be understood and in which they may not know the language of the host country;
Perceived discrimination from the larger society because of differences such as language, skin color, clothing, food habits, and other physical features;
Perceived cultural incompatibilities between the home culture and the host culture resulting from different family values, interaction styles, social roles, and socialization practices; and
Increasing gaps between the cultural affiliations of adults and children and their adherence to home country or host country cultural values and norms.
A study examining acculturative stress among Hispanic teenage boys found that second- and third- and later-generation Hispanics from low acculturation backgrounds who were primarily Spanish speaking and who experienced little family pride, high levels of language conflicts, and perceived discrimination from the larger society were at greatest risk for psychological distress. For first-generation adolescents, higher levels of acculturation corresponded with increased family conflict and decreased family pride. Bicultural individuals born in the United States experienced less acculturation stress, more family pride, and the most positive outcomes (Gil et al., 1994).
In general, mental health researchers have begun to establish that bicultural individuals are more likely to be better adjusted in a new society. This is due to the fact that they not only maintain the strengths of their home culture, but also retain supportive social links to that culture while they develop the language and social skills needed to successfully negotiate their new cultural setting (LaFromboise et al., 1993; Pawliuk et al., 1996). However, more research is needed to further validate these relationships.
Other studies have focused on the context of the receiving host communities and their impact on children's adjustment. One study differentiated the reception of Cuban and Nicaraguan immigrants in Miami (Gil and Vega, 1996). In this study, Cubans were more actively supported by the U.S. government, for example, in obtaining refugee status, work permits, and other supports; these supports were not as broadly extended to the Nicaraguans. The results of this study emphasized that supporting the