change on decadal to centennial time scales. Quantitative information on the flux and fate of CO2 and biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface is important for assessments of sources and sinks in the global carbon cycle.

Future Involvement in Major Oceanographic Programs

With the completion of the WOCE CO2 Survey, DOE research has initiated a new program that uses the tools of modern molecular biology and biogeochemistry to understand linkages between coastal carbon and nitrogen cycles. The goals of the Biotechnological Investigations-Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP) program are to: 1) apply new and innovative techniques in marine molecular biology and marine biotechnology to assess fixation of carbon dioxide, determine the mechanisms and processes that control the dynamics of nitrogen fixation and denitrification in coastal waters and sediments, define coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles in coastal environments, and determine linkages between function and structure of microbial communities mediating carbon and nitrogen in coastal environments; and 2) examine the environmental factors (including nutrient availability, temperature, irradiance and biopolymer lability) that affect the linkages between primary productivity, the utilization of particulate and dissolved organic matter by bacterial populations and nitrogen cycling in coastal areas.

DOE fossil energy programs include research to understand the potential for enhanced ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide.

Biological Oceanography supports studies of relationships among marine organisms as well as in cractions of these organisms with their geochemical and physical environment. Physical Oceanography supports research to better understand physical oceanographic phenomena and their interactions on scales from global to molecular. In addition, Ocean Technology and Interdisciplinary Coordination supports a wide range of multidisciplinary activities that broadly seek to develop, transfer, or apply instrumentation and technologies that will benefit research programs supported by NSF and enhance the conduct of basic research in the ocean sciences.

Focus Initiatives of NSF/OCE

In addition to activities funded in response to unsolicited proposals submitted to these discipline programs, NSF/OCE presently funds two additional categories of research activities that they term as Focus Programs and Ocean Drilling.

Ocean drilling funds go to support the personnel, facilities, and operations of the ODP. In addition, funds are provided to the U.S. Science Support Program (USSSP) and the U.S. Science Advisory Committee (USSAC). USSSP coordinates U.S. scientific efforts conducted in conjunction with ODP.

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