In that same year, Wisconsin's school finance plan was upheld (Kukor v. Grover, 1989).


As a result of the new legislation, revenues for all school districts increased; the poorest districts increased 25 percent and the richest increased 8 percent (Alexander, 1991).


Leandro v. State of North Carolina, No. 179PA96 (July 24, 1997) (relying on Kentucky's definition of adequate education); Claremont Sch. Dist. v Gregg, 635 A.2d 1375 (N.H. 1993) (state constitution required the state to create and maintain an adequate education system that "includes broad educational opportunities needed in today's society to prepare citizens for their role as participants and as potential competitors in today's marketplace of ideas"); Tennessee Small School Systems v. McWherter, 851 S.W.2d 139 (Tenn. 1993) ("The General Assembly shall maintain and support a system of free public schools that provides at least the opportunity to acquire general knowledge, develop the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally prepare students intellectually for a mature life"); Roosevelt Elem. Sch. Dist. v. Bishop, 877 P.2d 806 (Ariz. 1994); Campaign for Fiscal Equity v. State of New York, 86 N.Y.2d 307 (N.Y. 1995) (state is constitutionally obligated to create and maintain an education system that provides children with: "the basic literacy, calculation, and verbal skills necessary to enable [them] to eventually function productively as civic participants capable of voting and serving on a jury … [and] minimally adequate physical facilities and classrooms … to permit children to learn").


See Coalition for Adequacy v. Chiles, 680 So.2d 400 (Fla. 1996). ("Appellants have failed to demonstrate … an appropriate standard for determining 'adequacy' that would not present a substantial risk of judicial intrusion into the powers and responsibilities assigned to the legislature"); City of Pawtucket v. Sundlun, 662 A.2d 40 (R.I. 1995) ("what constitutes an 'equal, adequate, and meaningful' [education] is 'not likely to be divined for all time even by the scholars who now so earnestly debate the issues'").


See, e.g., Sch. Admin. Dist. #1 v. Commissioner of Educ., St. of Maine, 659 A.2d 854 (Maine 1995) (plaintiffs claims focused on equity and they did not claim that they were receiving an inadequate education); Scott v. State of Virginia, 443 S.E.2d 138 (Va. 1994) (state education clause required that state system allow each school district to provide an educational program that meets standards of quality as determined by the legislature, and no district before the court claimed that they could not meet such standards); Skeen v. State of Minnesota, 505 N.W.2d 299 (Minn. 1993) (the education clause required the state to provide enough funds to ensure that each student receives an adequate education, but the plaintiff school districts before the court conceded that they were providing such an education to their students with existing resources).


See School Finance: State Efforts to Reduce Funding Gaps Between Poor and Wealthy Districts, U.S. General Accounting Office, February 1997.

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