12 14 15 2 19 32 5 16 19 16 12 20 37 23 19 5 1 16 23 29 30 2 31 27 6 8 18 6 13 17 19 28 31 3 17 23 23 12 16 3 7 25 14 20 20 3 22 30 8 25 25 18 21 27 14 23 26 3 12 24 6 28 29 8 11 21 36 27 22 4 0 18 31 25 28 4 1 15 16 2 5 7 4 30 9 31 35 2 41 31 8 8 11 3 21 37 9 6 11 1 18 27 21 28 27 2 16 19 18 18 19 3 25 26 9 6 18 0 34 29 4 22 25 4 17 42 10 5 8 1 36 29 11 21 20 2 15 27 10 30 32 3 11 37 8 24 29 1 35 28 15 14 17 3 18 44 9 8 11 7 1 38 8 8 8 10 2 41 11 9 9 5 6 39 9 14 13 9 10 39 6 4 8 5 10 32 11 8 11 3 2

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families   Number of children (thousands) Children in official poverty (percent) Children in relative poverty (percent) Children in middle-class comfort (percent) Greece 68 8 16 42 Japan 100 8 12 37 Barbados 15 8 16 47 Poland 80 7 12 45 Turkey 15 7 13 32 Italy 179 6 11 45 Portugal 77 6 11 51 United Kingdom 209 6 10 38 Canada 263 6 11 39 South Africa 15 6 10 25 Netherlands 38 5 11 39 India 175 5 9 35 Philippines 399 5 10 45 Ireland 44 4 7 41 Note: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generation combined. Source: Hernandez and Darke (1998).

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Children very well-off financially (percent) Children in one parent families (percent) Children whose fathers have less than a high school education (percent) Children whose mothers have less than a high school education (percent) Children with 5 or more siblings (percent) Children who live in linguistically isolated households (percent) 25 6 39 32 1 12 41 7 4 7 1 28 21 39 25 21 8 0 32 10 19 15 1 22 38 8 18 18 2 11 30 6 34 29 2 7 22 8 61 58 1 23 41 10 6 9 3 0 39 9 10 10 5 1 57 5 2 7 1 1 38 7 7 6 6 1 47 4 7 12 1 11 32 12 8 13 3 9 39 8 15 14 4 0

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families TABLE B-1B Household and Housing Risk Factors for First- and Second Generation Children by Country of Origin, for First and Second Generations Combined, and for Third- and Later-Generation Children by Race and Ethnicity: 1990   Number of children (thousands) Children in households with no car or truck (percent) All First and Second Generations 8,373 11 All Third and Later Generations 52,685 8 Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity: White, Non-Hispanic 40,201 3 Black, Non-Hispanic 8,031 30 Asian, Non-Hispanic 329 4 American Indian 562 14 Hispanic 3,489 17 First and Second Generations by Country of Origin: Laos 113 17 Cambodia 64 29 Dominican Republic 179 54 USSR 62 23 Mexico 2,618 10 Thailand 69 15 Vietnam 226 13 Guatemala 101 18 Honduras 52 22 El Salvador 203 15 Nicaragua 74 13 Haiti 105 24 Jordan 19 8 Belize 16 19 Iraq 20 4 Ecuador 64 24 Venezuela 22 6 Israel 60 13 Trinidad and Tobago 52 29 Colombia 117 13 Pakistan 39 7 Costa Rica 23 14

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Children with no telephone in their homes (percent) Children living in houses built before 1950 (percent) Children in crowded homes (percent) 7 24 44 8 24 12 5 23 7 18 27 26 3 18 21 32 17 34 15 25 30 4 28 78 4 31 74 19 50 52 2 32 40 15 23 69 3 24 49 1 19 58 9 33 67 9 26 56 8 29 75 10 24 71 10 33 53 2 23 31 7 35 44 1 17 34 8 41 43 4 18 30 1 28 27 7 39 30 6 27 42 2 17 35 4 28 33

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families   Number of children (thousands) Children in households with no car or truck (percent) Panama 40 16 Brazil 31 7 Romania 26 8 Spain 27 8 Lebanon 36 4 Jamaica 132 22 Guyana 46 30 Nigeria 34 10 China 131 18 Indonesia 17 4 Iran 76 4 Cuba 211 6 Peru 61 11 Korea 231 3 Syria 15 2 Taiwan 97 3 Argentina 35 6 Yugoslavia 44 6 Hong Kong 56 9 Chile 21 6 Australia 18 5 Austria 21 5 France 41 5 Hungary 25 8 Egypt 29 4 Germany 258 3 Greece 68 4 Japan 100 3 Barbados 15 29 Poland 80 5 Turkey 15 4 Italy 179 4 Portugal 77 4 United Kingdom 209 3 Canada 263 2

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Children with no telephone in their homes (percent) Children living in houses built before 1950 (percent) Children in crowded homes (percent) 6 25 25 2 24 24 2 32 31 3 28 20 2 26 20 5 30 29 4 40 36 3 18 50 1 33 39 1 16 29 1 12 21 3 17 28 4 26 36 1 13 33 0 20 23 0 11 24 2 20 24 1 31 16 1 26 34 2 21 28 0 23 9 0 27 11 1 29 11 2 26 14 1 24 20 3 22 8 1 26 9 1 15 12 4 41 22 1 32 10 1 22 16 1 31 7 2 43 14 2 22 7 2 20 8

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families   Number of children (thousands) Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent) Children with mothers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent) Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent) Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent) Costa Rica - 1st Generation 4 16 21 18 10 Costa Rica - 2nd Generation 19 10 10 20 13 Panama - 1st Generation 6 2 8 24 10 Panama - 2nd Generation 33 2 3 26 18 Brazil - 1st Generation 9 11 13 44 31 Brazil - 2nd Generation 21 9 9 38 28 Romania - 1st Generation 11 13 18 34 28 Romania - 2nd Generation 15 7 5 42 34 Spain - 1st Generation 6 30 28 28 15 Spain - 2nd Generation 22 8 8 30 19 Lebanon - 1st Generation 8 28 23 18 11 Lebanon - 2nd Generation 28 10 9 40 24 Jamaica - 1st Generation 40 12 8 14 9 Jamaica - 2nd Generation 92 7 4 21 18 Guyana - 1st Generation 18 12 13 14 4 Guyana - 2nd Generation 28 3 5 27 16 Nigeria - 1st Generation 5 0 4 77 41 Nigeria - 2nd Generation 29 0 1 80 46 China - 1st Generation 34 30 35 28 17 China - 2nd Generation 97 13 15 43 32 Indonesia - 1st Generation 4 9 16 56 27 Indonesia - 2nd Generation 13 1 1 53 36 Iran - 1st Generation 24 4 7 60 29 Iran - 2nd Generation 52 1 1 71 43 Cuba - 1st Generation 27 30 29 11 9 Cuba - 2nd Generation 184 10 7 26 17 Peru - 1st Generation 18 6 8 26 14 Peru - 2nd Generation 43 5 5 30 19 Korea - 1st Generation 67 5 8 46 31 Korea - 2nd Generation 163 1 7 42 27 Syria - 1st Generation 2 16 21 27 14 Syria - 2nd Generation 13 9 9 44 20

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families   Number of children (thousands) Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent) Children with mothers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent) Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent) Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent) Taiwan - 1st Generation 32 7 7 62 35 Taiwan - 2nd Generation 65 1 3 77 60 Argentina - 1st Generation 10 14 15 31 26 Argentina - 2nd Generation 26 7 4 35 24 Yugoslavia - 1st Generation 5 14 20 28 17 Yugoslavia - 2nd Generation 39 19 19 17 14 Hong Kong - 1st Generation 17 28 31 15 7 Hong Kong - 2nd Generation 39 7 8 53 39 Chile - 1st Generation 5 9 10 28 17 Chile - 2nd Generation 17 4 4 35 23 Australia - 1st Generation 3 1 2 63 32 Australia - 2nd Generation 14 3 0 48 33 Austria - 1st Generation 1 12 3 47 38 Austria - 2nd Generation 20 1 1 45 37 France - 1st Generation 7 7 8 65 45 France - 2nd Generation 34 3 1 45 34 Hungary - 1st Generation 3 5 6 51 32 Hungary - 2nd Generation 22 6 2 38 29 Egypt - 1st Generation 5 2 5 75 59 Egypt - 2nd Generation 25 1 2 66 41 Germany - 1st Generation 16 2 5 47 27 Germany - 2nd Generation 243 2 1 34 22 Greece - 1st Generation 3 24 26 24 12 Greece - 2nd Generation 65 23 18 21 17 Japan - 1st Generation 32 2 2 78 45 Japan - 2nd Generation 68 2 2 44 26 Barbados - 1st Generation 3 10 13 19 12 Barbados - 2nd Generation 11 8 2 18 14 Poland - 1st Generation 18 7 6 32 27 Poland - 2nd Generation 62 6 5 30 22 Turkey - 1st Generation 3 13 17 46 34 Turkey - 2nd Generation 12 9 7 40 32

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families   Number of children (thousands) Children with fathers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent) Children with mothers who have 8 or fewer years of education (percent) Children whose fathers have four or more years of college education (percent) Children whose mothers have four or more years of college education (percent) Italy - 1st Generation 8 33 34 24 16 Italy - 2nd Generation 171 19 15 19 14 Portugal - 1st Generation 14 68 65 3 3 Portugal - 2nd Generation 64 38 34 8 5 United Kingdom 1st Generation 31 1 3 56 27 United Kingdom 2nd Generation 178 1 1 41 26 Canada - 1st Generation 33 4 3 58 31 Canada - 2nd Generation 230 3 2 38 26 South Africa - 1st Generation 5 1 1 63 35 South Africa - 2nd Generation 10 0 1 70 42 Netherlands - 1st Generation 2 0 3 60 34 Netherlands - 2nd Generation 36 2 1 40 26 India - 1st Generation 45 4 9 62 46 India - 2nd Generation 130 1 2 80 63 Philippines - 1st Generation 83 7 9 46 52 Philippines - 2nd Generation 316 3 6 37 45 Ireland - 1st Generation 4 12 7 36 13 Ireland - 2nd Generation 40 4 2 31 20 NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined. Source: Hernandez and Darke (1998).

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families TABLE B-2E Language Use and Citizenship for First- and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin for First and Second Generations Separately: 1990   Number of children (thousands) Children who do not speak English at home (percent) All First-Generation Children 2,084 87 All Second-Generation Children 6,288 58 Third and Later Generations by Race and Ethnicity: White, Non-Hispanic 40,201 1 Black, Non-Hispanic 8,031 1 Asian, Non-Hispanic 329 3 American Indian 562 7 Hispanic 3,489 15 First- and Second-Generation Children by Country of Origin: Laos - 1st Generation 49 97 Laos - 2nd Generation 64 95 Cambodia - 1st Generation 30 97 Cambodia - 2nd Generation 34 87 Dominican Republic - 1st Generation 48 97 Dominican Republic - 2nd Generation 131 91 USSR - 1st Generation 38 96 USSR - 2nd Generation 24 57 Mexico - 1st Generation 643 97 Mexico - 2nd Generation 1,975 88 Thailand - 1st Generation 36 95 Thailand - 2nd Generation 33 32 Vietnam - 1st Generation 99 97 Vietnam - 2nd Generation 33 76 Guatemala - 1st Generation 35 98 Guatemala - 2nd Generation 66 83 Honduras - 1st Generation 17 93 Honduras - 2nd Generation 35 69 El Salvador - 1st Generation 77 98 El Salvador - 2nd Generation 126 90 Nicaragua - 1st Generation 39 97 Nicaragua - 2nd Generation 35 75

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Children who are not Children who do not speak English exclusively or very well (percent) Children not U.S. citizens (percent) U.S. citizens, or who have at least 1 parent in the home who is not a citizen (percent) 45 84 87 19 N/A 59 N/A   N/A N/A   N/A N/A   N/A N/A   N/A N/A   N/A 57 89 91 65 N/A 88 62 89 92 54 N/A 80 55 85 89 31 N/A 68 61 83 84 12 N/A 29 59 86 89 32 N/A 74 65 93 94 9 N/A 56 52 78 81 34 N/A 51 56 89 91 26 N/A 76 48 88 92 18 N/A 64 53 89 91 35 N/A 79 58 96 97 22 N/A 69

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families   Number of children (thousands) Children who do not speak English at home (percent) Haiti - 1st Generation 28 91 Haiti - 2nd Generation 77 67 Jordan - 1st Generation 2 98 Jordan - 2nd Generation 17 55 Belize - 1st Gen. 3 28 Belize - 2nd Gen. 12 14 Iraq - 1st Generation 4 90 Iraq - 2nd Generation 17 62 Ecuador - 1st Generation 12 98 Ecuador - 2nd Generation 52 80 Venezuela - 1st Generation 8 95 Venezuela - 2nd Generation 15 49 Israel - 1st Generation 13 91 Israel - 2nd Generation 46 54 Trinidad and Tobago - 1st Generation 12 7 Trinidad and Tobago - 2nd Generation 41 5 Colombia - 1st Generation 29 96 Colombia - 2nd Generation 88 78 Pakistan - 1st Generation 11 94 Pakistan - 2nd Generation 28 60 Costa Rica - 1st Generation 4 94 Costa Rica - 2nd Generation 19 61 Panama - 1st Generation 6 86 Panama - 2nd Generation 33 32 Brazil - 1st Generation 9 93 Brazil - 2nd Generation 21 50 Romania - 1st Generation 11 91 Romania - 2nd Generation 15 54 Spain - 1st Generation 6 91 Spain - 2nd Generation 22 56 Lebanon - 1st Generation 8 92 Lebanon - 2nd Generation 28 62 Jamaica - 1st Generation 40 7 Jamaica - 2nd Generation 92 6 Guyana - 1st Generation 18 8 Guyana - 2nd Generation 28 7

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Children who do not speak English exclusively or very well (percent) Children not U.S. citizens (percent) Children who are not U.S. citizens, or who have at least 1 parent in the home who is not a citizen (percent) 47 84 90 21 N/A 71 28 72 79 8 N/A 33 10 72 80 3 N/A 70 13 72 78 10 N/A 37 38 87 90 20 N/A 73 36 90 92 12 N/A 68 28 74 75 15 N/A 31 4 84 86 1 N/A 68 38 87 90 17 N/A 64 29 74 80 14 N/A 46 38 88 91 13 N/A 63 31 77 79 9 N/A 43 47 91 96 11 N/A 68 33 77 79 14 N/A 25 26 83 85 12 N/A 60 26 69 71 12 N/A 32 2 81 85 2 N/A 59 2 80 81 2 N/A 51

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families   Number of children (thousands) Children who do not speak English at home (percent) Nigeria - 1st Generation 5 59 Nigeria - 2nd Generation 29 15 China - 1st Generation 34 97 China - 2nd Generation 97 74 Indonesia - 1st Generation 4 88 Indonesia - 2nd Generation 13 20 Iran - 1st Generation 24 93 Iran - 2nd Generation 52 49 Cuba - 1st Generation 27 98 Cuba - 2nd Generation 184 77 Peru - 1st Generation 18 98 Peru - 2nd Generation 43 69 Korea - 1st Generation 67 92 Korea - 2nd Generation 163 50 Syria - 1st Generation 2 93 Syria - 2nd Generation 13 52 Taiwan - 1st Generation 32 96 Taiwan - 2nd Generation 65 68 Argentina - 1st Generation 10 96 Argentina - 2nd Generation 26 55 Yugoslavia - 1st Generation 5 94 Yugoslavia - 2nd Generation 39 57 Hong Kong - 1st Generation 17 97 Hong Kong - 2nd Generation 39 66 Chile - 1st Generation 5 94 Chile - 2nd Generation 17 66 Australia - 1st Generation 3 27 Australia - 2nd Generation 14 8 Austria - 1st Generation 1 84 Austria - 2nd Generation 20 22 France - 1st Generation 7 91 France - 2nd Generation 34 35 Hungary - 1st Generation 3 99 Hungary - 2nd Generation 22 35 Egypt - 1st Generation 5 88 Egypt - 2nd Generation 25 48

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Children who do not speak English exclusively or very well (percent) Children not U.S. citizens (percent) Children who are not U.S. citizens, or who have at least 1 parent in the home who is not a citizen (percent) 27 89 89 3 N/A 81 63 83 85 23 N/A 32 43 89 92 6 N/A 37 34 89 90 10 N/A 57 36 84 89 15 N/A 42 42 88 89 16 N/A 59 38 81 85 14 N/A 43 35 77 77 10 N/A 37 41 80 81 16 N/A 39 26 89 91 12 N/A 50 22 77 86 8 N/A 39 54 77 78 22 N/A 23 32 87 90 12 N/A 57 3 93 95 3 N/A 71 32 68 71 7 N/A 26 30 90 91 5 N/A 49 28 75 81 11 N/A 20 27 65 67 10 N/A 28

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families   Number of children (thousands) Children who do not speak English at home (percent) Germany - 1st Generation 16 69 Germany - 2nd Generation 243 14 Greece - 1st Generation 3 87 Greece - 2nd Generation 65 69 Japan - 1st Generation 32 94 Japan - 2nd Generation 68 34 Barbados - 1st Generation 3 7 Barbados - 2nd Generation 11 2 Poland - 1st Generation 18 96 Poland - 2nd Generation 62 55 Turkey - 1st Generation 3 87 Turkey - 2nd Generation 12 45 Italy - 1st Generation 8 85 Italy - 2nd Generation 171 35 Portugal - 1st Generation 14 96 Portugal - 2nd Generation 64 69 United Kingdom - 1st Generation 31 19 United Kingdom - 2nd Generation 178 5 Canada - 1st Generation 33 30 Canada - 2nd Generation 230 7 South Africa - 1st Generation 5 18 South Africa - 2nd Generation 10 7 Netherlands - 1st Generation 2 77 Netherlands - 2nd Generation 36 9 India - 1st Generation 45 84 India - 2nd Generation 130 53 Philippines - 1st Generation 83 75 Philippines - 2nd Generation 316 21 Ireland - 1st Generation 4 17 Ireland - 2nd Generation 40 4 NOTE: Countries are listed from highest to lowest official poverty rate for first and second generations combined. Source: Hernandez and Darke (1998).

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Children who do not speak English exclusively or very well (percent) Children not U.S. citizens (percent) Children who are not U.S. citizens, or who have at least 1 parent in the home who is not a citizen (percent) 15 78 84 4 N/A 34 27 58 69 10 N/A 34 66 96 97 10 N/A 62 2 72 76 1 N/A 53 31 80 86 9 N/A 45 18 79 84 5 N/A 44 21 60 71 7 N/A 37 28 80 85 12 N/A 58 3 90 92 1 N/A 59 5 91 92 2 N/A 57 4 84 84 2 N/A 43 10 89 88 3 N/A 41 24 84 90 10 N/A 60 27 72 76 5 N/A 36 5 87 90 0 N/A 44