and many graduate students have been involved in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of major program data sets. With the aid of excellent presentation media, findings from many major programs have permeated all levels of education, and have inspired many segments of society.

Major Oceanographic Programs in the Classroom

Some major program scientists have used, with great success, Deep-Sea Research issues as a basis for special topics classes. Many graduate programs have held semester or year-long classes using JGOFS, WOCE, and GLOBEC data. ODP data have been used in Joint Oceanographic Institutions/U.S. Science Advisory Committee (JOI/USSAC) Ocean Drilling Fellowships for doctoral students, Summer Research Programs for undergraduates, and Distinguished Lecture Series. Oceanography students have used Ocean Surface Topography Experiment (TOPEX) data to consider time-dependent ocean circulation.

Satellite data and ocean model output have also been integrated into undergraduate curricula. ODP data have been used to develop Cenozoic glaciation undergraduate course supplements. ODP's Greatest Hits abstract volume and numerous other educational materials can be found at the JOI World Wide Web site. They have also been used extensively to develop the ''Mountains to Monsoons" multimedia educational CD-ROM and teacher's manual—over 2,000 of these CDs have been distributed to educators free of charge.

RIDGE has not pursued special issues in a formal manner; however, videos, computer simulations, and maps put together by RIDGE-funded scientists have been used in a wide variety of educational settings. They are found in textbooks used to teach introductory oceanography to non-science majors.

A group of college-level textbooks, considered by the committee to be useful to the field, was drawn up a priori (Appendix I) and examined for inclusion of information on, or findings derived from, major oceanographic programs. As would be expected, the most widely discussed programs are the older, more mature ones. The nature of the discussions tended to fall into three broad categories.

First, the most common reference to major oceanographic programs occurs in introductory texts that used completed (e.g., International Decade of Ocean Exploration, Deep-Sea Drilling Program) and ongoing programs as examples of how research and technology development have had an impact on the understanding of the ocean. These discussions tended to be included in historical treatments of the science and rarely went beyond an explanation of the program acronym and its most basic goals.

Secondly, upper-level texts or more recent introductory texts with significant discussions of global change tended to have more complete descriptions of the various programs, including synopses of each program's goals and accomplishments. These discussions often described the goals of the programs in terms of



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