agency, IDOE also involved multi-agency sponsorship of projects. The long-term project support provided by IDOE permitted detailed planning and encouraged the development of new instruments and data collection protocols. For example, GEOSECS provided the first modern global description of ocean geochemistry. As a result of the IDOE programs, understanding of the ocean became more quantitative and less descriptive. Although the recommendation for systematic ocean monitoring was not fully achieved, archiving and data exchange were vastly improved (NSF, 1982; NRC, 1979).

IDOE set the stage for logical follow-up activities, some of which are ongoing today (see Box 1-2). Many of the present group of major ocean programs grew out of ideas or themes that emerged during the IDOE. For example, GEOSECS influenced the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE); North Pacific Experiment (NORPAX) was the precursor of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program; the Coastal Upwelling and Ecosystems Analysis (CUEA) contributed to the development of Coastal Ocean Processes (CoOP); the French-American Undersea Study (FAMOUS) led, in part, to Ridge Inter-Disciplinary Global Experiments (RIDGE); and the Mid-Ocean Dynamics Experiment (MODE), POLYMODE (eddies), and the International Southern Ocean Studies (ISOS) set the stage for WOCE.

The Growth Of Major Oceanographic Programs

IDOE set a pattern for the organization and funding of large oceanographic research efforts. In the early 1980s, when it became possible to contemplate large-scale, even global, programs to collect synoptic 3 ocean observations, many of the lessons learned during IDOE were used to shape new research initiatives. Concurrently, growing awareness that anthropogenic activity was reaching a point where it would influence earth systems (such as climate) created the impetus to fund large-scale, ocean exploration programs. The emerging desire for global, synoptic observations and concern about global change gave rise to national and international efforts to understand the relationship between the oceans and climate. One of the first programs to be established was WOCE. It was soon joined by the JGOFS, and a new era of major oceanographic research programs at NSF/OCE began.

Value for Decision Making

Funding for many of the major oceanographic programs is provided by a number of federal mission agencies as well as NSF/OCE (for example, see Fig. 1-1). The


Synoptic refers to observations taken in various places over a wide region at or near the same time. Since this is extremely difficult to achieve using conventional surface ships, many in situ measurements taken at sea from ships as part of a systematic observation effort to obtain synoptic measurements are referred to as quasi-synoptic observations.

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