BOX 7-3 The Wyoming Legislative Enacted 1997 Basket

In 1997 the Wyoming Legis ature adopted these requirements into law and made the following modifications:

Common Core of Knowledge.

Changed "Language Arts" to "Reading/language arts" and required that reading writing and mathematics be emphasized in grades 1 through 8.

Changed "Career Options" to ''Career/vocational education."

Added "Government and Civics (including state and federal constitutions)"

Common Core of Skills.

Changed "Life Skills, including Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Training" to "Life skills, including personal financial management skills."

Added [High School] Graduation Requirements.

Four school years of English

Three school years of Mathematics

Three school years of Science

Three school years of Social Studies

(including history, American government and economic systems and institutions)

Mastery of the common core of knowledge and skills

SOURCE: Catchpole (1996).

observation, and (3) professional judgment. The first and second of these approaches usually depend upon states having sophisticated student achievement testing systems which provide standardized statewide measures of student performance, with data linking this performance to student background characteristics.1 In states where such testing systems do not exist, then the third approach, professional judgment, seems to be the only alternative, where "getting to adequate" necessitates building an instructional resource model to which costs can subsequently be assigned. As we note below, however, we regard the professional judgment method as preferable in many respects, even where testing systems do exist.

Each of these three alternatives results in an estimate of the cost of an adequate education for a presumed or hypothetical typical student. Having made this calculation, each alternative must then adjust this cost (or perhaps redefine the goal of adequate outcomes) for students in different socioeconomic circumstances and locations. With these results—estimates of the cost of an adequate education for each category and location of students in a state—policymakers must then determine whether and how districts may be required to spend the



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