Index

A

Academic achievement see Educational attainment;

Accidents and injuries, 66, 78, 107, 178

Acculturation, see Assimilation

Administration for Children and Families, 167

Adolescent Health Survey, 177(n.2)

Adolescents, 6, 35, 90-91, 166, 178

acculturative stress, 85-89 (passim), 161

African American, 79-80, 89, 90, 91

African immigrants, not African Americans, 79, 83, 88

alcohol use, 79, 107-108, 159, 160

Asians, 79, 90, 91

Chinese, 83, 88, 96, 98, 100, 104, 105, 109, 161

assimilation, 79, 89, 159-160, 161

behavioral risk factors, 79, 80, 82-84, 178

alcohol use, 79, 107-108, 159, 160

smoking, 79, 107, 159

substance abuse, 8, 79, 80-81, 83, 107, 159, 160, 178

violence, 79, 80-81, 83, 107, 159

blacks, 89, 90, 141;

see also ''African American" supra Caribbean immigrants, 83, 88

Cuban, 83, 88, 91

Central Americans, 79, 83, 88

chronic illness, 70

defined, 275

education, 89, 90, 93, 94, 98-100, 178

European immigrants, 79, 83, 88

first-generation immigrants, 6, 79, 80, 82, 83, 88-90, 91

health care access, 144

health status, 64, 78-83, 90-91, 107, 123, 159-161, 177 (n.2), 178

Hispanics, 79, 80-82, 83, 85, 88, 89, 91

HIV infections, 70

mental health status, 6, 161, 178

self-esteem, 6, 80-81, 87, 88-90, 92-93, 94-95, 109, 161

Mexicans, 79, 82, 83, 88, 91-92, 109-110



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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Index A Academic achievement see Educational attainment; Accidents and injuries, 66, 78, 107, 178 Acculturation, see Assimilation Administration for Children and Families, 167 Adolescent Health Survey, 177(n.2) Adolescents, 6, 35, 90-91, 166, 178 acculturative stress, 85-89 (passim), 161 African American, 79-80, 89, 90, 91 African immigrants, not African Americans, 79, 83, 88 alcohol use, 79, 107-108, 159, 160 Asians, 79, 90, 91 Chinese, 83, 88, 96, 98, 100, 104, 105, 109, 161 assimilation, 79, 89, 159-160, 161 behavioral risk factors, 79, 80, 82-84, 178 alcohol use, 79, 107-108, 159, 160 smoking, 79, 107, 159 substance abuse, 8, 79, 80-81, 83, 107, 159, 160, 178 violence, 79, 80-81, 83, 107, 159 blacks, 89, 90, 141; see also ''African American" supra Caribbean immigrants, 83, 88 Cuban, 83, 88, 91 Central Americans, 79, 83, 88 chronic illness, 70 defined, 275 education, 89, 90, 93, 94, 98-100, 178 European immigrants, 79, 83, 88 first-generation immigrants, 6, 79, 80, 82, 83, 88-90, 91 health care access, 144 health status, 64, 78-83, 90-91, 107, 123, 159-161, 177 (n.2), 178 Hispanics, 79, 80-82, 83, 85, 88, 89, 91 HIV infections, 70 mental health status, 6, 161, 178 self-esteem, 6, 80-81, 87, 88-90, 92-93, 94-95, 109, 161 Mexicans, 79, 82, 83, 88, 91-92, 109-110

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families psychological factors, 6, 35, 80-81, 88-91 race/ethnicity, 79, 91-92 risk factors, general, 6, 35; see also "behavioral risk factors" supra second-generation immigrants, 6, 79, 80, 82, 83, 88-89, 91 sexual behavior, 6, 79-83, 92, 95, 107, 159 South Americans, 79, 83, 88 substance abuse, 8, 79, 80-81, 83, 107, 159, 160, 178 suicide, 91 third- and later-generation, 6, 7, 79, 81, 82, 83, 88-91, 161 African Americans, 79-80, 89, 90, 91 welfare, 123 white, 79, 82, 83, 89 Vietnamese, 83, 88, 92 Adoption, 124 Adult immigrants, 34, 130 see also Parents AFDC, see Aid to Families with Dependent Children Affidavits, see Sponsorship African Americans, 26, 38, 156 adolescents, 79-80, 89, 90, 91 assimilation, 26-27 census data, 20(n.1) educational attainment, 47, 90, 100, 101, 103, 105, 106, 107 health care access, 145-147 health insurance, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 148, 153 health status, general, 62, 65, 67, 72, 76, 78, 79, 81, 82 historical perspectives, 2, 26-27, 38 infant mortality, 62 language abilities, 158, 159 mental health status, 81, 89-91, 93 numerous siblings, 51 overcrowded housing, 52 poverty, 2, 5, 42, 45, 52, 158, 212-213 research methodology, 2, 5, 12, 170, 171, 181 research recommendations, 2-3, 12, 170, 171, 181 single-parent families, 50 socioeconomic / demographic status, 5, 52, 89 tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230, 236, 246-247, 254, 259, 264 welfare, 129, 130, 133, 143, 152 see also Blacks African immigrants, not African Americans adolescents, 79, 83, 88 behavioral risk factors, 83 English as a second language, 54 health status, 71, 72, 75, 79, 83, 88 poverty, 43 research methodology, 170 see also Middle East; specific nationalities Age factors, 177 adult immigrants, 24, 130; see also Parents age at entry, 25 cohort studies, 35-36, 171 elderly persons, 21-22, 115, 119, 180(n.3) intergenerational cohesion/ conflict, 26, 28, 31, 32, 33, 36, 87, 92, 94, 169 language factors, 8, 54 population in general, 21 sexual behavior, 6, 79-83, 92, 95, 107, 159 adolescents, 6, 79-83 see also Adolescents; Neonatal care; Young children Agricultural sector, see Migrant workers Agriculture Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998, 112(n.2) AIDS, see Human immunodeficiency virus

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Aid to Families with Dependent Children, 112-114, 124, 125, 128, 129, 131, 132-133, 134 see also Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Alcohol use/abuse, 63, 79, 87, 107-108, 159, 160, 169 adolescents, 79, 107-108, 159, 160 gender factors, 63 mothers, 63, 108 Amebiasis, 71 American Academy of Pediatrics, 138, 144 American Indians, see Native Americans Anemia, 66, 72, 76, 77 Anthropological research, see Ethnographic research Arizona, 21 Asians, 38, 62, 91 adolescents, 79, 90, 91 Chinese, 83, 88, 96, 98, 100, 104, 105, 109, 161 educational attainment, 62, 97, 101, 103, 105, 107, 161, 213, 215, 227, 237, 259, 264 health care access, 145-148 health insurance, 140-143, 153, 164 infant mortality, 61, 62 lead poisoning, 74 nutrition, 75-76 racial factors, 26, 28 research recommendations, 170, 171 socioeconomic/demographic status, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230, 236, 246-247, 254 , 259, 264 statistics on immigration, 1-2, 3 welfare participation, 131-132, 134, 162 see also Southeast Asians; specific nationalities Aspirations, 79, 168 educational, 7, 97, 104-105, 106, 109 parental expectations, 32, 33 Assessment, see Monitoring systems Assimilation, 3, 5, 23-26, 31-32, 123, 159-160 acculturative stress, 25, 63, 79, 84-88, 105, 106, 161, 272 adolescents, 79, 89, 159-160, 161 African Americans, 26-27 chronic illness, response to, 69 defined, 272 ecological/life-course models, 29-31 economic factors, 24-25 educational attainment and, 24-25 first-generation immigrants, 12, 85-91 Hispanics, acculturative stress, 85-86, 88, 89 historical perspectives, 23-24, 26 mental health and, 25, 84-88, 161 migration experience (stress), 14, 25, 31, 35, 37 nutrition, 76 parents, 25 prenatal health, 63 racial/ethnic factors, 23-24, 26-28 research recommendations, 12, 23 third- and later-generation immigrants, 12 African Americans, 26-27 upward mobility, 24-25 see also Discrimination; English as a second language Asthma, 66, 69-70, 79, 80, 107, 138, 159 Attitudes health care services, 148-149, 152 health insurance, 141 individual personal, 32, 33, 59, 148-149 see also Aspirations; Discrimination Austrians, 54 Automobiles, see Motor vehicle ownership

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families B Balanced Budget Act of 1997, 112, 115 Behavioral risk factors, general, 6, 87, 105, 107, 159, 160, 169 accidents and injuries, 66, 78, 107, 178 adolescent, 79, 80, 82-84, 178 data sources, 166-167, 168 see also Alcohol use/abuse; Crime and criminal justice system; Sexual behavior; Smoking; Substance abuse, adolescents; Violence Biculturalism, 13, 27-28, 34, 64, 85, 172, 272 Bilingualism, 34, 64, 100 Birth and Death Registration Systems, 166 Birth control, see Contraception Birth defects, 74, 166, 178 Birthplace and status citizenship and, 1, 14, 37(n.2), 56, 114, 176 country of origin, see Country of origin; specific nationalities foreign-born children, see First-generation immigrants foreign-born parents, U.S.-born children, see Second-generation immigrants U.S.-born children of U.S.-born parents, see African Americans; Third- and later-generation immigrants Birthweight, 5, 60-63, 107, 159 defined, 60 Blacks, 5, 156 adolescents, 89, 90, 141 education, 90, 101, 102, 105, 106, 107, 213, 215, 227, 237, 259, 264 English language abilities, 159, 213, 230-231, 264-271 health care access, 70, 145-147 health insurance, 140, 141, 142, 148, 153 health status, 63, 65, 67, 70 mental health, 89-91, 93 population constitution, 20 research methodology, 20, 26, 28, 38, 44, 181 socioeconomic/demographic risk factors, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230, 236-237, 246-247, 254, 259, 264-265 welfare, 129, 130, 133 see also African Americans Block grants, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119 Breastfeeding, 77 Bureau of Census, 20, 40-58, 167, 174, 177(n.2), 179, 181 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 178 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 179 C California, 21 education of immigrants, 91, 92, 96 health status of immigrants, 71, 73, 77 welfare reform, 118 Cambodians, 8, 43, 48, 50, 53, 54, 55, 77, 92, 134, 143, 158 socioeconomic/demographic status, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230-231, 236-237, 246 247, 254, 259, 264-265 Canada, 83, 88, 106, 216-217, 220-221, 226, 229, 234-235, 244-245, 252-253, 257, 270-271 Cancer, 71, 166, 178 Caribbean immigrants, 170 adolescents, 83, 88 infectious diseases, 72 poverty, 45, 53 racial factors, 26 single-parent families, 49, 50 socioeconomic/demographic status, tables, 212-271 (passim) see also specific nationalities

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Cars, see Motor vehicle ownership Centers for Disease Control, 166, 177-178 Central Americans, 170 adolescents, 79, 83, 88 birthweight/infant mortality, 60, 61 educational attainment/poverty, 53, 106 health insurance, 143 infectious diseases, 72 refugees, 58 single-parent families, 49, 50 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 212-271 (passim) welfare, 121 see also specific nationalities Charity, see Private assistance Child abuse, 78 Child Care and Development Block Grant, 114, 117, 119 Children of Immigrants: Health, Adjustment, and Public Assistance, xvi Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 91, 92 Children's Bureau, 124 Chinese adolescents, 83, 88, 96, 98, 100, 104, 105, 109, 161 educational attainment, 7, 96, 98, 100, 104, 105, 109, 110, 161 health insurance, 143 infant mortality, 61 infectious diseases, 71 language factors, 54, 55, 158 lead poisoning, 73 nutrition, 77 socioeconomic/demographic status, tables, 214-215, 220-221, 225, 228, 232-233, 240-241, 250 251, 256, 261, 268-269 see also Hong Kong Chinese Cigarettes, see Smoking Cirrhosis, 71 Cities, see Urban areas Citizenship, 37, 56-57, 175, 176, 177 birthplace and, 1, 14, 37(n.2), 56, 114, 176 civic participation of immigrants, 17 country of origin and generation, table, 231, 233, 235, 265, 267, 269, 271 defined, 273 first-generation immigrants, 231, 233, 235, 265, 267, 269, 271 health insurance, 139, 140, 142 parents, 56-57, 135, 175, 235, 265, 267, 269, 271 poverty and, 56-57 report methodology, 18-19 second-generation immigrants, tables, 231, 233, 235, 265, 267, 269, 271 welfare eligibility, 56-57, 112-115, 120, 135, 136, 174 see also Immigration status Colombia, 55, 214-215, 218-219, 225, 228, 230-231, 238-239, 248-249, 255, 260, 266-267 Communicable diseases, see Infectious diseases Community Health Services Program, 118 Contraception, 79, 80, 82 Cost and cost-benefit factors health care, 10, 123-124, 166, 178 health insurance, 138, 141 research recommendations, 166, 178, 179 Country of origin, general adolescents, 91 education, 97, 109, 161, 164 English-speaking, general, 54 family size, 51 health insurance, 153 health status, 74, 76, 92, 109, 168 infectious diseases, 7, 70, 108, 160 lead poisoning, 73 mental health, 92 nutrition, 74, 76

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families parents, 14, 46-49 risk/protective factors, 160 by country of origin and generation, tables, 212-271 poverty and, 8, 42, 43-44, 48, 50, tables, 42-43, 212-227, 236, 238, 240, 242, 244, 246-258 research recommendations, 14, 164, 165, 168, 170, 176-181 sampling and, 11, 14-15, 36, 40, 64, 97, 153, 164, 171-172, 174, 176-180 (passim) variation across persons from same country, 59 see also Birthplace and status; specific nationalities Crime and criminal justice system, 27, 177, 178 child abuse, 78 detention centers, 57 see also Illegal immigrants; Violence Cubans, 20(n.1) acculturative stress, 85-86, 88 adolescents, 83, 88, 91 birthweight/infant mortality, 60, 61, 62 educational attainment, 107 health insurance, 143 socioeconomic/demographic status, tables, 214-215, 225, 228, 232-233, 240-241, 250-251, 256, 261, 268-269 welfare, 118, 123, 129, 130, 131, 132, 134, 161-162 Cultural factors, 3, 7, 8, 37 biculturalism, 13, 27-28, 34, 64, 85, 172, 272 chronically ill children, 69 ecological/life-course models, 29-31 health care, culturally sensitive, 5, 9, 13, 14, 70, 151-152, 173, 175-176 health care services and access, 9, 70, 149, 150-152 health insurance, 141 health status, general, 9, 68, 69-70, 108 infant mortality, 63 multiculturalism, 27-28 nutrition, 77 research recommendations, 165, 168, 169, 172 services provisions, 5, 9, 13, 14 see also Assimilation; Ethnographic research; Language factors; Religious factors Culturally competent care, 5, 9, 13, 14, 70, 151-152, 173, 175-176 Current Population Reports, 181 Current Population Survey, 167, 177(n.2), 179 D Data collection, see Monitoring systems; Research methodology; Research recommendations; Sampling Decennial Census of Population and Housing, 20, 40-58, 167, 179 Deeming, welfare eligibility, 273 Delinquency, see Crime and criminal justice system Demographic factors, general, 37, 40-58 fertility, 20, 82, 178 health insurance, 140-141 population in general, 21-22 by country of origin, 212-271 report methodology, 2, 18 research recommendations, 11, 177 risk factor status by country of origin and generation, tables, 212-271 urban residence, 4, 24, 32, 73, 93, 122-123, 170, 174 welfare participation, 131-134

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families see also Age factors; Employment factors; Families and households; Gender factors; Population; Racial/ethnic factors; Socioeconomic status; specific nationalities and ethnic groups Dental health and services, 66, 78 Mexicans, 6, 108, 160 Department of Health and Human Services, 174, 176 Department of Housing and Urban Development, 180(n.3) Deportation, 57 Depression, 92-93, 94-95 see also Self-esteem/self-concept Detention centers, 57-58 Developmental psychology, 33-35 acculturative stress, 87-88, 272 ecological models, 29 life-course models, 11, 12, 23, 29, 30-31 poverty, 7 research recommendations, 12, 22-23, 35, 36-37, 165, 168, 171 Diarrhea, 72 Diet, see Nutrition Disabled persons, 115, 119, 122, 124 Discrimination, 5, 26-28, 34-35, 85, 92, 94, 109, 158-159, 165 educational, 5, 105, 106 Diseases and disorders, 5 acute, 5, 10, 64, 69, 71, 74, 107, 108, 136, 138, 159, 163; see also Emergency medical services chronic, 5, 10, 64, 68-70, 71, 107, 108, 136, 138, 149, 159, 178 ear ailments, 138 learning, 5, 80-81, 105 visual impairments, 66, 78 see also Disabled persons; Infectious diseases; Mental health and illness; Respiratory ailments; Toxins; specific diseases Doctors, see Physicians Dominicans, 8, 44-45, 53, 56, 158, 230-231 socioeconomic/demographic status, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 236-237, 246-247, 254, 259, 264-265 DPT, 68 Drinking, see Alcohol use/abuse Drug abuse, see Substance abuse, adolescents E Ear ailments, 138 Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey, 166, 178 Eastern Europeans, 75, 123, 133, 134 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 212-271 (passim) Ecological models, 29 Economic factors, 3, 7, 18 aging population, 21-22 assimilation, 24-25 chronic illness, 68 Great Depression, 30 New Deal, 122, 124 self-esteem/depression, 94 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Funding; Poverty; Socioeconomic status Education adolescents, 89, 90, 94, 98-100, 178 country of origin, general, 97, 109, 161, 164 discrimination, 5, 105, 106 generation of immigration, 46-47, 93-96, 97-101, 102-105, 106, 109, 157 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 217, 227-229, 238, 241, 243, 245, 259 health education, 122, 123 learning difficulties, 5, 80-81, 105 professional, 151-152

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families report methodology, 19 research recommendations, 14, 164, 166-167, 169, 171, 177 school as protective factor, 32 see Information dissemination; Preschool education; Primary and secondary education Educational attainment, 7, 93-107, 109-110, 161 acculturative stress, 86 African Americans, 47, 90, 100, 101, 103, 105, 106, 107 Asians, 62, 97, 101, 103, 105, 107, 161, 213, 215, 227, 237, 259, 264 Chinese, 7, 96, 98, 100, 104, 105, 109, 110, 161 aspirations, 7, 97, 104-105, 106, 109 assimilation and, 24-25 blacks, 90, 101, 102, 105, 106, 107, 213, 215, 227, 237, 259, 264 Central Americans, 53, 106 Cubans, 107 fathers, 46-47, 53, 157 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 215, 217, 227-229, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 254, 259-263 first-generation immigrants, 7, 46-47, 93, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 109, 157, 161 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 217, 227-229, 238, 241, 243, 245, 259 health insurance and, 143, 144 Hispanics, 97-99, 100, 101, 103, 105, 213, 215, 227, 237, 259, 264 infant mortality and, 62 literacy, 47 reading test scores, 96, 98, 161 math test scores, 96, 98, 109-110, 161 Mexicans, 7, 47, 53, 63, 96-99, 101, 104, 105, 109-110, 213, 227, 237, 259, 264 mothers, 46 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 215, 217, 227-229, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 254, 259-263 parents, 7, 8, 31, 46-49, 53, 96, 98, 140, 144, 157 by country of origin and generation, tables, 227-229, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 254, 259-263 racial differences, general, 26-27 reading test scores, 96, 98, 161 research recommendations, 14, 164, 166-167, 169, 171, 177 second-generation immigrants, 7, 46-47, 93-96, 97, 100, 102-105, 106, 109, 110, 157, 164, 171 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 217, 227-229, 238, 241, 243, 245, 259 socioeconomic status, 96, 98 poverty, 7, 48-49, 53, 106 third- and later-generation immigrants, 7, 46-47, 93, 96, 100, 103, 104-105, 106, 109-110, 157, 161 African Americans, 47, 90, 100, 101, 103, 105, 106, 107 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 215, 227, 237, 259-263 whites, 7, 47, 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 105 see also English as a second language Elderly persons, 21-22, 115, 119, 180(n.3) El Salvadorans, see Salvadorans Emergency medical services, 114, 115, 117, 124, 125, 138, 149-150, 175 Employment factors, 3, 17, 157-158, 171, 177, 224, 254 aging population, 21-22 children, 123

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families fathers, 7-8, 48-49, 50, 52, 158, 224-226, 254-258 first-generation immigrants, 7, 41, 46, 48, 52, 157, 158, 224-226, 254-258 health insurance, 10, 123-124, 137-138, 142, 143, 145-146 historic perspectives, 24 illegal immigrants, employer sanctions, 120 infant mortality, 63 migrant workers, 6, 65, 68, 74, 160 migration, rationale for, 37 mothers, 48, 49, 157-158, 224-226, 254-255 part-time workers, 49, 52, 53, 158, 224-226, 254, 256-258 racial differences, 27 refugees, 8, 44 second-generation immigrants, 7, 41, 46, 48, 144, 224, 254-258 self-employment, 143 third- and later-generation immigrants, 7, 41, 46, 48, 52, 224, 254-258 unskilled workers, 8, 44, 53, 121, 159 English as a second language, 3, 4, 8-9, 49, 54-55, 58, 93, 158, 159 acculturative stress, 84-86, 161 blacks, 159, 213, 230-231, 264-271 first-generation immigrants, 3, 9, 28, 54, 55, 58, 84-85, 89, 92-93, 95-96, 148-149, 213, 215, 217, 230-231, 241, 243, 245, 264-265 health insurance, 141 household language not English, 8, 49, 55, 98, 158, 213, 215, 217 by country of origin and generation, table, 230-231, 232, 234, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 264, 268, 270 literacy, 47 reading test scores, 96, 98, 161 neighborhood language not English, 55, 158 parents, 3, 8, 49, 54-55, 86, 230-235, 265, 267, 269, 271 second-generation immigrants, 54, 89, 95-96, 158, 213, 215, 217, 230-231, 241, 243, 245, 264-265 self-esteem, 92, 93, 94 Spanish television and, 55 status by country of origin and generation, table, 230-235, 265, 267, 269, 271 third- and later-generation immigrants, comparative indices, 89, 95-96, 213, 230-231, 264-271 African Americans, 158, 159 Environmental Protection Agency, 74 Epidemiology, see Risk factors; specific risk factors Ethnicity, see Racial/ethnic factors; specific groups Ethnographic research, 13, 33, 172-173 European immigrants, 26, 170 adolescents, 79, 83, 88 Eastern Europeans, 75, 123, 133, 134, 212-271 (passim) health insurance, 143 nutritional status, 75 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 212-271 (passim) welfare, 118, 123, 133, 134, 162 Western Europeans, 133, 134, 212-271 (passim) Evaluation see also Monitoring systems F Families and households, 3, 6, 32-34, 108, 157, 158, 161 acculturative stress, 85, 86-88 AFDC, 112-114, 124, 125, 128, 129, 131, 132-133, 134

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families chronically ill children, 69 ecological/life-course models, 29-31 educational support, 97, 100-105 health insurance, 140-141 health services use, 144-148 immigration policy, 1, 120, 126 intergenerational cohesion/ conflict, 26, 28, 31, 32, 33, 36, 87, 92, 94, 169 language of household not English, 8, 49, 55, 98, 158, 213, 215, 217 by country of origin and generation, table, 230-231, 232, 234, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 264, 268, 270 overcrowded, 7, 8, 31, 42, 51-52, 135, 221, 223, 247, 249, 251, 253 research recommendations, 14, 34-35, 169, 172, 177, 178, 179 residential mobility/stability, 31, 32 siblings, numerous, 7, 31, 41-42, 50-51, 153, 213, 215, 217, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245 telephone access, household, 219, 221, 223, 247, 249, 250, 253 motor vehicle ownership, 218, 220, 222, 246, 248, 250, 252 welfare participation, 120, 126, 131-134 AFDC, 112-114, 124, 125, 128, 129, 131, 132-133, 134 TANF, 112-113, 115, 117, 118, 162 see also Fathers; Housing; Mothers; Parents Fathers educational attainment, 46-47, 53, 157 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 215, 217, 227-229, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 254, 259-263 employment, 7-8, 48-49, 50, 52, 158, 224-226, 254-258 see also Parents Federal government, 2, 4 culturally competent care, 14, 173 research recommendations, 12, 14-15, 164-181 welfare, 111-120 (passim), 124-154 (passim) see also Funding; Legislation; specific departments and agencies Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 15, 180-181 Fertility, 20, 82, 178 Filipinos health insurance, 143 health status, 61, 71, 77, 83, 110 mental health/adjustment, 88, 89, 92, 96, 98, 100, 104-105 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 216-217, 222-223, 226, 229, 234-235, 244-245, 252 253, 258, 263, 270-271 First-generation immigrants Note: foreign-born children adolescents, 6, 64, 79, 80, 82, 83, 88-90, 91 assimilation, 12, 85-91 chronic illness, response to, 69-70 citizenship status, 231, 233, 235, 265, 267, 269, 271 decennial census, 41 defined, 37-38, 273 educational attainment, 7, 46-47, 93, 96, 97, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105, 109, 157, 161 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 217, 227-229, 238, 241, 243, 245, 259 employment status, 7, 41, 46, 48, 52, 157, 158, 224-226, 254-258 English as a second language, 3, 9, 28, 54, 55, 58, 84-85, 89, 92 93, 95-96, 148-149, 213, 215,

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families 217, 230-231, 241, 243, 245, 264-265 health care access, 11, 70, 145-148, 154, 159, 163 health insurance, 139-143, 153, 154, 163 health status, general, 1, 64-66, 69, 72, 75, 76, 78-83, 107, 108, 168 housing, overcrowded/old, 7, 51-52, 219, 223, 247, 249, 251, 253 information dissemination, 15 lead poisoning, 73 mental health, 85-88, 91, 109 motor vehicle ownership, 218, 220, 222, 246, 248, 250, 252 nutrition, 75, 76 population growth, 1, 17, 20-21 poverty, 7, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 53, 157, 158, 212, 214, 216, 236, 238, 240-242, 244 research methodology, 15, 40 research recommendations, 15, 34-36, 164, 168, 169, 171, 181 siblings, number of, 50-51, 213, 217, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245 single-parent families, 7, 49, 50, 158, 213, 215, 217, 241, 245 socioeconomic risk/protective factors, 40-41 tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230-231, 236-237, 240-271 (passim) telephone access, 219, 221, 223, 247, 248, 250 welfare participation, 9, 58, 125, 127-133, 152-153, 161-162 Florida, 21, 71, 85, 91, 118 Food and Consumer Service, 167 Food assistance, 112, 119, 175, 122-123 school lunch program, 114, 116, 122-123, 124 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), 114, 115, 116, 124, 175, 275 Food Stamps Program, 4, 22, 112-114, 116, 119, 124, 125, 128, 129, 131, 132-133, 134 Foreign-born persons, see First-generation immigrants Foreign language speakers, see English as a second language; Language factors Foster care, 57, 124 Funding block grants, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119 research recommendations, 12, 155, 164 welfare, 118 see also Balanced Budget Act of 1997; Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 G Gastrointestinal diseases, 70, 72 Gender factors, 31, 177 alcohol abuse, 63 English language acquisition, 86 interfamilial conflicts, 87 self-esteem/depression, 92, 94 sexual behavior, adolescents, 79 Generational factors intergenerational cohesion/ conflict, 26, 28, 31, 32, 33, 36, 87, 92, 94, 169 see also First-generation immigrants; Second-generation immigrants; Third- and later-generation immigrants Germans, 54, 123 Giardia, 72 Government role, see Federal government; Local government; State government Great Depression, 30 New Deal, 122, 124

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families immunization, 68 infectious diseases, 72 lead poisoning, 73, 160 nutrition, 75, 76, 77 overcrowded housing, 52, 213, 219, 237, 247 poverty, 158, 212, 236 single-parent families, 50, 213, 237 socioeconomic status, 8, 43, 44, 45, 50, 52-53, 56 tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230-231, 236-237, 246-247, 254, 259, 264-265 suicide, 91 tuberculosis, 71 welfare, 6, 108, 121, 129, 130, 131, 153, 160, 161-162 Michigan, 21 Middle East, 73 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 212-271 (passim) see also specific nationalities Migrant workers, 6, 65, 68, 74, 160 Migration experience (stress), 14, 25, 31, 35, 37 see also Illegal immigrants; Refugees Military service, 117 Minority groups, see Discrimination; Racial/ethnic factors Monitoring systems, 14-15, 32, 135, 136, 155, 164, 166-167, 176-179 decennial census, 20, 40-58 generational perspective lacking, 59 see also Longitudinal studies; specific studies Monitoring the Future Survey, 166, 178 Mothers alcohol use, 63, 108 breastfeeding, 77 educational attainment, 46, 213, 215, 217, 241 by country of origin and generation, tables, 227-229, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 254, 259-263 employment status, 48, 49, 157-158, 224-226, 254-255 migrant workers, 68 see also Parents Motivation, see Aspirations; Attitudes Motor vehicle ownership, 218, 220, 222, 246, 248, 250, 252 Multiculturalism, 27-28 Mumps, 68 N National Center for Education Statistics, 166-167, 178 National Center for Health Statistics, 166, 178 National Crime Victimization Survey, 166, 178 National Educational Longitudinal Survey, 88-89, 93, 167, 178 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 63-67, 69-70, 72, 73, 76, 78, 166, 178 National Health Interview Survey, 63-65, 166, 178 National Household Education Survey, 167, 178 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 166, 170, 178, 179 National Institute on Aging, 180(n.3) National Institute on Drug Abuse, 178 National Integrated Quality Control Survey, 167 National Longitudinal Adolescent Health Survey, 78-80, 88, 89, 166

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 78-83, 88, 178 National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth, 179 National Medical Care Expenditure Surveys, 167(n.1) National Science Foundation, 167, 180(n.3) National Survey of American Families, 174 National Survey of Family Growth, 166, 178 Native Americans, 42, 52 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230, 236, 246-247, 254, 259, 264 Naturalization, see Citizenship Neonatal care, 5, 61, 138, 159-160 see also Infant mortality Netherlands, 54, 216-217, 222-223, 226, 229, 234-235, 244-245, 252-253, 257, 263, 270-271 Nevada, 21 New Deal, 122, 124 New Immigration Survey, 171-172 New Jersey, 21 New York, 21, 71, 74, 118-119, 123-124 Nicaraguans, 8, 44, 77, 85-86, 91, 107 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230-231, 238-239, 246 247, 255, 264-265 Nigerians, 49, 54, 214-215, 220-221, 225, 228, 232-233, 240-241, 248-249, 256, 261, 268-269 Non-Hispanic whites, 20(n. 1) Numeracy, see Math test scores Nurses, 122, 123 Nutrition, 34, 74-78, 175 anemia, 66, 72, 76, 77 Asians, 75-76 country of origin, general, 74, 76 detention centers, 57 prenatal, 61, 63 weight indices, 75, 76, 80-81, 107, 159 obesity, 75, 80-81, 107, 159 see also Food assistance; Food Stamps Program O Obesity, 75, 80-81, 107, 159 Ohio, 21 Outreach, 115, 118, 122 P Pacific Islanders, 62 Pakistanis, 49, 73, 214-215, 218-219, 225, 228, 230-231, 238-239, 248-249, 255, 260, 266-267 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 127, 129, 130, 167, 180 Parasitic infections, 71, 72, 107, 108, 160 Parents acculturative stress, 86-87 aspirations for children, 32, 33 assimilation, 25 citizenship, 56-57, 135, 175, 235, 265, 267, 269, 271 country of origin, general, 14, 46-49; see ''parents" under specific nationalities educational attainment of, 7, 8, 31, 46-49, 53, 96, 98, 140, 144, 157 by country of origin and generation, tables, 227-229, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 254, 259-263 educational support for children, 6-7, 97-98, 100-105, 109 employment status, 7, 48-49, 157-158, 224-226, 254-258 English proficiency, 3, 8, 49, 54-55, 86, 230-235, 265, 267, 269, 271

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families expectations of, 32, 33 health care access, attitudes, 148-149, 152 health status of child, parental assessment, 63-68 immigration status of, 119, 120, 135, 136, 174-175 illegal immigrants, welfare for children of, 119, 135 intergenerational cohesion/conflict, 26, 28, 31, 32, 33, 36, 87, 92, 94, 169 language of household not English, 8, 49, 55, 98, 158, 213, 215, 217 by country of origin and generation, table, 230-231, 232, 234, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245, 264, 268, 270 racial differences, 27 single-parent families, 7, 31, 41-42, 49-50, 52, 158, 213, 215, 217, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245 welfare eligibility, verification, 119, 120, 135 see also Fathers; Marriage and marital status; Mothers; Neonatal care; Prenatal care Part-time workers, 49, 52, 53, 158, 224-226, 254, 256-258 see also Migrant workers Pennsylvania, 21 Perinatal infections, 70 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, 4, 22, 112, 155 Peru, 77 Pesticides, 6, 65, 68, 74, 160 Philippines, see Filipinos Phosphorous necrosis, 123 Physicians, 10, 71, 72, 122, 137, 138, 144, 146-148, 149, 154, 163, 176 Poisoning, 66, 78 see also Lead poisoning; Toxins Policy, see Immigration policy; Legislation; Welfare Polio, 68 Population Bureau of Census, 20, 40-58, 167, 174, 177(n.2), 179, 181 by country of origin and generation, tables, 212-270 (passim) growth, 20, 21, 164 see also Demographic factors; Fertility Poverty, 2, 4, 5, 7-8, 31, 42-45, 47, 109, 158, 160 African Americans, 2, 5, 42, 45, 52, 158, 212-213 assimilation and, 25 citizenship and, 56-57 country of origin, general, 8, 42, 43-44, 48, 50, 53, 56-57, 158-159, 168 tables, 42-43, 212-227, 236, 238, 240, 242, 244, 246-258 educational attainment and, 7, 48-49, 53, 106 English as a second language, 54 first-generation immigrants, 7, 42-45 (passim), 47, 53, 157, 158, 212, 214, 216, 236, 238, 240-242, 244 health care access, 150 health insurance, 141, 143; see also Medicaid health status, general, 75, 159-160, 168 Hispanics, 5, 42, 52, 158, 212, 236 illegal immigrants, 56 language factors, 49, 54 Mexicans, 158, 212, 236 nutrition and, 75 physician visits, 149 second-generation immigrants, 42-45, 157, 158, 212, 214, 216, 236, 238, 240-242, 244 single-parent families, 50

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families sponsorship, 113(n.1), 114, 118, 121, 125-127, 175, 275 third- and later-generation immigrants, 42-45, 47, 56, 157, 158, 212, 214, 216, 236, 238, 240-242, 244 African Americans, 2, 5, 42, 45, 52, 158, 212-213 visa restrictions, 125-126 see also Welfare Pregnancy, 79, 82 contraception, 79, 80, 82 Prenatal care, 5-6, 33, 60-63 racial differences, 27 see also Birthweight Preschool education, 6-7, 65, 100, 109 Head Start program, 65, 114, 115, 117, 119, 124 Primary and secondary education, 46, 93-107, 109-110 adolescents, 89, 90, 94, 98-100, 178 behavioral problems, 105-106 chronically ill children, 68 health education and services, 122, 123 high school graduates, 46 learning difficulties, 80-81, 105 school lunch program, 114, 116, 122-123, 124 Private assistance, 121, 122-124 Professional organizations American Academy of Pediatrics, 138, 144 culturally competent care, 14, 176 Projections, statistics, 20, 21 Protective factors, general, 2, 3, 5-7, 31-34, 40, 91, 108-109, 156, 157-159, 164-165 defined, 32 health care, preventive services, 62-63, 138, 154, 163, 164 report methodology, 2, 18, 22 unexplored, 7, 168-169 PSID, see Panel Study of Income Dynamics Psychological factors, 109 adolescents, 6, 35, 80-81, 88-91 individual personal, 32, 33, 59, 148-149, 168 refugees, violence, 57-58 research recommendations, 12, 35, 168, 169, 171 self-esteem, 6, 80-81, 87, 88-90, 92-93, 94-95 see also Attitudes; Developmental psychology; Mental health and illness; Migration experience (stress); Stress Public assistance, see Welfare Public Health Services Act, 118 Public Health Surveillance Systems, 166 Puerto Ricans, 20, 69 Q Qualitative research, 13, 173 R Racial/ethnic factors, 1-2, 5, 22, 26-28, 36, 37, 38, 47-48, 158-159 acculturative stress, 86 adolescents, 79, 91-92 Asians, 26, 28 assimilation, 23-24, 26-28 asthma, 69, 70 birthweight/infant mortality, 60 census data, 20 educational attainment, 26-27 employment, 27 health insurance, 140-143 health status, general, 67, 68, 159, 160 historical perspective, 23-24 infectious diseases, 70 minority defined, 273 population trends, general, 20, 21-22

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families research recommendations, 165, 172, 177 see also Assimilation; Discrimination; specific racial/ethnic groups and nationalities Reading literacy, 47 test scores, 96, 98, 161 Refugee Act, 120 Refugees, 31, 37 defined, 274 employment, 8, 44 Medicaid eligibility, 10, 114, 118, 144 socioeconomic status, 8, 43-44, 52-53 Southeast Asian, 9 state government role, 126 Supplemental Security Income, 114, 116, 118 violence and crime, 57-58 welfare, 4, 113(n.3), 114, 116-118, 120-121, 126, 134, 153 see specific refugee nationalities (e.g., Cambodians) Religious factors, 33 Eastern European Jews, 123 Research methodology African Americans, 2, 5, 12, 170, 171, 181 Asians, 1-2, 3, 170, 171 assimilation research, 24 blacks, 20, 26, 28, 38, 44, 181 Children's Bureau, 124 cohort studies, 35-36, 171 cost factors, 166, 178, 179 country of origin, general, 14, 164, 165, 168, 170, 176-181 linguistic/cultural factors, 64, 108 New Immigration Survey, 171-172 report at hand, xv-xvi, 2, 12, 17-19, 127-128, 136-137, 144 risk-protective factors, 32-33 U.S. born/immigrant comparisons, 12, 17-18, 36-37 see also Ethnographic research; Longitudinal studies; Monitoring systems; Sampling Research recommendations, 2-3, 11-15, 18, 22-23, 34-37, 164-181 Respiratory ailments, 64, 65, 66-67, 70, 107 asthma, 66, 69-70, 79, 80, 107, 138, 159 tuberculosis, 6, 42, 70, 71 Rhode Island, 21, 74 Risk factors, general, 3, 18, 31-34, 40-58, 156, 157-159 adolescents, 6, 35 defined, 32 report methodology, 2, 18 research recommendations, 11, 14, 22, 164-165, 166, 169 tabulated by country of origin and duration of residence, 212-271 see also Behavioral risk factors; Protective factors; specific risk factors Rubella, 68 S Salvadorans, 8, 43-44, 77, 107 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230-231, 238-239, 246-247, 255, 260, 264-265 Sampling country of origin sampling, 11, 14-15, 36, 40, 64, 97, 153, 164, 171-172, 174, 176-180 (passim) health and welfare reform, 13-14 microdata, 14, 177 research recommendations, 11, 12-14, 15, 171, 174, 177, 179-180

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Saudi Arabians, 73 SCHIP, see State Children's Health Insurance Program Schistosomiasis, 71 School lunch program, 114, 116, 122-123, 124 Schools, see Preschool education; Primary and secondary education Seasonal workers, see Migrant workers Second-generation immigrants Note: U.S.-born children of foreign-born parents adolescents, 6, 79, 80, 82, 83, 88-89, 91 birthweight/infant mortality, 5, 107 chronic illness, 64, 69 citizenship status, 231, 233, 235, 265, 267, 269, 271 decennial census, 41 defined, 37-38, 274 educational attainment, 7, 46-47, 93-96, 97, 100, 102-105, 106, 109, 110, 157, 164, 171 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 217, 227-229, 238, 241, 243, 245, 259 employment status, 7, 41, 46, 48, 144, 224, 254-258 English as a second language, 54, 89, 95-96, 158, 213, 215, 217, 230-231, 241, 243, 245, 264-265 health care access, 10, 145-148, 154, 163, 174 health insurance, 10, 139, 140-144, 153, 154, 163 health status, general, 6, 38, 59, 62-83 (passim), 107, 108, 159, 164, 168, 169, 171 housing, old/overcrowded, 7, 51-52, 219, 223, 247, 249, 251, 253 information dissemination, 15 mental health, 59, 83-85, 89, 109, 171 motor vehicle ownership, 218, 220, 222, 246, 248, 250, 252 obesity, 75, 80-81 population growth, 1, 17, 20-21 poverty, 42-45, 157, 158, 212, 214, 216, 236, 238, 240-242, 244 research methodology, 15, 37, 38, 40-41, 164, 168, 170, 171, 180-181 research recommendations, 15, 34-36, 164, 168, 170, 171, 174, 180-181 siblings, number of, 50-51, 213, 217, 237, 241, 243, 245 single-parent families, 49, 50, 158, 213, 215, 217, 241, 245 by country of origin, tables, 212-271 socioeconomic risk/protective factors, 8, 40, 43-45, 47, 53, 158 tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230-231, 236-237, 240-271 (passim) telephone access, 219, 221, 223, 247, 248, 250 welfare participation, 9, 125, 127-134, 152-153, 162, 174 Self-esteem/self-concept, 98 adolescents, 6, 80-81, 87, 88-90, 92-93, 94-95, 109, 161 teachers, impact on, 105-106 see also Depression Sex differences, see Gender factors Sexual behavior, 169 adolescents, 6, 79-83, 92, 95, 107, 159 contraception, 79, 80, 82 pregnancy, 79, 82 Sexually transmitted diseases, 70, 166, 178 Siblings, numerous, 7, 31, 41-42, 50-51, 153, 213, 215, 217, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245 Sight deficiencies, see Visual impairments

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Silicosis, 123 Single-parent families, 7, 31, 41-42, 49-50, 52, 158 African Americans, 50 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 215, 217, 237, 239, 241, 243, 245 SIPP, see Survey of Income and Program Participation Smoking, 6, 169 adolescents, 79, 107, 159 pregnant women, 63, 107-108, 160 Social factors, 3-4, 7 research recommendations, 12, 35, 168, 169, 171, 172, 179 social learning, 27 see also Cultural factors; Discrimination; Ecological models; Housing; Language factors; Life-course models; Socioeconomic status Social services chronic illness, 68 eligibility for, 114 illegal immigrants, surveillance, 120 outreach, 115, 118, 122 report methodology, 2, 18 see also Welfare Socioeconomic status, 3, 5, 6, 7-8, 37, 40-58, 108-109, 158 African Americans, 5, 52, 89 tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230, 236, 246-247, 254, 259, 264 assimilation, 24, 89 educational attainment, 96, 98 health insurance, 140-141 life-course models, 30 motor vehicle ownership, 218, 220, 222, 246, 250, 252 nutrition and, 75 research recommendations, 11, 14, 34, 166, 168, 176, 179 risk/protective factors by country of origin and generation, tables, 212-271 telephone access, household, 219, 221, 223, 247, 249, 251, 253 upward mobility, 24-25 see also Educational attainment; Employment factors; Families and households; Housing; Poverty; Welfare South Africans, 54, 216-217, 222-223, 226, 229, 234-235, 244-245, 252-253, 263, 270-271 South Americans, 170 adolescents, 79, 83, 88 birthweight, 60, 61 health insurance, 143 infectious diseases, 72 single-parent families, 49 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 212-271 (passim) see also specific nationalities Southeast Asians, 53, 58 congenital anemia, 77 educational attainment, 106 health insurance, 143-144, 153, 164 infectious diseases, 72 nutrition, 76-77 welfare, 9, 118, 121, 131, 134 see also specific nationalities Soviet nationals, 8, 43, 50, 53, 57, 158 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230-231, 236 237, 246-247, 254, 259, 264-265 Sponsorship, 113(n.1), 114, 118, 121, 125-127, 175 defined, 275 Spouses, see Marriage and marital status SSI, see Supplemental Security Income State Children's Health Insurance Program, 11, 115, 118, 136-137

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families State government, 3 culturally competent care, 5, 9, 13, 14, 70, 151-152, 173, 175-177 health insurance, state-assisted, 11, 115, 118, 136-137 medical services, 138 refugees, 126 welfare policy, 4, 22, 114, 115, 117-119, 120, 121, 124, 125, 126, 135, 155-156 see also specific states State-level factors immigrant concentrations, 21 see also specific states Statistical methodology, see Projections, statistics; Research methodology; Sampling Stress acculturative, 25, 63, 79, 84-88, 105, 106, 161, 272 migration experience, 14, 25, 31, 35, 37 pregnancy outcomes, 61 Substance abuse, adolescents, 8, 79, 80-81, 83, 107, 159, 160, 178 Suicide, 91, 161 Supplemental Security Income, 4, 10-11, 22, 112, 114, 115, 116, 119, 124, 125, 128, 129, 131, 132-133, 134 defined, 275 disabled and elderly, 115 refugees, 114, 116, 118 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 127, 130, 167, 179 Survey of Program Dynamics, 167, 174, 179 Syphilis, 6, 71 T Taiwanese, 55, 77, 143, 214-215, 225, 228, 232-233, 240-241, 250-251, 256, 262, 268-269 TANF, see Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Telephone access, household, 219, 221, 223, 247, 249, 250, 253 Television, 55, 97 Temporal factors duration of residence, 14, 59, 68, 87-88, 107, 120, 160, 174 welfare eligibility limits, 115-120 (passim) see also First-generation immigrants; Second-generation immigrants; Third- and later-generation immigrants Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, 112-113, 115, 117, 118, 162 see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children Texas, 21, 71, 118 Thais, 8, 43, 48, 50, 53, 134, 158 socioeconomic/demographic status, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230-231, 236-237, 246-247, 254, 259, 264-265 Third- and later-generation immigrants Note: U.S.-born children of U.S.-born parents/U. S.-born families adolescents, 6, 7, 79, 81, 82, 83, 88-91, 161 African Americans, 79-80, 89, 90, 91 assimilation, 12 African Americans, 26-27 chronic illness, response to, 69-70 decennial census, 41 defined, 37, 275 educational attainment, 7, 46-47, 93, 96, 100, 103, 104-105, 106, 109-110, 157, 161 African Americans, 47, 90, 100, 101, 103, 105, 106, 107 by country of origin and generation, tables, 213, 215, 227, 237, 259-263

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families employment status, 7, 41, 46, 48, 52, 224, 254-258 English language abilities, 89, 95-96, 213, 230-231, 264-271 African Americans, 158, 159 health care access, 10, 11, 145-148, 154, 163, 174 health insurance, 10, 139, 140-143, 153, 154, 163 African Americans, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 148, 153 health status, general, 1, 5, 6, 18, 33, 38, 59, 62-83 (passim), 78, 107, 108, 159, 160, 164, 168 African Americans, 62, 65, 67, 72, 76, 78, 79, 81, 82 housing, old/overcrowded, 7, 51-52, 219, 221, 247 mental health, 5, 18, 33, 59, 83-85, 89, 109, 171 African Americans, 81, 89-91, 93 motor vehicle ownership, 218, 246 nutrition, 75, 76, 77 population growth, 1, 17-21 poverty, 42-45, 47, 56, 157, 158, 212, 214, 216, 236, 238, 240-242, 244 African Americans, 2, 5, 42, 45, 52, 158, 212-213 research recommendations, 12, 14, 15, 33-36, 164, 168, 170, 181 risk factors, general, 6, 33-35, 41 siblings, number of, 50-51, 213, 237 single-parent families, 7, 49-50, 52, 158, 213 socioeconomic risk/protective factors, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230-231, 236-237, 246-247, 254, 259, 264-271 (passim) telephone access, 219, 247 welfare participation, 9, 127-134, 152-153, 162 African Americans, 129, 130, 133, 143, 152 see also African Americans Time factors, see Temporal factors Title IV child care assistance, 124 Title XX block grants, 114, 115, 117, 118 Tobacco, see Smoking Toxins, diseases caused by, 19 lead poisoning, 72-74, 108, 123, 160 migrant workers, 6, 65, 68, 74, 160 see also Poisoning Transportation, see Motor vehicle ownership Trichuris, 72 Tuberculosis, 6, 42, 70, 71, 108, 160, 166, 178 U Undocumented immigrants, see Illegal immigrants Upward mobility, 24-25 Urban areas, 4, 24, 32, 73, 93, 122-123, 170, 174 Urban Institute, 174 USSR, see Soviet nationals V Vietnamese, 8, 43, 50, 57, 158 adolescents, 83, 88, 92 Amerasians, 83 congenital anemia, 77 health care access, 151 health insurance, 143-144 nutrition, 76, 77 socioeconomic /demographic status, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230-231, 236-237, 246-247, 254, 260, 264-265 tuberculosis, 71 welfare participation, 134 Virginia, 21 Visual impairments, 66, 78 Violence, 178 adolescents, 79, 80-81, 83, 107, 159 child abuse, 78 refugees, 57-58 report methodology, 19

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families W Washington state, 21 Weight, 75, 76, 80-81, 107, 159 Welfare, 121 African Americans, 129, 130, 133, 143, 152 Asians, 131-132, 134, 162 blacks, 129, 130, 133 Cubans, 118, 123, 129, 130, 131, 132, 134, 161-162 demography, general, 131-134 eligibility, 56-57, 112-121, 135-136, 137-138, 145, 152, 155-156, 163-164, 174, 175 citizenship and, 56-57, 112-115, 120, 135, 136, 174 deeming defined, 273 illegal immigrants, 113(n.3), 114-117, 118-119, 120, 121, 125, 135, 175 international standards, 120 legal permanent residents, 113(n.3), 114, 116-117 naturalized citizens, 56-57, 112-115, 120, 135, 136, 174 prior to welfare reform, 114, 120-126, 152 refugees, 113(n.3), 114, 116-118, 120-121, 126, 134, 153 time limits, 115-120 (passim) undocumented immigrants, 113(n.3), 114-117, 118-119, 175 European immigrants, 118, 123, 133, 134, 162 federal role, 111-120 (passim), 124-154 (passim) first-generation immigrants, 9, 58, 125, 127-133, 152-153, 161-162 heating assistance, 128, 129, 132-133, 134 Hispanics, 129, 161-162 historical perspectives, 114, 120-126, 152 illegal immigrants, 56 local government role, 22, 114, 117, 121, 123, 124 Mexicans, 6, 108, 121, 129, 130, 131, 153, 160, 161-162 private assistance, 121, 122-124 public assistance defined, 274 refugees, 4, 113(n.3), 114, 116-118, 120-121, 126, 134, 153 research recommendations, 11, 13-14, 22, 173-174 second-generation immigrants, 9, 125, 127-134, 152-153, 162, 174 Southeast Asians, 9, 118, 121, 131, 134 state government policy, 4, 22, 114, 115, 117-119, 120, 121, 124, 125, 126, 135, 155-156 third- and later-generation immigrants, 9, 127-134, 152-153, 162 African Americans, 129, 130, 133, 143, 152 use of benefits, 127-136 whites, 129, 130, 133, 134 see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Food assistance; Food Stamps Program; Medicaid; Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996; Supplemental Security Income; Temporary Assistance to Needy Families; WIC Welfare Reform and Children: A Three-City Study, 174 Whites, 2, 26, 38, 56 adolescents, 79, 82, 83, 89 Census Bureau, 20 educational attainment, 7, 47, 96, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 105 health care access, 145-147 health insurance, 140-143

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From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families health status, general, 65, 67, 78, 160 infant mortality, 62 population projections, 20 research recommendations, 12, 170 single-parent families, 50 socioeconomic / demographic status, tables, 212-213, 218-219, 224, 227, 230, 236, 246-247, 254, 259, 264 welfare, 129, 130, 133, 134 WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children), 114, 115, 116, 124, 175, 275 Y Young children family factors, 6-7 general health surveys, 63-68, 78 lead poisoning, 72-74, 108, 123, 160 nutrition, 75, 76, 77 research recommendations, 35-36 see also Birthweight; Infant mortality; Neonatal care Youth, see Adolescents Youth Risk Behavior National Survey, 166