• Demonstrated ability to predict El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events up to six months in advance.

    • Proved the utility of space-borne instrumentation for observing global changes in sea surface height and other parameters;
    • As part of the overall hydrographic program, obtained the first global tracer fields for CFCs, the He/Tr pair, and carbon-14;
    • Obtained the first concurrent global observations of the surface and midwater velocity fields, defining the latter for the first time;
    • Obtained data on the importance of diapycnal mixing in modifying water masses below the sea surface and its implications for modifying thermohaline circulation;
    • Obtained improved in situ and model-derived data on air-sea fluxes and increased understanding of the role of ocean circulation in the fluctuating heat budget of the air-sea system; and
    • Improved ocean general circulation models for better understanding of absolute time-varying large-scale ocean circulation.
    • Increased understanding of the causes of ENSO and the variability of its appearance; and

    of techniques and hardware that is now used by nonprogram ocean scientists. The impact of major programs must therefore be measured not just in scientific accomplishments or dollars spent, but also in terms of their impact on technology development.

    Technology Development

    The major oceanographic programs are more frequently than not users or enhancers of existing technology. Although in some instances they have contributed to the development of some important technological advances (Table 4-1) such as: Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), Lagrangian drifters and floats, Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer (ALACE), and Improved Meteorological Package (IMET) were used by WOCE and TOGA, as well as moored ADCPs and Lagrangian drifters. WOCE was directly involved in the establishment of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometer facility and passive tracer technology. CoOP has developed in situ plankton pumps, inner shelf mooring techniques, and instruments to measure gas flux. RIDGE and ODP, used multichannel seismic systems, along with seafloor sensing systems. Satellite products are being used by all major oceanographic programs, and the programs provided much of the rationale for their design.

    Another contribution of the major programs has been the standardization of sampling techniques. For example, hydrographic standards have been established

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