of techniques and hardware that is now used by nonprogram ocean scientists. The impact of major programs must therefore be measured not just in scientific accomplishments or dollars spent, but also in terms of their impact on technology development.
The major oceanographic programs are more frequently than not users or enhancers of existing technology. Although in some instances they have contributed to the development of some important technological advances (Table 4-1) such as: Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs), Lagrangian drifters and floats, Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer (ALACE), and Improved Meteorological Package (IMET) were used by WOCE and TOGA, as well as moored ADCPs and Lagrangian drifters. WOCE was directly involved in the establishment of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometer facility and passive tracer technology. CoOP has developed in situ plankton pumps, inner shelf mooring techniques, and instruments to measure gas flux. RIDGE and ODP, used multichannel seismic systems, along with seafloor sensing systems. Satellite products are being used by all major oceanographic programs, and the programs provided much of the rationale for their design.
Another contribution of the major programs has been the standardization of sampling techniques. For example, hydrographic standards have been established