Figure 2-1a

Impact (in current dollars) of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) on ocean science funding at the National Science Foundation (NSF). Data provided by Division of Ocean Science (OCE) of NSF (Appendix F).

NOTE: Prior to 1983, funds for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) were separate from OCE. However, in order to make it comparable to the data for 1984-1997, the budget data for OCE from 1970-1983 shown here includes ODP funding.

IDOE funding one of which was that the projects had to be multi-institutional initiatives. Although the working group did not try to promote specific science goals, they did encourage projects that fell into four categories (1) environmental quality, (2) living resources, (3) seabed, assessment, and (4) environmental forecasting.

GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections) was a cooperative program for the application of geochemical and hydrographic measurements to the study of ocean circulation and mixing processes. The program consisted mainly of a series of large-scale expeditions in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. MANOP (Manganese Nodule Project), initially conceived of as a study of the factors controlling the composition of manganese nodules, grew into a broader study of the fluxes across the sediment water interface. Other IDOE programs examined coastal upwelling (e.g., the Coastal Upwelling and Ecosystem Analysis [CUEA], environmental forecasting (e.g., the North Pacific Experiment [NORPAX], and Climate: Long-Range Investigation, Mapping, and Prediction [CLIMAP]), and many other significant components of ocean systems (NSF, 1982).

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