into the Cold War when many navies around the world conducted a number of oceanographic studies. However, the desire to place greater emphasis on civilian control and applications of science began to change the face of oceanography. The creation of the National Science Foundation in 1950 punctuated this transition and provided an important new source of funding for nonmilitary, ocean-related research.

A significant step in the direction of international cooperation on large-scale oceanographic projects was taken when the International Geophysical Year (IGY) was organized in 1957-58. Observations collected during IGY resulted in a number of breakthroughs, including the generation of concepts now recognized as plate tectonics. The validity of this theory was later tested by drilling into the ocean floor under the Deep-Sea Drilling Program (DSDP), a progenitor of ODP. This trend toward international cooperation in oceanographic projects culminated in the establishment in 1969 of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE). IDOE was a large-scale, cooperative research effort designed to increase scientific knowledge and enhance the world's ability to effectively and efficiently use marine resources (NSF, 1982; NAS 1969; NRC, 1979).

The International Decade Of Ocean Exploration

Designation of the 1970s as the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (NSF, 1982; NRC, 1979) grew out of an increased awareness of the importance of the ocean and its resources. IDOE was developed as a systematic program of ocean exploration and was motivated both by anticipated uses of marine resources and by scientific curiosity. Questions about the health of the ocean lead scientists to argue for baseline surveys requiring a coverage not achievable from randomly spaced observations (NSF, 1982). The program reflected the view that exploration of the ocean needed a sustained global effort.

IDOE was started as a separate office in NSF's Division of National and International Programs (Lambert, in press). A National Academy of Sciences (NAS)/National Academy of Engineering (NAE) workshop was held in 1968 at Woods Hole to identify programs that could contribute to enhancing use of the ocean and thereby be worthy of development. A steering committee was formed to develop and refine the criteria for the proposed programs (NAS, 1969). As the result of a presidential initiative, money was added to NSF's budget in 1971 (Fig. 2-1a and b) to support IDOE (NAS, 1969; NRC, 1979; NSF, 1982). Initially, IDOE was separate from the research program that contained ocean and earth sciences (when NSF was reorganized in 1975, IDOE, the oceanography section, and the oceanographic facilities and support section were combined to form the Ocean Sciences Division of NSF). A working group was established at NSF that consisted of program managers and members of the research community. The section director for IDOE throughout most of this period was Feenan Jennings. The IDOE working group, under Jennings' leadership, set the ground rules for



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